|• Tuvan||Тыва Республика|
|Anthem: Men – Tyva Men |
|Economic region||East Siberian|
|Established||March 31, 1992|
|• Body||Great Khural|
|• Head||Sholban Kara-ool|
|• Total||170,500 km2 (65,800 sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+7 (MSK+4 )|
|ISO 3166 code||RU-TY|
|Official languages||Russian; Tuvan|
|Tuvan Transliteration name|
|Tuvan Transliteration||Tyva Respublika|
Tuva ( // ; Russian : Тува́) or Tyva (Tuvan : Тыва), officially the Tyva Republic (Russian:Респу́блика Тыва́, tr. Respublika Tyva,IPA: [rʲɪˈspublʲɪkə tɨˈva] ; Tuvan : Тыва Республика, romanized: Tyva Respublika [tʰɯˈʋa resˈpʰuplika] ), is a federal subject of Russia (a republic, also defined in the Constitution of the Russian Federation as a state).
The Tuvan republic lies at the geographical center of Asia, in southern Siberia. The republic borders the Altai Republic, the Republic of Khakassia, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Irkutsk Oblast, and the Republic of Buryatia in Russia and Mongolia to the south. The region is also claimed by the Taiwanese major political party Kuomintang as part of the Republic of China. In the 2010 Russian census, the territory claimed a population of 307,930 (2010 census).Its capital is the city of Kyzyl.
From 1921 to 1944, Tuva constituted a sovereign, independent, but partially recognized nation, acknowledged only by its neighbors the Soviet Union and Mongolia.It was known officially as Tannu Tuva until 1926 and thereafter as the Tuvan People's Republic. A majority of the population are ethnic Tuvans who speak Tuvan as their native tongue, while Russian is spoken natively by the Russian minority; both are official and widely understood in the republic. Tuva is governed by the Great Khural, which elects a chairman to four-year terms.
The territory of Tuva has been controlled by the Xiongnu Empire (209 BC –93 AD) and Mongolian Xianbei state (93–234), Rouran Khaganate (330–555), the Yenisei Kyrgyz (7th –13th century), Mongol Empire (1206–1271), Yuan dynasty (1271–1368), Northern Yuan dynasty (1368–1691), Khotgoid Khanate and Zunghar Khanate (1634–1758). Medieval Mongol tribes, including Oirats and Tumeds, inhabited areas which are now part of the Tuvan republic.
From 1758 to 1911, it was part of China's Qing dynasty and administered by Outer Mongolia.During the Xinhai Revolution in China, Tsarist Russia formed a separatist movement among the Tuvans while there were also pro-independence and pro-Mongol groups. Tsar Nicholas II agreed to the third petition by Tuva's leadership in 1912, establishing protectorate over the then independent state. Some Russians, such as merchants, travellers, and explorers were already settled in Tuva at that time. Tuva became nominally independent as the Uryankhay Republic before being brought under Russian protectorate as Uryankhay Krai under Tsar Nicholas II, on 17 April 1914.
A Tuvan capital was established, called Belotsarsk (Белоца́рск; literally, "(Town) of the White Tsar").Meanwhile, in 1911 Mongolia became independent, though under Russian protection. Following the Russian Revolution of 1917 that ended the imperial autocracy, most of Tuva was occupied from 5 July 1918 to 15 July 1919 by Aleksandr Kolchak's White Russian troops. Pyotr Ivanovich Turchaninov was named the governor of the territory. In the autumn of 1918, the southwestern part was occupied by Chinese troops and the southern part by Mongol troops led by Khatanbaatar Magsarjav.
From July 1919 to February 1920, the communist Red Army controlled Tuva but from 19 February 1920 to June 1921 it was occupied by China (governor was Yan Shichao [traditional, Wade–Giles transliteration: Yan Shi-ch'ao]). On 14 August 1921, the Bolsheviks established the Tuvan People's Republic, popularly called Tannu-Tuva. In 1926, the capital (Belotsarsk; Khem-Beldyr since 1918) was renamed Kyzyl , meaning "red". Tuva was de jure an independent state between the World Wars. The state's first ruler, Prime Minister Donduk, sought to strengthen ties with Mongolia and establish Buddhism as the state religion. This unsettled the Kremlin, which orchestrated a coup carried out in 1929 by five young Tuvan graduates of Moscow's Communist University of the Toilers of the East.
