|Federal district||Far Eastern|
|Economic region||Far Eastern|
|Established||December 3, 1953|
|• Body||Oblast Duma|
|• Governor||Sergey Nosov|
|• Total||461,400 km2 (178,100 sq mi)|
|• Estimate||144,091 (−8.2%)|
|• Density||0.34/km2 (0.88/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+11 (MSK+8 )|
|ISO 3166 code||RU-MAG|
Magadan Oblast (Russian:Магаданская область, tr. Magadanskaya oblast,IPA: [məgɐˈdanskəjə ˈobləsʲtʲ] ) is a federal subject (an oblast) of Russia. It is geographically located in the Far East region of the country, and is administratively part of the Far Eastern Federal District. Magadan Oblast has a population of 156,996 (2010 Census), making it the least populated oblast and the third-least populated federal subject in Russia.
Magadan is the largest city and the capital of Magadan Oblast. The majority of the Oblast's inhabitants live in the city. The coastline has a less severe climate than the interiors, although both are very cold for its latitude.
It borders Chukotka Autonomous Okrug in the north, Kamchatka Krai in the east, Khabarovsk Krai in the south and the Sakha Republic in the west. The economy is primarily based on mining, particularly gold, silver and other non-ferrous metals.
Magadan Oblast was established on December 3, 1953 in what had popularly been known as Kolyma. As a result of considerable raw resources, especially gold, silver, tin, and tungsten deposits, mining activities and road building had been developed during the Stalin era in the 1930s and 1940s under the coordination of Dalstroy and its forced labor camps. Upon Stalin's death, Dalstroy was disbanded and the regional administration took over many of its former responsibilities.
From then on, paid labor replaced most of the convict-based manpower, attracted by the region's rapid economic expansion, especially the gold-mining interests.
The indigenous peoples of the region, including the Evens, Koryaks, Yupiks, Chukchis, Orochs, Chuvans and Itelmens, who had traditionally lived from fishing along the Sea of Okhotsk coast or from reindeer herding in the River Kolyma valley, suffered from the industrialization of the area but were able to rely on institutional support until 1987 when Perestroika started to cause many of the older structures to close. As a result, many of those who can no longer rely on traditional sources of income are now unemployed.
Chukotka Autonomous Okrug was formerly administratively subordinated to Magadan Oblast, but declared its separation in 1991.
On 4 July 1997, Magadan, alongside Bryansk, Chelyabinsk, Saratov, and Vologda signed a power-sharing agreement with the government of Russia, granting it autonomy.The agreement would be abolished on 30 January 2002.
Magadan Oblast consists principally of mountainous desert, tundra, and taiga. The southern part of the region is partly forested with birch, willow, mountain ash, larch and alder.
There are a number of peninsulas along the oblast's coast, the chief ones being (north to south) the Taygonos Peninsula, Pyagina Peninsula, Koni Peninsula, Staritskogo Peninsula, Onatsevicha Peninsula, Khmitevskogo Peninsula and the Onara Peninsula.
The main islands of Magadan Oblast are (north to south) Telan Island, the Yam Islands, Zavyalov Island, Nedorazumeniya Island and the Spafaryev Islands.
The animal species in the south include snow sheep, reindeer, moose and brown bears. There are also many varieties of birds, including ducks and seabirds. Coastal waters of the Sea of Okhotsk host notable biodiversity where large vertebrates such as bowhead whalesmay appear, and have rich fishing grounds for pollock, herring, cod, flounder and salmon, as well as crabs and shellfish.
The economy is centered on mining interests for gold, silver and other non-ferrous metals. The city of Magadan is the only large industrial center. Agriculture is not well developed in the region. In April 2014 the Russian government has endorsed bills for extending the operations of the Special Economic Zone (SEZ) in Magadan Oblast through to December 31, 2025.
Magadan Oblast is considered one of the world's richest mining areas. Gold is the region's main resource, although silver and tin deposits are also being developed. There are nearly 2,000 placer gold deposits, 100 gold ore deposits, and 48 silver ore deposits in the territory.
