City of federal subject significance is an administrative division of a federal subject of Russia which is equal in status to a district but is organized around a large city; occasionally with surrounding rural territories.[ citation needed ]
The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation or simply as the subjects of the federation, are the constituent entities of Russia, its top-level political divisions according to the Constitution of Russia. Since March 18, 2014, the Russian Federation constitutionally has consisted of 85 federal subjects, although the two most recently added subjects are recognized by most states as part of Ukraine.
Russia, or the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres (6,612,100 sq mi), Russia is, by a considerable margin, the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with about 146.79 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland, Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
A raion is a type of administrative unit of several post-Soviet states. The term is from the French "rayon", which is both a type of a subnational entity and a division of a city, and is commonly translated in English as "district".
According to the 1993 Constitution of Russia, the administrative-territorial structure of the federal subjects is not identified as the responsibility of the federal government or as the joint responsibility of the federal government and the federal subjects.This state of the matters is traditionally interpreted by the governments of the federal subjects as a sign that the matters of the administrative-territorial divisions are the sole responsibility of the federal subjects themselves. As a result, the modern administrative-territorial structures of the federal subjects vary significantly from one federal subject to another; that includes the manner in which the cities of federal subject significance are organized and the choice of a term to refer to such entities. In the federal subjects which have closed administrative-territorial formations, those are often given a similar status. Occasionally, this status is also given to the areas organized around the inhabited localities which are not cities, but smaller urban-type settlements.
The current Constitution of the Russian Federation was adopted by national referendum on December 12, 1993. Russia's constitution came into force on December 25, 1993, at the moment of its official publication, and abolished the Soviet system of government. The current Constitution is the second most long-lived in the history of Russia, behind the Constitution of 1936.
A closed city or closed town is a settlement where travel or residency restrictions are applied so that specific authorization is required to visit or remain overnight. They may be sensitive military establishments or secret research installations that require much more space or freedom than is available in a conventional military base. There may also be a wider variety of permanent residents including close family members of workers or trusted traders who are not directly connected with its clandestine purposes.
Urban-type settlement is an official designation for a semi-urban settlement, used in several Eastern European countries. The term was historically used in Bulgaria, Poland, and the Soviet Union, and remains in use today in 10 of the post-Soviet states.
As of 2013, the following types of such entities are recognized:
|English designation||Russian designation||Entity in which it exists||Type of higher level entity|
|Administrative-territorial formation with special status||административно-территориальное образование с особым статусом||in the Republic of Kalmykia||republic|
|City||город||the Republics of Dagestan, Kalmykia, and Khakassia||republic|
|City of republic significance||город республиканского значения||the Republic of Bashkortostan, Republic of Buryatia, Chechen Republic, Chuvash Republic, Republic of Crimea, Republic of Ingushetia, Kabardino-Balkar Republic, Karachay–Cherkess Republic, Republic of Karelia, Komi Republic, Mari El Republic, Republic of Mordovia, Republic of Tatarstan, and Udmurt Republic||republic|
|City under republic jurisdiction||город республиканского подчинения||the Sakha Republic and North Ossetia-Alania||republic|
|City under republic jurisdiction (urban okrug)||город республиканского подчинения (городской округ)||the Tuva Republic||republic|
|Closed administrative-territorial formation||закрытое административно-территориальное образование||the Republic of Bashkortostan||republic|
|Republican urban okrug||республиканский городской округ||the Republic of Adygea||republic|
|Urban okrug||городской округ||the Altai Republic||republic|
|City of krai significance||город краевого значения||Altai, Khabarovsk, Perm, and Stavropol Krais||krai|
|City under krai jurisdiction||город краевого подчинения||Kamchatka and Primorsky Krais||krai|
|Closed administrative-territorial formation||закрытое административно-территориальное образование||Altai, Krasnoyarsk, and Perm Krais||krai|
|Krai city||краевой город||Krasnoyarsk Krai||krai|
|City||город||Chelyabinsk, Irkutsk, Ivanovo, Kaluga, Kirov, Murmansk, Novosibirsk, Orenburg, Pskov, Sverdlovsk, Tyumen, and Vladimir Oblasts||oblast|
|City of oblast significance||город областного значения||Arkhangelsk, Astrakhan, Belgorod, Kaliningrad, Kostroma, Kursk, Magadan, Nizhny Novgorod, Novgorod, Omsk, Oryol, Penza, Ryazan, Sakhalin, Samara, Saratov, Tambov, Ulyanovsk, Volgograd, Vologda, and Yaroslavl Oblasts||oblast|
|City under oblast jurisdiction||город областного подчинения||Kemerovo, Kurgan, Lipetsk, Moscow, Tomsk, and Tula Oblasts||oblast|
|City with the jurisdictional territory||город с подведомственной территорией||Murmansk Oblast||oblast|
|Closed administrative-territorial formation||закрытое административно-территориальное образование||Astrakhan, Kirov, Moscow, Murmansk, Orenburg, Saratov, Sverdlovsk, and Vladimir Oblasts||oblast|
|Municipal formation with urban okrug status||муниципальное образование со статусом городского округа||Leningrad Oblast||oblast|
|Urban administrative okrug/city of oblast significance||городской административный округ/город областного значения||Bryansk Oblast||oblast|
|Urban-type settlement of oblast significance||посёлок городского типа областного значения||Chelyabinsk and Kaliningrad Oblasts||oblast|
|Urban-type settlement under oblast jurisdiction||посёлок городского типа областного подчинения||Kemerovo Oblast||oblast|
|Urban okrug||городской округ||Amur, Rostov, Smolensk, and Voronezh Oblast||oblast|
|City of okrug significance||город окружного значения||Chukotka, Khanty-Mansi, Nenets, and Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrugs||autonomous okrugs|
|City of oblast significance||город областного значения||Jewish Autonomous Oblast||autonomous oblast|
Russia is divided into several types and levels of subdivisions.