In 1930, the pro-Soviet regime discarded the state's Mongol script in favor of a Latin alphabet designed for Tuva by Russian linguists. In 1943 Cyrillic script replaced Latin. Under the leadership of Party Secretary Salchak Toka, ethnic Russians were granted full citizenship rights and Buddhist and Mongol influences on the Tuvan state and society were systematically reduced.
Tuva was annexed by the Soviet Union in 1944, with the approval of Tuva's Little Khural (parliament) but without a referendum on the issue. It became the Tuvan Autonomous Oblast within the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic after the Soviet victory in World War II.Salchak Toka, the leader of the Tuvan People's Revolutionary Party, was given the title of First Secretary of the Tuvan Communist Party and became the de facto ruler of Tuva until his death in 1973. It became the Tuvan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, on 10 October 1961.
In February 1990, the Tuvan Democratic Movement was founded by Kaadyr-ool Bicheldei, a philologist at Kyzyl State Pedagogical Institute. The party aimed to provide jobs and housing (both were in short supply), and also to improve the status of Tuvan language and culture. Later in the year, there was a wave of attacks against Tuva's sizeable Russian community, including sniper attacks on trucks and attacks on outlying settlements with 168 murdered.Russian troops eventually were called in. Many Russians moved out of the republic during this period. Tuva has remained remote and difficult to access.
Tuva was a signatory to the 31 March 1992 treaty that created the Russian Federation. A new constitution for the republic was drawn up on 22 October 1993. This created a 32-member parliament (Supreme Khural) and a Grand Khural, which deals with local legislation.This constitution was passed by 53.9% (or 62.2%, according to another source) of Tuvans in a referendum on 12 December 1993. At the same time, the official name was changed from Tuva (Тува) to Tyva (Тыва).
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The republic is situated in the far south of Siberia. Its capital city of Kyzyl is located near the geographic "center of Asia". The eastern part of the republic is forested and elevated, and the west is a drier lowland.
There are over 8,000 rivers in the republic. The area includes the upper course of the Yenisei River, the fifth longest river in the world. Most of the republic's rivers are Yenisei tributaries. There are also numerous mineral springs in the area.
Major rivers include:
There are numerous lakes in Tuva, many of which are glacial and salt lakes, including Todzha Lake, a.k.a. Azas Lake (100 km2) – the largest in the republic, and Uvs Lake (shared with Mongolia and a World Heritage Site).
The area of the republic is a mountain basin, about 600 m high, encircled by the Sayan and Tannu-Ola ranges. Mountains and hills cover over 80% of the territory. Mongun-Tayga ("Silver Mountain", 3,970 m) is the highest point in the republic and is named after its glacier.
Major natural mineral resources of Tuva include coal, iron ore, gold, and cobalt. Fauna include sable, lynx, wolverine, weasel, maral, Siberian ibex, musk deer, bears, snow leopards, ground squirrels, flying foxes, and eagles.
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The Tuva Republic is administratively divided into seventeen districts and two cities under republic jurisdiction (urban okrugs) (Kyzyl and Ak-Dovurak). The districts are further subdivided into sumons (rural settlements), towns under district jurisdiction (urban settlements), and urban-type settlements.
Population: 307,930 (2010 Census); 305,510 (2002 Census); 309,129 (1989 Census).
According to the 2010 Census,Tuvans make up 82.0% of the republic's population. Other groups include Russians (16.3%), and a host of smaller groups, each accounting for less than 0.5% of the total population.
|1959 census||1970 census||1979 census||1989 census||2002 census||2010 census1|
|18,689 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.|
As can be seen above, during the period 1959–2010 there has been more than a doubling of ethnic Tuvans. The Russian population growth slowed by the 1980s and decreased by 50% since 1989. The official languages are Tuvan (Turkic) and Russian (Slavic).
Outside Kyzyl, settlements have few if any Russian inhabitants and, in general, Tuvans use their original language as their first language. However, there is a small population of Old Believers in the Republic scattered in some of the most isolated areas. Before Soviet rule, there were a number of large ethnic Russian Old Believer villages, but as the atheist ideology crept in, the believers moved deeper and deeper into the taiga in order to avoid contact with outsiders. Major Old Believer villages are Erzhei, Uzhep, Unzhei, Zhivei and Bolee Malkiye (all in the Kaa-Khemsky District). Smaller ultra-Orthodox settlements are found further upstream.
Ethnic Russians make up 34.3% of the population (as of 2010 Census) in Kaa-Khemsky District, one of the most remote regions in Tuva. The population is mostly Old Believers.Russians account for 29.1% of the population in Piy-Khemsky and 28.4% in Kyzyl.