Recently, there has been interest in exploiting the coal resources in the region. Over the medium term, there seem to be excellent opportunities for petroleum and natural gas exploitation.
The fishing industry is the region's only food sector and is second in importance after mining. The 600,000 square kilometers (230,000 sq mi) area of the Sea of Okhotsk that borders on Magadan Oblast is one of the most productive regions of the world's oceans. Magadan Oblast has more than 15,900 kilometers (9,900 mi) of coastline and 29,016 kilometers (18,030 mi) of rivers of commercial importance. The catching vessels of the oblast's fishing companies operate mainly in Russia's economic zone, the Sea of Okhotsk and the Bering Sea, and to some extent in the Sea of Japan. Most of the catch comes from coastal waters. Fishing industry companies are concentrated in Magadan, Ola, Yamsk, and Evensk. The most important commercial fish are pollock, herring, cod, navaga (a member of the cod family), flounder, and various kinds of salmon. Crabs, squid, shrimp, and whelks are also caught.
Owing to the severe climate, agriculture is Magadan Region's least developed economic sector; as a result, 50% of all food products must be supplied from outside. The agricultural complex consists of companies producing agricultural products, the food and processing industries, a production infrastructure, and farm enterprises. The particular areas of specialization are reindeer herding, fur farming, and traditional hunting, fishing, and fur trapping activities. Companies involved in food processing and production include Gormolzavod, a distillery, a pasta factory, a sausage factory, the Dukcha state poultry farm, and the Khasynsky state farm.
Despite rich natural resources, the economy has not prospered as much as might have been expected in recent years. The severe climate and poorly developed infrastructure are partly to blame, but the difficult transition from Soviet times has led to the collapse of a number of companies with the result that many inhabitants have left the region. Recently, there does seem to have been renewed efforts to encourage foreign investment which could lead to improvements in the economy. Indeed, on a visit to Magadan in November 2005, President Vladimir Putin supported the extension of special tax advantages for the region in order to encourage gold exploitation.
While official unemployment in Magadan Region is around 12%, it is higher in remote areas where a large segment of the population is indigenous (16–18%). The actual unemployment figures must be much higher, because many people who live in remote areas have no opportunity to register as unemployed. In some places unemployment is probably almost 20%[ citation needed ], although this is not officially recognized. While reindeer herding is ruined in many places, and fishing quotas are nearly impossible to get, the fraction of indigenous workers in industry and mining is almost invisible.
Population: 156,996 (2010 Census); 182,726 (2002 Census); 542,868 (1989 Census).
Total fertility rate:
2009 - 1.54 | 2010 - 1.44 | 2011 - 1.48 | 2012 - 1.65 | 2013 - 1.69 | 2014 - 1.66 | 2015 - 1.66 | 2016 - 1.59(e)
Ethnic groups: According to the 2010 Census, the ethnic composition was:
Magadan is a federal subject that has the highest rate of depopulation in the Russian Federation. Its population, which stood at 384,525 in 1991, stood at 165,820 on January 1, 2008 (according to the State Committee of the Russian Federation on Statistics), falling at a rate of around 2% per year. The rural population, which had stood at 59,151, was just 8,833 in 2008 and decreasing at a rate of around 10% per year. Entire villages are being emptied out and the population of the rural areas of the districts is simply disappearing. The rural population of Yagodninsky District was reduced from 13,843 (1991) to 445 (2007). The Omsukchansky District saw its rural population plummet from 1,301 to 79. Especially extreme is the example of Susumansky District, where the rural population almost disappeared: from 9,764 in 1991 to just 116 in 2007. Emigration is evident from the fact that for the 20-24 age group, there were only 66 females living in rural areas, compared to 202 males. Male life expectancy for rural areas rose to 53.73 years in 2006 from 51.88 in 2005.In 2021 the depopulation continues with approximately the same rate, as the population is about 139,000 people.
