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Republic of Bashkortostan
|• Bashkir||Башҡортостан Республикаһы/Başqortostan Respublikahı|
|Anthem: State Anthem of the Republic of Bashkortostan |
|• Body||State Assembly-Kurultay|
|• Head||Radiy Khabirov|
|• Total||143,600 km2 (55,400 sq mi)|
|• Estimate||4,063,293 (−0.2%)|
|• Density||28/km2 (73/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+5 (MSK+2 )|
|ISO 3166 code||RU-BA|
|License plates||02, 102, 702|
|Official languages||Russian; Bashkir, Russian|
The Republic of Bashkortostan (Russian: Республика Башкортостан, tr. Respublika Baškortostan, Bashkir: Башҡортостан Республикаһы, tr. Başqortostan Respıblikahı), 143,600 square kilometres (55,400 square miles) and has a population of 4 million. It is Russia's most populous republic. Its capital and largest city is Ufa.also called Bashkiria (Russian: Башкирия, tr. Baškirija), is a republic of Russia located between the Volga and the Ural Mountains in Eastern Europe. It covers
Bashkortostan was established on 28 November [ O.S. 15 November] 1917. On 20 March 1919 it was transformed into the Bashkir ASSR, the first Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the RSFSR.
In accordance with the Constitution of Bashkortostan and Russian Federation Constitution, Bashkortostan is a state but has no sovereignty.On 11 October 1990 it adopted the Declaration of State Sovereignty. The state celebrates 11 October as its Republic Day.
The name "Bashkortostan" derives from the name of the Bashkir ethnic group. While the root of the name is Turkic (being a combination of 'baş', which in Turkish can mean head, chief, main, principal and 'qort' meaning wolf, one of the animals regarded as sacred to Turkic peoples);[ citation needed ] the suffix -stan is Persian, common to many Eurasian territorial names. The Bashkirs speak the Bashkir language, which belongs to the Kipchak branch of the Turkic language group.
The first settlements in the territory of modern Bashkortostan date from the early Paleolithic period, but the Bronze Age spurred an upsurge in the population of this territory.When people of the Abashevo culture started settling here, they possessed high skills in manufacturing bronze tools, weapons and decorations. They were the first to establish permanent settlements in the Southern Urals.
Bashkortostan takes its name from its native people, the Bashkirs. The Slavonic name of the country, Bashkiriya, formed at the end of the 16th century. Originally it appeared in the forms Bashkir land, Bashkir, Bashkirda and Bashkir horde. The ethnonym Bashkirs first became known in the 7th century. In the 10th century, Al-Balkhi wrote about Bashkirs as a people, divided into two groups, one of which inhabited the Southern Urals, while the other lived near the Danube River, close to the boundaries of Byzantium. His contemporary Ibn-Ruste described the Bashkirs as "an independent people, occupying territories on both sides of the Ural mountain ridge between Volga, Kama, Tobol and upstream of Yaik River".
After the early-feudal Mongolian state had broken down in the 14th century, the territory of modern Bashkortostan became divided between the Kazan and Siberia Khanates and the Nogai Horde. The tribes that lived there were headed by bi (tribal heads). After Kazan fell to Ivan the Terrible in 1554–1555, representatives of western and northwestern Bashkir tribes approached the Tsar with a request to voluntarily join Muscovy.[ citation needed ]
Starting from the second half of the 16th century, Bashkiria's territory began taking shape as a part of the Russian state. In 1798 the Spiritual Assembly of Russian Muslims was established, an indication that the tsarist government recognized the rights of Bashkirs, Tatars, and other Muslim nations to profess Islam and perform religious rituals. Ufa Governorate ( guberniya ), with a center in Ufa, was formed in 1865—another step towards territorial identification.
After the Russian Revolution of 1917 were All-Bashkir Qoroltays (conventions) on which a decision on the need to create a national federal republic within Russia. As a result, on 28 November 1917, the Bashkir Regional (Central) Shuro (Council) proclaimed the establishment of territorial and national autonomy in areas of Orenburg, Perm, Samara, and Ufa provinces with a predominantly Bashkir population.