Two religions are widespread among the people of Tuva: Tibetan Buddhism and shamanism. Tibetan Buddhism's present-day spiritual leader is Tenzin Gyatso, the fourteenth Dalai Lama. In September 1992, Tenzin Gyatso visited Tuva for three days. 20, he blessed and consecrated the yellow-blue-white flag of Tuva, which had been officially adopted three days previously.On September
The Tuvan people – along with the Yellow Uyghurs in China – are one of the only two Turkic groups who are primarily adherents to Tibetan Buddhism, which coexists with native shamanistic traditions.
Tuvans were first exposed to Buddhism during the 13th and 14th centuries, when Tuva entered into the composition of the Mongol Empire. The earliest Buddhist temples uncovered by archeologists in the territory of Tuva date to the 13th and 14th centuries.During the 16th and 17th centuries, Tibetan Buddhism gained popularity in Tuva. An increasing number of new and restored temples are coming into use, and there has been an upward trend of novices being trained as monks and lamas in recent years. Religious practice declined under the restrictive policies of the Soviet period, but is now flourishing.
Shamanism is being revived as well, including in organized Tengrian forms.
According to a 2012 survey,61.8% of the population of Tuva adheres to Buddhism, 8% to Tengrism or Tuvan shamanism, 1.5% to the Russian Orthodox Church, the Old Believers or other forms of Christianity, 1% to Protestantism. In addition, 7.7% follow other religions or did not give an answer to the survey. 8% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious" and 12% to be atheist.
The head of the government in Tuva is the Chairman of the Government, who is elected for a four-year term. The first Chairman of the Government was Sherig-ool Oorzhak. As of 2007, the Chairman of the Government was Sholban Kara-ool. Tuva's legislature, the Great Khural, has 162 seats; each deputy is elected to serve a four-year term. The present flag of Tuva – yellow for prosperity, blue for courage and strength, white for purity – was adopted on 17 September 1992.
The Republic's Constitution was adopted on 23 October 1993. On 3 April 2007, Russian president Vladimir Putin nominated Sholban Kara-ool, 40, a former champion wrestler, as the Chairman of the Government of Tuva.Sholban Kara-ool's candidacy was approved by the Khural on 9 April 2007.
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Tuva has a developing mining industry (coal, cobalt, gold, and more). Food processing, timber, and metalworking industries are also well-developed. Most of the industrial production is concentrated in the capital Kyzyl and in Ak-Dovurak. According to the HDI, the Republic of Tuva is the least developed region in Russia.
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Tuva is a region with a unique history, culture, and nature. All native zones of the Earth except savanna (even rainforest, see Southern Siberian rainforest) are featured in Tuva. There are more than 100 mineral springs in Tuva. The biggest of which are the warm mineral springs Ush-Beldir and Tarys, the temperature of the water is 52-85 °C.
Cold mineral springs and salt lakes are popular among tourists and the general population for their medicinal qualities. The geographical location of Tuva between the east-Siberian taiga and central-Asian landscape engenders a wealth of flora and fauna.
Tuva does not have a railway, although famous postage stamps in the 1930s, designed in Moscow during the time of Tuvan independence, mistakenly depict locomotives as demonstrating Soviet-inspired progress there.
Traditionally the Tuvan people are a Central Asian yurt-dwelling nomadic culture, with distinctive traditions in music, cuisine, and folk art. Tuvan music features Tuvan throat singing (khoomei), in which the singer sings a fundamental tone and an overtone simultaneously. This type of singing can be heard during performances by the Tuva National Orchestra, on events such as the 'International Khoomei Day', held at the National Tuvinian Theatre, Kyzyl.
The singer Sainkho Namtchylak has an international following. Namtchylak is also very involved with Tuvan culture, every year inviting Western musicians to perform in Kyzyl and to learn about Tuva, its culture, and its music.
In recent years, Kongar-ool Ondar, another Tuvan throat singer, has become well known in the West, in large part because of the film Genghis Blues featuring Ondar and American blues singer Paul Pena. [ citation needed ]
Huun-Huur-Tu has been one of the most well-known Tuvan music ensembles since the late 1990s, while the Alash ensemble came to prominence in the early 2000s.[ citation needed ]
The Tuvan craft tradition includes carving soft stone (agalmatolite). A frequent motif is hand-held-sized animals such as horses.