Although Magadan Oblast is a part of the program of resettlement of ethnic Russian families, [ citation needed ]not a single such family from the near abroad has so far settled in the Oblast.
After 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, Vladimir Zhirinovsky, the leader of Russia's LDPR party, has called on Japanese to leave “the dangerous islands” and move to the Magadan Oblast.
According to a 2012 survey29.6% of the population of Magadan Oblast adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 3% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 3% is an Orthodox Christian believer without belonging to any church or adheres to other Orthodox churches, 2% of the population adheres to the Slavic native faith (Rodnovery) or to Siberian shamanism, 1% to Islam, 1% to the Old Believers. In addition, 27% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious", 13% is atheist, and 20.4% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question.
Kamchatka Oblast was, until being incorporated into Kamchatka Krai on July 1, 2007, a federal subject of Russia. To the north, it bordered Magadan Oblast and Chukotka Autonomous Okrug. Koryak Autonomous Okrug was located in the northern part of the oblast. Including the autonomous okrug, the total area of the oblast was 472,300 square kilometres (182,400 sq mi), encompassing the southern half of the Kamchatka Peninsula. The administrative center of Kamchatka Oblast was the city of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. Population: 358,801 (2002 Census); 466,096 (1989 Census).
Magadan is a port town and the administrative center of Magadan Oblast, Russia, located on the Sea of Okhotsk in Nagayev Bay and serving as a gateway to the Kolyma region.
Khabarovsk Krai is a federal subject of Russia. It is geographically located in the Far East region of the country and is a part of the Far Eastern Federal District. The administrative centre of the krai is the city of Khabarovsk, which is home to roughly half of the krai's population and the largest city in the Russian Far East. Khabarovsk Krai is the fourth-largest federal subject by area, and has a population of 1,343,869 as of 2010.
Chukotka Autonomous Okrug or Chukotka (Чукотка) is the easternmost federal subject in Russia. It is geographically located in the Far East region of the country, and is administratively part of the Far Eastern Federal District. Chukotka is the 2nd-least-populated federal subject at 50,526 (2010) and the least densely populated.
Kamchatka Krai is a federal subject of Russia. It is geographically located in the Far East region of the country, and it is administratively part of the Far Eastern Federal District. Kamchatka Krai has a population of 322,079 (2010).
Ust-Omchug is an urban locality and the administrative center of Tenkinsky District of Magadan Oblast, Russia, located at the 271-kilometer (168 mi) mark of the highway to the northwest of Magadan. Population: 3,914 (2010 Census); 4,867 (2002 Census); 11,343 (1989 Census).
Susuman is a town and the administrative center of Susumansky District in Magadan Oblast, Russia, located on the Berelyokh River, 650 kilometers (400 mi) northwest of Magadan, the administrative center of the oblast. Population: 5,855 (2010 Census); 7,833 (2002 Census); 16,818 (1989 Census).
Ola is an urban locality and the administrative center of Olsky District of Magadan Oblast, Russia, located on the Ola River on the shore of the Sea of Okhotsk, 27 kilometers (17 mi) east of Magadan. Population: 6,215 (2010 Census); 6,842 (2002 Census); 10,122 (1989 Census).
Susumansky District is an administrative district (raion), one of the eight in Magadan Oblast, Russia. As a municipal division, it is incorporated as Susumansky Urban Okrug. It is located in the southeast of the oblast and borders the Sakha Republic in the west and north, Srednekansky District in the east, and Yagodninsky and Tenkinsky Districts in the south. The area of the district is 46,800 square kilometers (18,100 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Susuman. As of the 2010 Census, the total population of the district was 9,015, with the population of Susuman accounting for 65.0% of that number.
Zabaykalsky Krai is a federal subject of Russia that was created on March 1, 2008 as a result of a merger of Chita Oblast and Agin-Buryat Autonomous Okrug, after a referendum held on the issue on March 11, 2007. Formerly part of the Siberian Federal District, the Krai is now part of the Russian Far East as of November 2018 in accordance with a decree issued by Russian President Vladimir Putin. The administrative center of the krai is located in the city of Chita. As of the 2010 Census, the population was 1,107,107.