In December 1917, delegates to the All-Bashkir (constituent) Congress, representing the interests of the population edge of all nationalities, voted unanimously for the resolution (Farman #2) of the Bashkir regional Shuro for the proclamation of national-territorial autonomy (of the Republic) Bashkurdistan. The congress formed the government of Bashkurdistan, the Pre-parliament—Kese-Qoroltay and other bodies of power and administration, and decisions were made on how to proceed.
In March 1919, based on the agreements of the Russian Government with the Bashkir Government was formed Bashkir Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. During the Soviet period, Bashkiria was granted broad autonomous rights—the first among other Russian regions. The administrative structure of the Bashkir ASSR was based on principles similar to those of other autonomous republics of Russia.
On 11 October 1990, the Supreme Soviet of the Republic adopted the declaration on state sovereignty of the Bashkir ASSR. On 25 February 1992, the Bashkir ASSR was renamed the Republic of Bashkortostan.
On 31 March 1992, a Federative Compact "On separation of authorities and powers among federal organs of power of the Russian Federation and the organs of power of the Republic of Bashkortostan" was signed. On 3 August 1994,a Compact "On separation of authorities and mutual delegating of powers among the organs of power of the Russian Federation and the organs of power of the Republic of Bashkortostan" was signed, granting the republic autonomy. This agreement was abolished on 7 July 2005.
Bashkortostan contains part of the southern Urals and the adjacent plains.
There are over 13,000 rivers in the republic. Many rivers are part of the deepwater transportation system of European Russia; they provide access to ports of the Baltic and Black seas.
Major rivers include:
There are 2,700 lakes and reservoirs in the republic. Major lakes and reservoirs include:
The Republic contains part of the southern Urals, which stretch from the northern to the southern border. The highest mountains include:
The Republic of Bashkortostan is one of the richest territories of Russia in mineral resources with deposits of some 3,000 mineral resources. Bashkortostan is rich in crude oil reserves, and was one of the principal centers of oil extraction in the Russian Federation. Other major resources are natural gas, coal, ferrous metal ores, manganese, chromite, iron ores, non-ferrous metals ores (lead, tungsten), non-metallic ores (rock crystal, fluorite, Iceland spar, sulfide pyrites, barite, silicates, silica, asbestos, talcum), deposits of precious and semi-precious stones and natural stones (malachite, jade, granite).
The republic has enough mineral resources to provide its power and fuel complex as well as petrochemical, chemical, agro-industrial complex, ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy, glass-making and ceramic branches with raw materials.
Bashkortostan is one of the major raw materials bases for Russia non-ferrous metallurgy. The republic has good deposits of lignite with a high degree of bitumen. This lignite can be used for obtaining a variety of different chemical products like resins, surface-active substances, gummy fertilizers, and other stimulants for plant growth. Mining-chemical raw materials (rock salt, lime, phosphorites, barytes, etc.) are quite substantial, and are utilized in the republic economy.
Bashkortostan is also rich in woods. The total territory covered with forests is about 62,000 square kilometres (24,000 sq mi). More than one third of the republic territory is covered with woods. The following types of trees dominate: birch tree, conifers, lime, oak, and maple. The general stock of timber according to some evaluation is 717.9 million m3. Bashkortostan forests have special sanctuaries and national parks. They cover more than 10,000 square kilometres (3,900 sq mi).
Bashkortostan is also rich in springs and sources of mineral, medicinal, and drinking water.
The Asselian Age at the start of the Permian Period of geological time is named after the Assel River in Bashkortostan.
The head of the government of the Republic of Bashkortostan is the Head (before 1 January 2015 the title was called "President"), who is elected by the people for a four-year term. According to the Constitution, the Head of the Republic of Bashkortostan guarantees rights and liberties of the country's people and citizens, protects economic and political interests of the Republic of Bashkortostan, and secures legitimacy, law, and order within its territory.
Rustem Khamitov assumed office on 19 July 2010. His predecessor was Murtaza Rakhimov, elected on 17 December 1993. Before the elections, Rakhimov was the Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the Republic, the highest post at that time. Rakhimov was re-elected in December 2003 in a poll condemned by the OSCE for exhibiting "elements of basic fraud."