Important archaeological excavation in Tuva include Arzhaan-1 and Tunnug 1,dating to the ninth Century BC. and Arzhaan-2, where Scythian animal art in great variety, and over 9,000 decorative gold pieces were unearthed. A collection of gold jewelry from this site is on display at the National Museum Aldan-Maadyr in Kyzyl.
Festivals celebrating Tuvan traditions include the ecological film festival "The Living Path of Dersu", the Interregional Festival of National Cultures "Heart of Asia". It has become a tradition to hold the international festival of live music "Ustuu-Khuree", the International Symposium "Khoomei - the Phenomenon of the Culture of the Peoples of Central Asia", the Regional Competition-Festival of Performers on National Instruments "Dingildai", the International Felt Festival "Patterns of Life on Felt" Pop songs "Melodies of the Sayan Mountains".
Khuresh, the Tuvan form of wrestling, is a very popular sport. The competitors wear colorful costumes with long-sleeved robes, with the objective of throwing their opponent to the ground. Competitions are held at the annual Naadym festival at Tos-Bulak.
The Tuvan language is Turkic, although with many loan-words from Mongolian. It is currently written with a modified Cyrillic alphabet, previously used Turkic runes, later Mongolian, then Latin alphabets. Then, Tuva was administered as part of Outer Mongolia, and the language difference was a determining factor in Tuva seeking full independence from Outer Mongolia, following the collapse of the Qing dynasty of China in 1911.[ citation needed ]
Tuva is one of the few places in the world where the original form of shamanism is preserved as part of the traditional culture of Tuva. Shamanism presupposes the existence of good and evil spirits inhabiting mountains, forests and water, the heavens and the underworld. The mediator between man and the spirits is the shaman. It is believed that with the help of spirits the shaman is able to cure patients and to predict the future.
In Tuva, shamanism peacefully coexists with Buddhism. Buddhism is associated with many folk rituals, calendar holidays, and folk medicines in Tuva. Centers of Buddhism in Tuva are Khuree – temples, temple complexes. The temple complex Tsechenling in Kyzyl – the residence of Khambo Lama, head of Buddhism in Tuva. Treasures of the old Slavonic culture in the Asian Tuva saved along with the values of other peoples – children's folklore ensemble "Oktay" from the city of Kyzyl in the course several ethnographic expeditions In the old believers ' settlements were able to collect and record of conservatives extensive collection of samples of ancient singing art.
Bandy is played in Tuva.Mongolian-style wrestling is very popular, as are most martial arts. Obviously, horse riding related sports are also predominant in the area.
The most important facilities of higher education include the Tuvan State University and the Tuvan Institute of Humanities, both in the capital, Kyzyl.[ citation needed ]
The Tuvan People's Republic, known as the Tannu Tuva People's Republic until 1926, was a partially recognized socialist republic that existed between 1921 and 1944. The country was located in the same territory as the former Tuvan protectorate of Imperial Russia, known as Uryankhay Krai, north-west of Mongolia, and now corresponds to the Tuva Republic within the Russian Federation.
Kyzyl is the capital city of the Tuva Republic, Russia. The name of the city means "red" or "crimson" in Tuvan. Population: 109,918 (2010 Census); 104,105 (2002 Census); 84,641 (1989 Census).
Turan is a town and the administrative center of Piy-Khemsky District in the Tuva Republic, Russia, located 70 kilometers (43 mi) northwest of Kyzyl, the capital of the republic. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 4,981.
Shagonar is a town and the administrative center of Ulug-Khemsky District in the Tuva Republic, Russia, located on the left bank of the Yenisei River, 124 kilometers (77 mi) west of Kyzyl, the capital of the republic. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 10,956.
Ak-Dovurak is a town in the Tuva Republic, Russia, located on the Khemchik River, 301 kilometers (187 mi) west of Kyzyl. Population: 13,468 (2010 Census); 12,965 (2002 Census); 15,191 (1989 Census).
Barun-Khemchiksky District is an administrative and municipal district, one of the seventeen in the Tuva Republic, Russia. It is located in the west of the republic. The area of the district is 6,290 square kilometers (2,430 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Kyzyl-Mazhalyk. Population: 12,847 (2010 Census); 12,683 ; 31,421 (1989 Census). The population of Kyzyl-Mazhalyk accounts for 39.5% of the district's total population.
Bay-Tayginsky District is an administrative and municipal district, one of the seventeen in the Tuva Republic, Russia. It is located in the west of the republic. The area of the district is 7,922.82 square kilometers (3,059.02 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Teeli. Population: 10,803 (2010 Census); 12,321 ; 13,401 (1989 Census). The population of Teeli accounts for 31.4% of the district's total population.
