Three Friends of Winter

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For his residence, earth was piled to form a hill and a hundred plum trees, which along with lofty pines and tall bamboo comprise the friends of winter, were planted. [2]

即其居累土為山,種梅百本,與喬松,脩篁為歲寒友。 [10]

Three Friends and a Hundred Birds by Bian Wenjin, Ming dynasty Bian Wenjin, Three Friends and a Hundred Birds.jpg
Three Friends and a Hundred Birds by Bian Wenjin, Ming dynasty

In other places

The Three Friends of Winter as Sho Chiku Bai in Japanese (literally "pine, bamboo, plum") [11]

In Japan, they are particularly associated with the start of the New Year, appearing on greeting cards and as a design stamped into seasonal sweets. [12] Shōchikubai (松竹梅) is sometimes also used as a three-tier ranking system. In this context, the pine (matsu, ) usually is the highest rank, followed by bamboo (take, ) as the middle rank, and plum (ume, ) as the lowest. [13]

In a Korean poem by Kim Yuki (1580–1658), the three friends are brought together in order to underline the paradoxical contrast:

Peach and plum of springtime, don't flaunt your pretty blossoms;
Consider rather the old pine and green bamboo at year's end.
What can change these noble stems and their flourishing evergreen? [14]

In Vietnam, the three along with chrysanthemum create a combination of four trees and flowers usually seen in pictures and decorative items. The four also appear in works but mostly separately with the same symbolic significance. They are known as Tuế hàn tam hữu in Vietnamese. [15]

See also

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References

  1. 1 2 "Chinese symbols" (PDF). British Museum. p. 1. Retrieved 11 August 2011. Archived 5 December 2009 at the Wayback Machine .
  2. 1 2 3 "The Three Friends of Winter: Paintings of Pine, Plum, and Bamboo from the Museum Collection". National Palace Museum. January 2003. Retrieved 10 August 2011. Archived 12 February 2003 at the Wayback Machine .
  3. "Three Friends of Winter". Colby College. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
  4. "Cultivating Virtue: Botanical Motifs and Symbols in East Asian Art". Harvard Art Museums. Retrieved 11 August 2011.
  5. Matthews, Jill (2018). Korean Gardens: Tradition, symbolism and resilience. Seoul: Hollym. p. 201. ISBN   978-1-56591-500-8.
  6. "Nhành mai xuân trong thơ Lý – Trần". Phật giáo thuộc Giáo hội Phật giáo Việt Nam.
  7. Dusenbury, Mary (2004). Flowers, dragons and pine trees: Asian textiles in the Spencer Museum of Art. New York: Hudson Hills Press. p. 248. ISBN   978-1-55595-238-9.
  8. 1 2 3 Welch, Patricia Bjaaland (2008). Chinese art: A guide to motifs and visual imagery . North Clarendon: Tuttle Publishing. p.  37. ISBN   978-0-8048-3864-1.
  9. Welch, Patricia Bjaaland (2008). Chinese art: a guide to motifs and visual imagery . North Clarendon: Tuttle Publishing. pp.  20–21. ISBN   978-0-8048-3864-1.
  10. 1 2 "歲寒三友". National Palace Museum. Retrieved 13 August 2011. Archived 26 January 2003 at the Wayback Machine .
  11. Qiu, Peipei (2005). Basho and the Dao: The Zhuangzi and the transformation of Haikai. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. p. 214. ISBN   978-0-8248-2845-5.
  12. Bamboo in Japan Nancy Moore Bess and Bibi Wein, Kodansha International 2001, p.170
  13. "松竹梅 at jisho.org".
  14. The Bamboo Grove, ed. and trans. Richard Rutt, University of California Press 1971, poem 18
  15. Văn hóa dân gian. Viện văn hóa dân gian, ̉Uy ban khoa học xã hội Việt Nam. 2005. p. 30.
Three Friends of Winter
Three Friends of Winter by Zhao Mengjian.jpg
The Three Friends of Winter by the painter Zhao Mengjian, Song dynasty