A federal district is a type of administrative division of a federation, usually under the direct control of a federal government and organized sometimes with a single municipal body. Federal districts often include capital districts, and they exist in various countries worldwide.
Okrug is an administrative division of some Slavic states. The word "okrug" is a loanword in English, but it is nevertheless often translated as "area", "district", or "region".
An oblast is a type of federal subject of the Russian Federation.
A krai is a type of federal subject of Russia. The country is divided into 85 federal subjects, of which nine are krais. Oblasts, another type of federal subject, are legally identical to krais and the difference between a political entity with the name "krai" or "oblast" is purely traditional, similar to the commonwealths in the United States; both are constituent entities equivalent in legal status in Russia with representation in the Federation Council. During the Soviet era, the autonomous oblasts could be subordinated to republics or krais, but not to oblasts.
Ukraine is divided into several levels of territorial entities. On the first level there are 27 regions: 24 oblasts, one autonomous republic, and two "cities with special status". Following the 2014 Crimean crisis, Crimea and Sevastopol became de facto administrated by the Russian Federation, which claims them as the Republic of Crimea and the federal city of Sevastopol. The international community recognises them as being Ukrainian territory.
Selsoviet is a shortened name for a rural council and for the area governed by such a council (soviet). The full names for the term are, in Belarusian: се́льскi Саве́т, Russian: се́льский Сове́т, Ukrainian: сільська́ ра́да. Selsoviets were the lowest level of administrative division in rural areas in the Soviet Union. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, they were preserved as a third tier of administrative-territorial division throughout Ukraine, Belarus, and some of the federal subjects of Russia.
The classification system of inhabited localities in Russia and some other post-Soviet states has certain peculiarities compared with the classification systems in other countries.
Kirillov is a town and the administrative center of Kirillovsky District in Vologda Oblast, Russia, located on the shores of Lakes Siverskoye and Dolgoye, 129 kilometers (80 mi) northwest of Vologda, the administrative center of the oblast. Population: 7,728 (2010 Census); 8,229 (2002 Census); 8,817 (1989 Census).
Yalta City Municipality, officially "the territory governed by the Yalta city council", also known as Greater Yalta is one of the 25 regions of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, a territory recognized by a majority of countries as part of Ukraine and incorporated by Russia as the Republic of Crimea.
Murmansk Oblast is a federal subject of Russia, which is located in the northwestern part of the country, occupying mostly the Kola Peninsula. The oblast itself was established on May 28, 1938, but some kind of administrative organization of the territory existed here since at least the 13th century. As of the 2002 Census, Russians account for the majority of the oblast's population, with the indigenous Sami constituting only a 0.20% minority (1,769 people).
Nikolsk is a town and the administrative center of Nikolsky District in Vologda Oblast, Russia, located on the right bank of the Yug River. Population: 8,511 (2010 Census); 8,649 (2002 Census); 8,574 (1989 Census).
Gryazovetsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the twenty-six in Vologda Oblast, Russia. It is located in the south of the oblast and borders with Mezhdurechensky District in the north, Soligalichsky and Buysky Districts of Kostroma Oblast in the east, Lyubimsky and Pervomaysky Districts of Yaroslavl Oblast in the south, Poshekhonsky District, also of Yaroslavl Oblast, in the southeast, and with Vologodsky District in the northwest. The area of the district is 5,030 square kilometers (1,940 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Gryazovets. Population: 36,820 (2010 Census); 41,644 ; 47,136 (1989 Census). The population of Gryazovets accounts for 42.2% of the district's total population.
The municipal divisions in Russia, called the municipal formations, are territorial divisions of the Russian Federation within which the state governance is augmented with local self-government independent of the state organs of governance within the law, to manage local affairs.
Town of district significance is an administrative division of a district in a federal subject of Russia. It is equal in status to a selsoviet or an urban-type settlement of district significance, but is organized around a town ; often with surrounding rural territories.
A district (raion) is an administrative and municipal division of a federal subject of Russia.