|Economic region||East Siberian|
|Established||December 7, 1934|
|• Body||Legislative Assembly|
|• Governor||Aleksandr Uss|
|• Total||2,339,700 km2 (903,400 sq mi)|
|• Estimate||2,876,497 (+1.7%)|
|• Density||1.2/km2 (3.1/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+7 (MSK+4 )|
|ISO 3166 code||RU-KYA|
|License plates||24, 84, 88, 124|
Krasnoyarsk Krai (Russian:Красноя́рский край, tr. Krasnoyarsky kray,IPA: [krəsnɐˈjarskʲɪj ˈkraj] ) is a federal subject of Russia (a krai), with its administrative center in the city of Krasnoyarsk, the third-largest city in Siberia (after Novosibirsk and Omsk). Comprising half of the Siberian Federal District, Krasnoyarsk Krai is the largest krai in the Russian Federation, the second largest federal subject (after the neighboring Sakha Republic) and the third largest subnational governing body by area in the world, after Sakha and the Australian state of Western Australia. The krai covers an area of 2,339,700 square kilometers (903,400 sq mi), which is nearly one quarter the size of the entire country of Canada (the next-largest country in the world after Russia), constituting roughly 13% of the Russian Federation's total area and containing a population of 2,828,187, or just under 2% of its population, per the 2010 Census.
The krai lies in the middle of Siberia, and occupies nearly half of the Siberian Federal District, almost splitting it in half, stretching 3,000 kilometres (1,900 mi) from the Sayan Mountains in the south along the Yenisei River to the Taymyr Peninsula in the north. It borders (counting clockwise from the sea) the Sakha Republic, Irkutsk, the Tuva Republic, the Republic of Khakassia, and Kemerovo, Tomsk, and Tyumen Oblasts, and the Kara Sea and Laptev Sea of the Arctic Ocean in the north.
The krai is located in the basin of the Arctic Ocean; a great number of rivers that flow through the krai drain into it eventually. The main rivers of the krai are the Yenisei, and its tributaries (from south to north): the Kan, the Angara, the Podkamennaya Tunguska, the Nizhnyaya Tunguska and the Tanama.
There are also several thousand lakes in the krai. The largest lakes include Beloye, Belyo, Glubokoye, Itat, Khantayskoye, Labas, Lama, Pyasina, Taymyr, and Yessey. The rivers and lakes are rich with fish.
The climate is strongly continental with large temperature variations during the year. Long winters and short, hot summers are characteristic for the central and southern regions where most of the krai's population lives. The territory of Krasnoyarsk Krai experiences conditions of three climate belts: arctic, subarctic, and humid continental. In the north there are less than 40 days with temperature above 10 °C (50 °F), while in the south there are 110-120 such days.
The average temperature in January is −36 °C (−32.8 °F) in the north and −18 °C (−0.4 °F) in the south. The average temperature in July is 5 to 10 °C (41 to 50 °F) in the north – where the most poleward tree line in the world is found at Ary-Mas – and +20 °C (68 °F) in the south. The annual precipitation is 316 millimeters (12.4 in) (up to 1,200 millimeters (47 in) in the foothills of the Sayan Mountains). Snow covers the central regions of the krai from early November until late March. The peaks of the Sayan Mountains higher than 2,400–2,600 metres (7,900–8,500 ft) and those of the Putorana Plateau higher than 1,000–1,300 metres (3,300–4,300 ft) are covered with permanent snow. Permafrost is absent at low altitudes south of Lesosibirsk, but as one moves north it grades from sporadic around the 58th parallel to extensive discontinuous around the 60th parallel and continuous north of the 63rd parallel.
The coastline contains a number of prominent peninsulas – from west to east the main ones are the Minina Peninsula, Mikhailov Peninsula, the Taymyr Peninsula (by far the largest, and itself containing the Zarya Peninsula, Oskara Peninsula and Chelyuskin Peninsula) and the Khara-Tumus Peninsula.
