City of federal subject significance

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City of federal subject significance is an administrative division of a federal subject of Russia which is equal in status to a district but is organized around a large city; occasionally with surrounding rural territories.[ citation needed ]

Federal subjects of Russia Official constitutional top-level political division of Russia

The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation or simply as the subjects of the federation, are the constituent entities of Russia, its top-level political divisions according to the Constitution of Russia. Since March 18, 2014, the Russian Federation constitutionally has consisted of 85 federal subjects, although the two most recently added subjects are recognized by most states as part of Ukraine.

Russia transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and Northern Asia

Russia, or the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres (6,612,100 sq mi), Russia is, by a considerable margin, the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with about 146.79 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland, Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.

A raion is a type of administrative unit of several post-Soviet states. The term is from the French "rayon", which is both a type of a subnational entity and a division of a city, and is commonly translated in English as "district".



According to the 1993 Constitution of Russia, the administrative-territorial structure of the federal subjects is not identified as the responsibility of the federal government or as the joint responsibility of the federal government and the federal subjects. [1] This state of the matters is traditionally interpreted by the governments of the federal subjects as a sign that the matters of the administrative-territorial divisions are the sole responsibility of the federal subjects themselves. [1] As a result, the modern administrative-territorial structures of the federal subjects vary significantly from one federal subject to another; that includes the manner in which the cities of federal subject significance are organized and the choice of a term to refer to such entities. In the federal subjects which have closed administrative-territorial formations, those are often given a similar status. Occasionally, this status is also given to the areas organized around the inhabited localities which are not cities, but smaller urban-type settlements.

Constitution of Russia current Constitution of Russia enacted in 1993

The current Constitution of the Russian Federation was adopted by national referendum on December 12, 1993. Russia's constitution came into force on December 25, 1993, at the moment of its official publication, and abolished the Soviet system of government. The current Constitution is the second most long-lived in the history of Russia, behind the Constitution of 1936.

Closed city settlement where specific authorization is required to visit

A closed city or closed town is a settlement where travel or residency restrictions are applied so that specific authorization is required to visit or remain overnight. They may be sensitive military establishments or secret research installations that require much more space or freedom than is available in a conventional military base. There may also be a wider variety of permanent residents including close family members of workers or trusted traders who are not directly connected with its clandestine purposes.

Urban-type settlement is an official designation for a semi-urban settlement, used in several Eastern European countries. The term was historically used in Bulgaria, Poland, and the Soviet Union, and remains in use today in 10 of the post-Soviet states.

List of designations

As of 2013, the following types of such entities are recognized:

English designationRussian designationEntity in which it existsType of higher level entity
Administrative-territorial formation with special statusадминистративно-территориальное образование с особым статусомin the Republic of Kalmykia republic
Cityгородthe Republics of Dagestan, Kalmykia, and Khakassia republic
City of republic significanceгород республиканского значенияthe Republic of Bashkortostan, Republic of Buryatia, Chechen Republic, Chuvash Republic, Republic of Crimea, [2] Republic of Ingushetia, Kabardino-Balkar Republic, Karachay–Cherkess Republic, Republic of Karelia, Komi Republic, Mari El Republic, Republic of Mordovia, Republic of Tatarstan, and Udmurt Republic republic
City under republic jurisdictionгород республиканского подчиненияthe Sakha Republic and North Ossetia-Alania republic
City under republic jurisdiction (urban okrug)город республиканского подчинения (городской округ)the Tuva Republic republic
Closed administrative-territorial formationзакрытое административно-территориальное образованиеthe Republic of Bashkortostan republic
Republican urban okrugреспубликанский городской округthe Republic of Adygea republic
Urban okrugгородской округthe Altai Republic republic
Cityгород Krasnodar Krai krai
City of krai significanceгород краевого значения Altai, Khabarovsk, Perm, and Stavropol Krais krai
City under krai jurisdictionгород краевого подчинения Kamchatka and Primorsky Krais krai
Closed administrative-territorial formationзакрытое административно-территориальное образование Altai, Krasnoyarsk, and Perm Krais krai
Krai cityкраевой город Krasnoyarsk Krai krai
Cityгород Chelyabinsk, Irkutsk, Ivanovo, Kaluga, Kirov, Murmansk, Novosibirsk, Orenburg, Pskov, Sverdlovsk, Tyumen, and Vladimir Oblasts oblast
City of oblast significanceгород областного значения Arkhangelsk, Astrakhan, Belgorod, Kaliningrad, Kostroma, Kursk, Magadan, Nizhny Novgorod, Novgorod, Omsk, Oryol, Penza, Ryazan, Sakhalin, Samara, Saratov, Tambov, Ulyanovsk, Volgograd, Vologda, and Yaroslavl Oblasts oblast
City under oblast jurisdictionгород областного подчинения Kemerovo, Kurgan, Lipetsk, Moscow, Tomsk, and Tula Oblasts oblast
City with the jurisdictional territoryгород с подведомственной территорией Murmansk Oblast oblast
Closed administrative-territorial formationзакрытое административно-территориальное образование Astrakhan, Kirov, Moscow, Murmansk, Orenburg, Saratov, Sverdlovsk, and Vladimir Oblasts oblast
Municipal formation with urban okrug statusмуниципальное образование со статусом городского округа Leningrad Oblast oblast
Okrugокруг Tver Oblast oblast
Urban administrative okrug/city of oblast significanceгородской административный округ/город областного значения Bryansk Oblast oblast
Urban-type settlement of oblast significanceпосёлок городского типа областного значения Chelyabinsk and Kaliningrad Oblastsoblast
Urban-type settlement under oblast jurisdictionпосёлок городского типа областного подчинения Kemerovo Oblast oblast
Urban okrugгородской округ Amur, Rostov, Smolensk, and Voronezh Oblast oblast
City of okrug significanceгород окружного значения Chukotka, Khanty-Mansi, Nenets, and Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrugs autonomous okrugs
City of oblast significanceгород областного значения Jewish Autonomous Oblast autonomous oblast

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  1. 1 2 "Энциклопедический словарь конституционного права". Статья "Административно-территориальное устройство". Сост. А. А. Избранов. — Мн.: Изд. В.М. Суров, 2001.
  2. The Republic of Crimea is a federal subject of Russia established on the territory of the Crimean Peninsula, which is disputed between Russia and Ukraine