Chaa-Kholsky District is an administrative and municipal district, one of the seventeen in the Tuva Republic, Russia. It is located in the west of the republic. The area of the district is 2,900 square kilometers (1,100 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Chaa-Khol. Population: 6,036 (2010 Census); 6,532. The population of Chaa-Khol accounts for 53.8% of the district's total population.
Chedi-Kholsky District is an administrative and municipal district, one of the seventeen in the Tuva Republic, Russia. It is located in the center of the republic. The area of the district is 3,707 square kilometers (1,431 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Khovu-Aksy. Population: 7,685 (2010 Census); 8,081. The population of Khovu-Aksy accounts for 47.8% of the district's total population.
Kyzylsky District is an administrative and municipal district, one of the seventeen in the Tuva Republic, Russia. It is located in the center of the republic. Its administrative center is the urban locality of Kaa-Khem. Population: 27,659 (2010 Census); 22,678 ; 22,205 (1989 Census). The population of Kaa-Khem accounts for 54.4% of the district's total population.
Piy-Khemsky District is an administrative and municipal district, one of the seventeen in the Tuva Republic, Russia. It is located in the north of the republic. The area of the district is 9,200 square kilometers (3,600 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Turan, Tuva Republic. Population: 10,092 (2010 Census); 11,431 ; 14,236 (1989 Census). The population of Turan accounts for 49.4% of the district's total population.
Tere-Kholsky District is an administrative and municipal district, one of the seventeen in the Tuva Republic, Russia. It is located in the southeast of the republic. Its administrative center is the rural locality of Kungurtug. Population: 1,882 (2010 Census); 1,835. The population of Kungurtug accounts for 77.9% of the district's total population.
Tes-Khemsky District is an administrative and municipal district, one of the seventeen in the Tuva Republic, Russia. It is located in the south of the republic. The area of the district is 6,680 square kilometers (2,580 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Samagaltay. Population: 8,174 (2010 Census); 8,908 ; 10,413 (1989 Census). The population of Samagaltay accounts for 39.6% of the district's total population.
Todzhinsky District is an administrative and municipal district, one of the seventeen in the Tuva Republic, Russia. It is located in the northeast of the republic. The area of the district is 44,800 square kilometers (17,300 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Toora-Khem. Population: 6,020 (2010 Census); 5,931 ; 6,448 (1989 Census). The population of Toora-Khem accounts for 39.7% of the district's total population.
Ulug-Khemsky District is an administrative and municipal district, one of the seventeen in the Tuva Republic, Russia. It is located in the center of the republic and borders Krasnoyarsk Krai in the north, Kyzylsky and Chedi-Kholsky Districts in the east, Ovyursky and Tes-Khemsky Districts in the south, and Chaa-Kholsky District in the west. The area of the district is 5,335.40 square kilometers (2,060.01 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Shagonar. As of the 2010 Census, the total population of the district was 19,266, with the population of Shagonar accounting for 56.9% of that number.
The territory currently known as Tuva has been occupied by various groups throughout its history. Sources are rare and unclear for most of Tuva's early history. Archeological evidence indicates a Scythian presence possibly as early as the 9th century BC. Tuva was conquered relatively easily by the succession of empires which swept across the region. It was most likely held by various Turkic khanates until 1207. It was then ruled by Mongols until the 18th century, when it submitted to Manchu rule under the Qing dynasty. Slow Russian colonization during the 19th century led to progressive annexation of the region to Russia in the 20th century. The region was then controlled by the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union before finally joining the Russian Federation in 1992. Throughout this whole time, the borders of Tuva have seen very little modification.
Chadan is a town and the administrative center of Dzun-Khemchiksky District in the Tuva Republic, Russia, located on the Chadan River, 224 kilometers (139 mi) west of Kyzyl, the capital of the republic. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 9,035. The Russian Defense Minister Sergey Shoygu was born in Chadan.
Samagaltay is a rural locality and the administrative center of Tes-Khemsky District of Tuva, Russia. Population: 3,233 (2010 Census); 3,507 (2002 Census); 3,648 (1989 Census).
Toora-Khem is a rural locality and the administrative center of Todzhinsky District of Tuva, Russia. Population: 2,387 (2010 Census); 2,233 (2002 Census); 1,851 (1989 Census).
The names Republic of Tuva and Tuva are equivalent
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