There are also a large number of islands off the krai's coast, the most prominent of which are (from west to east) Sibiryakov Island, Nosok Island, Dikson Island, Vern Island, Brekhovskiye Island (in the Yenisei Gulf), Krestovskiy Island, the Kamennye Islands, the Zveroboy Islands, the Labyrintovye Islands, the Plavnikovye Islands, Kolosovykh Island, the Mona Islands, Rykacheva Island, Gavrilova Island, Belukha and Prodolgovatyy Islands, the Nordenskiöld Archipelago, the Firnley Islands, the Heiberg Islands, Starokadomsky Island, Maly Taymyr Island, the Komsomolskaya Pravda Islands, the Faddey Islands, and the Saint Peter Islands. There are also a number of islands further out that fall under the administration of Krasnoyarsk Krai – the most prominent being Bolshoy Island, Sverdrup Island, the Izvestiy TSIK Islands, the Arkticheskiy Institut Islands, the Kirov Islands, Uyedineniya Island, Voronina Island, Severnaya Zemlya (the largest group), and Ushakov Island. The highest point of the krai is Grandiozny Peak in the East Sayan Mountains at an elevation of 2,922 meters (9,587 ft).
According to archaeologists, the first people reached Siberia circa 40,000 BC.The Andronovo culture, a group of Bronze Age peoples, lived in the area around 2000–900 BCE, the remains of which were discovered in 1914 near the village of Andronovo, Uzhursky District. The grave-mounds and monuments of the Scythian culture in Krasnoyarsk Krai belong to the 7th century BCE and are ones of the oldest in Eurasia. A prince's grave, the Kurgan Arshan, discovered in 2001, is also located in the krai.
Russian settlement of the area (mostly by Cossacks) began in the 17th century. After the construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway the Russian colonization of the area strongly increased.
During both the Tsarist and the Bolsheviks' times the territory of Krasnoyarsk Krai was used as a place of exile of political enemies. The first leaders of the Soviet state, Vladimir Lenin and Joseph Stalin were exiled to what is now the krai in 1897–1900 and 1903, respectively. In Stalin's era numerous Gulag camps were located in the region.
In 1822, the Yeniseysk Governorate was created with Krasnoyarsk as its administrative center that covered territory very similar to that of the current krai.
On June 30, 1908, in the basin of the Podkamennaya Tunguska River, there occurred a powerful explosion most likely to have been caused by the air burst of a large meteoroid or comet fragment at an altitude of 5–10 kilometers (3–6 miles) above the Earth's surface. The force of the explosion is estimated to be about 10–15 megatons. It flattened more than 2,000 square kilometers (500,000 acres) of pine forest and killed thousands of reindeer.
Krasnoyarsk Krai was created in 1934 after disaggregation of the West Siberian and East Siberian Krais and later included Taymyr and Evenk Autonomous Okrugs and Khakas Autonomous Oblast. In 1991, Khakassia separated from the krai and became a republic within the Russian Federation.
On January 1, 2007, following a referendum on the issue held on April 17, 2005, territories of Evenk and Taymyr Autonomous Okrugs were merged into the krai.
During the Soviet period, the high authority in the krai was shared between three persons: The first secretary of the Krasnoyarsk CPSU Committee (who in reality had the most authority), the chairman of the krai Soviet (legislative power), and the Chairman of the krai Executive Committee (executive power). Since 1991, CPSU lost all the power, and the head of the krai administration, and eventually the governor was appointed/elected alongside elected regional parliament.
The Charter of Krasnoyarsk Krai is the fundamental law of the region. The Legislative Assembly of Krasnoyarsk Krai is the province's regional standing legislative (representative) body. The Legislative Assembly exercises its authority by passing laws, resolutions, and other legal acts and by supervising the implementation and observance of the laws and other legal acts passed by it. The legislative assembly consists of 52 deputies. 22 of them are elected in 22 one-mandate electoral districts by plurality system, 2 in Taymyr, 2 in Evenkia, and 26 are elected by proportional system from the lists offered by political parties. The highest executive body is the Oblast Government, which includes territorial executive bodies such as district administrations, committees, and commissions that facilitate development and run the day to day matters of the province. The Oblast administration supports the activities of the Governor who is the highest official and acts as guarantor of the observance of the krai Charter in accordance with the Constitution of Russia.