Churapcha is a rural locality and the administrative center of Churapchinsky District in the Sakha Republic, Russia. Population: 8,769 (2010 Census); 7,526 (2002 Census); 6,232 (1989 Census).
Srednekansky District is an administrative district (raion), one of the eight in Magadan Oblast, Russia. As a municipal division, it is incorporated as Srednekansky Urban Okrug. It is located in the central and northern parts of the oblast and borders the Sakha Republic in the north and northwest, Bilibinsky District of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug and Severo-Evensky District in the northeast, Omsukchansky District in the east, Khasynsky District in the south, Yagodninsky District in the southwest, and Susumansky District in the west. The area of the district is 91,818.35 square kilometers (35,451.26 sq mi). Its administrative center is the urban locality of Seymchan. As of the 2010 Census, the total population of the district was 3,228, with the population of Seymchan accounting for 87.3% of that number.
Seymchan is an urban locality and the administrative center of Srednekansky District of Magadan Oblast, Russia, located on the right bank of the Seymchan River, near its confluence with the Kolyma, and about 350 kilometers (220 mi) north of Magadan. Population: 2,818 (2010 Census); 3,725 (2002 Census); 9,963 (1989 Census).
Kadykchan is a depopulated urban locality in Susumansky District of Magadan Oblast, Russia, located in the basin of the Ayan-Yuryakh River, 65 kilometers (40 mi) northwest of Susuman, the administrative center of the district. As of the 2010 Census, it had no recorded population.
Orotukan is an urban locality in Yagodninsky District of Magadan Oblast, Russia, located in the Kolyma region about 300 kilometers (190 mi) north of Magadan, on the right bank of the Orotukan River. Population: 1,531 (2010 Census); 2,760 (2002 Census); 5,638 (1989 Census).
Khasynsky District is an administrative district (raion), one of the eight in Magadan Oblast, Russia. As a municipal division, it is incorporated as Khasynsky Urban Okrug. It is located in the south of the oblast and borders Yagodninsky and Srednekansky Districts in the north, Omsukchansky and Olsky Districts in the east, the territory of the town of oblast significance of Magadan in the south, and Olsky and Tenkinsky Districts in the west. The area of the district is 19,252.44 square kilometers (7,433.41 sq mi). Its administrative center is the urban locality of Palatka. As of the 2010 Census, the total population of the district was 8,141, with the population of Palatka accounting for 52.1% of that number.
Olsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the eight in Magadan Oblast, Russia. It is located in the south of the oblast, consists of two unconnected mainland parts separated by the territories of Khasynsky District and the town of oblast significance of Magadan, and also has jurisdiction over several islands. The area of the district is 75,900 square kilometers (29,300 sq mi). Its administrative center is the urban locality of Ola. As of the 2010 Census, the total population of the district was 10,496, with the population of Ola accounting for 59.2% of that number.
Omsukchansky District is an administrative district (raion), one of the eight in Magadan Oblast, Russia. As a municipal division, it is incorporated as Omsukchansky Urban Okrug. It is located in the eastern central part of the oblast. The area of the district is 60,400 square kilometers (23,300 sq mi). Its administrative center is the urban locality of Omsukchan. As of the 2010 Census, the total population of the district was 5,531, with the population of Omsukchan accounting for 75.2% of that number.
Yagodninsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the eight in Magadan Oblast, Russia. It is located in the western central part of the oblast. The area of the district is 29,500 square kilometers (11,400 sq mi). Its administrative center is the urban locality of Yagodnoye. Population: 9,839 (2010 Census); 15,833 ; 50,174 (1989 Census). The population of Yagodnoye accounts for 42.8% of the district's total population.
Yagodnoye is an urban-type settlement in Magadan Oblast, Russia. Population: 4,210 (2010 Census); 5,050 (2002 Census); 11,024 (1989 Census).
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