The Republic's parliament is the State Assembly—Kurultai, popularly elected every five years. The one-chamber State Assembly has 110 deputies.
The Republic's Constitution was adopted on 24 December 1993. Article 1 of the Constitution stipulates that Bashkortostan is a sovereign state within Russia, it has state power beyond the limits of authority of the Russian Federation and the powers of the Russian Federation concerning the aspect of the joint authority of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Bashkortostan. The Republic of Bashkortostan is a full-fledged subject of the Russian Federation on equal and agreed bases.
The relations of the Republic of Bashkortostan and the Russian Federation are at present based on the articles of the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the Constitution of the Republic of Bashkortostan, the Federative Treaty (with amendments) and the Agreement on Separation of authorities and powers and mutual delegating of powers among the organs of state power of the Republic of Bashkortostan.
The judicial power of the republic is in the hands of the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court, the Court of Appeals, District Courts, and justices of the peace.
In full accord with universally recognized principles of international law, articles of the European Charter of Local Self-Government and the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the Republic of Bashkortostan ensures in its Constitution that local self-government is recognized and guaranteed within the republic's territory.
The Republic of Bashkortostan resolves all issues of administrative-territorial structure on its own. The list of districts and towns, municipalities, as well as the order of establishing, amending and changing borders of municipalities and their names, are stipulated by the Republic of Bashkortostan law "On administrative-territorial structure of the Republic of Bashkortostan and territory of municipalities".
The state has strong economic and cultural ties with its western neighbour, the Republic of Tatarstan.
Bashkortostan is one of the most developed regions of the Russian Federation in terms of its gross regional output, the volume of industrial production, agricultural production, and investment in fixed assets.
The largest companies in the region include Bashneft (revenues of $9.57 billion in 2017), Ufa Engine Industrial Association (part of United Engine Corporation; $1.26 billion), Peton Holding ($1.04 billion), Bashkhim ($857 million), Ufaorgsintez ($473.07 million), Beloretsk Iron and Steel Works ($409.65 million).
The extraction of crude oil in Bashkiria began in 1932. At the end of 1943 large crude oil deposits were discovered.[ by whom? ] During the Great Patriotic War of 1941 to 1945, Bashkiria became one of the major regions of the Soviet Union to accommodate plants and factories evacuated from Western Russia, as well as great masses of people, while also providing the country with weaponry, fuel, and foodstuffs. After the war, a number of industries developed further in Bashkiria, such as mining, machine-building and (especially) oil-refining. Bashkiria's industry became a solid base for the further economic growth of all European outlying territories of Russia.
The economy of Bashkortostan, being one of the largest industrial centers of Russia, is very diverse. Bashkortostan has a large agricultural sector. But the republic's most important industry is chemical processing; Bashkortostan produces more oil than any other region of Russia, about 26 million tons annually, and provides 17% of the country's gasoline and 15% of its diesel fuel. Other important products manufactured in Bashkortostan include alcohols, pesticides, and plastics.
Bashkortostan's gross regional product (GRP) in 2016 was 1.34 trillion rubles,making the republic the subject with the ninth-highest GRP in Russia. The state had a positive trade balance, with $13.7 billion exported and $1.2 billion imported in 2013. 82.9% of enterprises in Bashkortostan are profitable, higher than the nationwide average of 68.42%. Bashkortostan has been recognized as the subject with the lowest economic risk.
Bashkortostan is among the leaders in real estate development,developed electric power industry and tourism.
According to Forbes , Ufa is the best city in Russia for business among cities with a population of over one million (2013).