In December 1991, president Boris Yeltsin appointed Arkady Veprev as the first governor of Krasnoyarsk Krai. In January 1993 Yeltsin appointed Valery Zubov as the second governor of Krasnoyarsk Krai. In Krasnoyarsk Territory governor elections were called. Zubov was elected in a universal election for a five-year term. The Legislative Assembly of Krasnoyarsk Krai was created as well.
In 1998, Zubov lost in the gubernatorial election to General Aleksandr Lebed, a politician well known in all Russia. In 2002 Lebed died in a helicopter accident.
In 2002, Alexander Khloponin, the governor of Taymyr Autonomous Okrug and an influential businessman, was elected a governor of Krasnoyarsk Krai. In 2007, he was nominated by president Vladimir Putin for re-election, and Khloponin was elected by the legislative assembly for the second term.
In 2010, after Khloponin was promoted to the office of the president's envoy in the North Caucasian Federal District, Lev Kuznetsov, a businessman and politician from Khloponin's circle, became the new governor of the krai.
Krasnoyarsk Krai is represented in the Federation Council of Russia, the upper house of the Russian parliament by two senators. In 2007, eight deputies were elected to the State Duma from Krasnoyarsk regional lists of different political parties.
Over 95% of the cities, a majority of the industrial enterprises, and all of the agriculture are concentrated in the south of the krai.
The krai is among the richest of Russia's regions in natural resources: 80% of the country's nickel, 75% of its cobalt, 70% of its copper, 16% of its coal, and 10% of its gold are extracted here. Krasnoyarsk also produces 20% of the country's timber. More than 95% of Russian resources of platinum and platinoids are concentrated in the krai.
The krai's major industries are: non-ferrous metallurgy, energy, forestry, chemicals, and oil refining. The major financial industrial groups of Krasnoyarsk Krai are:
The two most powerful hydroelectric plants in Russia are at the Yenisei River:
Three are at its tributary Angara River:
It makes Krasnoyarsk Krai one of the most important producers of electric energy in Russia, and a desirable location for energy-intensive industries, such as aluminium plants. [ citation needed ]
Krasnoyarsk Krai consists of forty-four districts and sixteen towns of district significance. Two of the districts (Evenkiysky and Taymyrsky; the former autonomous okrugs) have special status.
Population (including former Taymyr and Evenk Autonomous Okrugs): 2,828,187 (2010 Census); 3,023,525 (2002 Census); 3,596,260 (1989 Census).
Ethnic groups: The population of the krai mostly consists of Russians, and some other peoples of the former Soviet Union. The indigenous Siberian peoples make up no more than 1% of the population.
The 2010 Census reported the following ethnic composition:
As of August 2009, Krasnoyarsk Krai recorded a natural growth of population for the first time in 16 years.
Total fertility rate:
2003 - 1,35 | 2004 - 1,35 | 2005 - 1,31 | 2006 - 1,33 | 2007 - 1,44 | 2008 - 1,55 | 2009 - 1,61 | 2010 - 1,64 | 2011 - 1,64 | 2012 - 1,75 | 2013 - 1,78 | 2014 - 1,81 | 2015 - 1,84 | 2016 - 1,82(e)
Largest cities or towns in Krasnoyarsk Krai
2010 Russian Census
|1||Krasnoyarsk||City of krai significance of Krasnoyarsk||1,035,528|| |
|2||Norilsk||City of krai significance of Norilsk||175,365|
|5||Zheleznogorsk||Closed administrative-territorial formation of Zheleznogorsk||84,795|
|7||Zelenogorsk||Closed administrative-territorial formation of Zelenogorsk||66,056|
|8||Lesosibirsk||Town of krai significance of Lesosibirsk||61,139|
|Taimirsky Dolgano-Nenetsky District||37,768||592||335||257||15.67||8.87||0.68%|
As per the survey conducted in 2012,29.6% of the population of Krasnoyarsk Krai adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 5% declares to be a nondenominational Christian (excluding Protestant churches), 2% is an Orthodox Christian believer without belonging to any church or is a member of other (non-Russian) Orthodox churches, 1.5% is Muslim, 1% follows the Slavic native faith (Rodnovery), and 10.9% did not give an answer to the survey. In addition, 35% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious" and 15% to be atheist.
Krasnoyarsk is the site of the Siberian Federal University, one of the four largest educational institutions of Russia. Other notable higher education institutes of the krai are:
Many important industrial cities of Krasnoyarsk Krai, such as Krasnoyarsk, Norilsk, Achinsk, Kansk, Zheleznogorsk, and Minusinsk, suffer from environmental pollution.[ citation needed ]
Minusinsk is a historical town in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia. Population: 71,170 (2010 Census); 72,561 (2002 Census); 72,942 (1989 Census); 44,500 (1973).
Taymyr Dolgano-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, or Taymyria, was a federal subject of Russia, the northernmost in Siberian Russia. It was named after the Taymyr Peninsula. It was also called Dolgan-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, by the name of the indigenous people, Dolgans and Nenetses.
Dudinka is a town on the Yenisei River and the administrative center of Taymyrsky Dolgano-Nenetsky District of Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia. It used to be the administrative center of Taymyr Autonomous Okrug, which was merged into Krasnoyarsk Krai on January 1, 2007. Population: 22,175 (2010 Census); 25,132 (2002 Census); 32,325 (1989 Census).
Kansk is a town in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia, located on both banks of the Kan River. Population: 94,226 (2010 Census); 103,000 (2002 Census); 109,607 (1989 Census).
Yeniseysk is a town in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia, located on the Yenisei River. Population: 18,766 (2010 Census); 20,394 (2002 Census); 22,891 (1989 Census); 20,000 (1970).
Bogotol is a town in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia, located 6 kilometers (3.7 mi) of the Chulym River and 252 kilometers (157 mi) west of Krasnoyarsk, the administrative center of the krai. Population: 21,051 (2010 Census); 24,369 (2002 Census); 27,752 (1989 Census).
Lesosibirsk is a town in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia, located on the Yenisei River. Population: 61,139 (2010 Census); 65,374 (2002 Census); 68,349 (1989 Census)..
Divnogorsk is a town in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia, located on the Yenisei River, 40 kilometers (25 mi) southeast of Krasnoyarsk, the administrative center of the krai. Population: 28,272 (2010 Census); 30,137 (2002 Census); 29,963 (1989 Census).
Zaozyorny is a town and the administrative center of Rybinsky District of Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia, located on the Barga River, the affluent of the Kan, 166 kilometers (103 mi) east of Krasnoyarsk on the 4,263rd km of the Trans-Siberian Railway. Population: 10,681 (2010 Census); 12,476 (2002 Census); 15,714 (1989 Census).
Sosnovoborsk is a town in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia, located on the right bank of the Yenisei River, 45 kilometers (28 mi) northeast of Krasnoyarsk. Population: 33,091 (2010 Census); 30,586 (2002 Census); 29,686 (1989 Census).
Yemelyanovsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the forty-three in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia. It is located in the southern central part of the krai and borders with Bolshemurtinsky District in the north, Sukhobuzimsky District in the northeast, Beryozovsky District and the territory of the krai city of Krasnoyarsk in the east, Balakhtinsky District in the south, Kozulsky District in the west, and with Birilyussky District in the northwest. The area of the district is 7,441 square kilometers (2,873 sq mi). Its administrative center is the urban locality of Yemelyanovo. Population: 51,159 ; 50,998 (2010 Census); 45,656 ; 48,375 (1989 Census). The population of Yemelyanovo accounts for 23.6% of the district's total population.
Bogotolsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the forty-three in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia. It is located in the southwest of the krai and borders with Tyukhtetsky District in the north, Bolsheuluysky District in the southeast, Achinsky District in the east, Nazarovsky and Sharypovsky Districts in the south, and with Kemerovo Oblast in the west. The area of the district is 2,924 square kilometers (1,129 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Bogotol. Population: 11,267 (2010 Census); 12,415 ; 14,978 (1989 Census).