GRP structure of Bashkortostan for 2013.
|Wholesale and retail trade||16.7|
|Transport and communications||7.3|
|Real estate transactions||7|
|Healthcare and social services||4.1|
|State management and social insurance||3.8|
|Production of electricity, gas, water||2.4|
|Hotels and restaurants||1.1|
Largest cities or towns in Bashkortostan
2010 Russian Census
|1||Ufa||Ufimsky District||1,062,319|| |
|3||Salavat||City of republic significance of Salavat||156,095|
|4||Neftekamsk||City of republic significance of Neftekamsk||121,733|
|5||Oktyabrsky||City of republic significance of Oktyabrsky||109,474|
|9||Kumertau||Town of republic significance of Kumertau||62,851|
|10||Sibay||Town of republic significance of Sibay||62,763|
|Average population (x 1000)||Live births||Deaths||Natural change||Crude birth rate (per 1000)||Crude death rate (per 1000)||Natural change (per 1000)||Total fertility rate|
Note: Total fertility rate 200-12 source.
Bashkirs as the indigenous (autochthonal) peoples of Bashkortostan have the sole rights to self-determination.According to the 2010 Census, the ethnic composition was:
|1920 Census||1926 Census||1939 Census||1959 Census||1970 Census||1979 Census||1989 Census||2002 Census||2010 Census1|
|197,572 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.|
According to the 2010 Census, spoken languages: Russian (97%), Tatar (26%), Bashkir (23%).
Islam is adhered to by a majority of the nation's populationof Bashkir and Tatar descent. The Muslims of Bashkortostan follow the Sunni Hanafi school of Islamic law.
Most ethnic Russians, Chuvash, and Ukrainians are Orthodox Christians. Most Mari are Pagan. Non-religious people form a substantial part of any ethnic group in Bashkortostan. There are 13,000 Jews in the republic, with a historic synagogue in Ufa, and a new Jewish Community Center built in 2008.
According to the 2012 Sreda survey which interviewed 56,900 people,58% of the population of Bashkortostan are Muslim, 17% adhere to the Russian Orthodox Church, 3% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 1% are Orthodox Christian believers without belonging to any church or members of other Orthodox churches, and 2% are adherents of the Slavic native faith (Rodnovery), the Mari native religion, Chuvash Vattisen Yaly or Tengrism. In addition, 4% of the population declare to be "spiritual but not religious", 5% are atheist, and 7% follow other religions or did not give an answer to the question. Note, however, that this survey has been criticized as biased. It was conducted by the service "Sreda", which has ties to the Christian organizations.
In 2010, there were over 1,000 mosques in Bashkortostan,200 Orthodox churches and 60 religious buildings of other confessions.
Russian Premier League football club FC Ufa is from Ufa. KHL team Salavat Yulaev Ufa plays in the city, as does Supreme Hockey League teams Toros Neftekamsk and HC Gornyak Uchaly, Minor Hockey League team Tolpar Ufa and Russian Women's Hockey League team Agidel. Russian Volleyball Super League team Ural and volleyball team Samrau-UGNTU are from Ufa. Russian Handball Super League team Ugntu-VNZM and Russian Women's Handball Super League team Ufa-Alisa are from Ufa. Formula One driver Daniil Kvyat hails from Ufa. It was decided in 2018 to revive bandy.There are even preliminary plans for building an indoor arena.
About sixty scientific organizations are active in the republic. Fundamental and applied scientific research is underway at twelve institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences, twenty-nine institutes of different branches of industry, as well as numerous design bureaus and organizations, universities, and colleges.
The country's system of popular education took shape over many centuries and reflects the Bashkir people's folklore, national customs, and traditions. When Islam spread in Bashkiria in the 10th century, an educational system began to emerge gradually— primarily religious schools operated under the supervision of mosques (maktabeh and madrasah).
In addition, many institutions of higher education operate in the republic, including branches of 16 leading Russian universities and colleges. Specialists graduate with degrees in about 200 trades and professions.
Education is primarily in Russian and Bashkir.
Bashkortostan is home to song and dance companies, a network of national theaters, museums, and libraries, and a number of annual folk festivals. The republic has seven Bashkir, four Russian, and two Tatar State Drama Theaters, a State Opera and Ballet Theater, a National Symphony Orchestra, "Bashkortostan" film studio, thirty philharmonic collectives, and the Bashkir State Folk Dance Ensemble.
The Bashkir School of Dance is well respected[ citation needed ], with many students receiving international awards at competitions in Russia and other countries. World-renowned ballet dancer Rudolf Nureyev, as a child, was encouraged to dance in Bashkir folk performances, and began his dancing career in Ufa.