Bolsheuluysky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the forty-three in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia. It is located in the southwest of the krai and borders with Birilyussky District in the north, Kozulsky District in the east, Achinsky District in the south, Bogotolsky District in the southwest, and with Tyukhtetsky District in the west. The area of the district is 2,708 square kilometers (1,046 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Bolshoy Uluy. Population: 7,658 (2010 Census); 8,948 ; 10,758 (1989 Census). The population of Bolshoy Uluy accounts for 43.6% of the district's total population.
Irbeysky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the forty-three in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia. It is located in the southwest of the krai and borders with Kansky and Ilansky Districts in the north, Irkutsk Oblast in the east and south, Rybinsky District in the southwest, and with Sayansky District in the west. The area of the district is 10,921 square kilometers (4,217 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Irbeyskoye. Population: 16,784 (2010 Census); 19,181 ; 21,572 (1989 Census). The population of Irbeyskoye accounts for 27.9% of the district's total population.
Kansky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the forty-three in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia. It is located in the southeast of the krai and borders with Dzerzhinsky District in the north, Abansky District in the northeast, Ilansky District in the east, Irbeysky District in the south, Rybinsky District in the southwest, and with Sukhobuzimsky District in the west. The area of the district is 4,321 square kilometers (1,668 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Kansk. Population: 27,281 (2010 Census); 28,667 ; 31,177 (1989 Census).
Kozulsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the forty-three in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia. It is located in the southwest of the krai and borders with Birilyussky District in the north, Yemelyanovsky District in the east, Balakhtinsky District in the south, and with Nazarovsky, Achinsky and Bolsheuluysky Districts in the west. The area of the district is 5,305 square kilometers (2,048 sq mi). Its administrative center is the urban locality of Kozulka. Population: 16,689 (2010 Census); 19,010 ; 22,076 (1989 Census). The population of Kozulka accounts for 47.9% of the district's total population.
Nizhneingashsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the forty-three in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia. It is located in the southeast of the krai and borders Abansky District in the north, Irkutsk Oblast in the east and southeast, and Ilansky District in the south and west. The area of the district is 6,143 square kilometers (2,372 sq mi). Its administrative center is the urban locality of Nizhny Ingash. As of the 2010 Census, the total population of the district was 33,439, with the population of Nizhny Ingash accounting for 22.7% of that number.
Partizansky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the forty-three in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia. It is located in the south of the krai and borders with Uyarsky District in the north, Rybinsky District in the northeast, Sayansky District in the east, Kuraginsky District in the south, and with Mansky District in the west. The area of the district is 4,959 square kilometers (1,915 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Partizanskoye. Population: 10,254 (2010 Census); 12,437 ; 15,412 (1989 Census). The population of Partizanskoye accounts for 34.4% of the district's total population.
Severo-Yeniseysky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the forty-three in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia. It is located in the center of the krai and borders with Evenkiysky District in the northwest, north, and east, Motyginsky District in the southeast, and with Yeniseysky District in the southwest and west. The area of the district is 47,242 square kilometers (18,240 sq mi). Its administrative center is the urban locality of Severo-Yeniseysky. Population: 11,119 (2010 Census); 11,077 ; 17,163 (1989 Census). The population of the administrative center accounts for 62.5% of the district's total population.
Taymyrsky Dolgano-Nenetsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the forty-three in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia. It is located in the north of the krai above the Arctic Circle on the Taymyr Peninsula and borders with Laptev and Kara Seas in the north, the Sakha Republic in the east, Evenkiysky and Turukhansky Districts in the south, and with Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug in the west. The area of the district is 879,900 square kilometers (339,700 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Dudinka. Population: 34,432 (2010 Census); 39,786 ; 55,111 (1989 Census). The population of Dudinka accounts for 64.4% of the district's total population.
Всероссийский Центральный Исполнительный Комитет. Постановление от 7 декабря 1934 г. «О разукрупнении Западносибирского и Восточносибирского краёв и образовании новых областей в Сибири». ( All-Russian Central Executive Committee . Resolution of December 7, 1934 On the Subdivision of West Siberian and East Siberian Krais and on the Establishment of New Oblasts in Siberia. ).
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