Bashkir literature is the literary tradition of the Republic of Bashkortostan.
There are many museums in the Republic where you can get acquainted with the history of the region. The National Museum of the Republic of Bashkortostan, the Bashkir Nesterov Art Museum , the Museum of Archeology and Ethnography are the largest of them.
Ufa is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Bashkortostan in Russia. The city lies at the confluence of the Belaya and Ufa rivers, in the centre-north of Bashkortostan, on hills forming the Ufa Plateau to the west of the southern Ural Mountains, with a population of over 1 million residents, up to 1.4 million residents in the urban agglomeration. Ufa is the eleventh-most populous city in Russia, and the fourth-most populous city in the Volga Federal District.
Birsk is a town in the Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia, located on the right bank of the Belaya River, 102 kilometers (63 mi) from Ufa, the capital of the republic. Population: 41,635 (2010 Census); 39,992 (2002 Census); 34,881 (1989 Census).
Ishimbay is a town in the Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia, located on the banks of the Belaya and Tayruk Rivers, 166 kilometers (103 mi) south of Ufa. Population: 66,259 (2010 Census); 70,195 (2002 Census); 69,896 (1989 Census).
Tuymazy is a town in the Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia, located 145 kilometers (90 mi) from Ufa. Population: 66,836 (2010 Census); 66,687 (2002 Census); 57,887 (1989 Census). It is an industrial town, with petroleum and natural gas industries and mechanical engineering being the most important economic assets.
Meleuz is a town in the Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia, located on the bank of the Belaya River, 205 km south of Ufa. Population: 61,390 (2010 Census); 62,949 (2002 Census); 53,448 (1989 Census).
Belebey is a town in the Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia, located on the bank of the Usen River, 180 kilometers (110 mi) from Ufa. Population: 60,188 (2010 Census); 60,928 (2002 Census); 53,443 (1989 Census).
Sibay is a town in the Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia, located on the border between Europe and Asia, on the east slope of the Southern Urals, in the spurs of Irendyk, 464 kilometers (288 mi) from Ufa, the capital of the republic. Population: 62,763 (2010 Census); 59,082 (2002 Census); 47,257 (1989 Census).
Davlekanovo is a town in the Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia, located on the Dyoma River 90 kilometers (56 mi) west of Ufa. Population: 24,073 (2010 Census); 23,860 (2002 Census); 21,911 (1989 Census). It was previously known as Itkulovo.
Baymak is a town in the Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia, located in the upper streams of the Tanalyk River 489 kilometers (304 mi) south of Ufa. Population: 17,710 (2010 Census); 17,223 (2002 Census); 15,976 (1989 Census).
Yanaul is a town in the Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia, located on the Yanaulka River, 230 kilometers (140 mi) north of Ufa. Population: 26,924 (2010 Census); 27,909 (2002 Census); 25,727 (1989 Census).
Ufimsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the fifty-four in the Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia. It is located in the center of the republic and borders with Kushnarenkovsky District in the northwest and north, Blagoveshchensky District in the north, Iglinsky District in the east, Karmaskalinsky District in the south, Chishminsky District in the southwest and west, and is split into two uneven parts by the territory of the city of republic significance of Ufa. The area of the district is 1,598.77 square kilometers (617.29 sq mi). Its administrative center is the city of Ufa. As of the 2010 Census, the total population of the district was 67,067.
Mezhgorye is a closed town in the Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia, located in the southern Ural Mountains near Mount Yamantau, about 200 kilometers (120 mi) southeast of Ufa, the capital of the republic, on the banks of the Maly Inser River. Population: 17,352 (2010 Census); 19,082 (2002 Census).
Abzelilovsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the fifty-four in the Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia. It is located in the southeast of the republic. The area of the district is 4,288 square kilometers (1,656 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Askarovo. As of the 2010 Census, the total population of the district was 45,551, with the population of Askarovo accounting for 16.8% of that number.
Baymaksky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the fifty-four in the Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia. It is located in the southeast of the republic and borders with Abzelilovsky District in the north, Chelyabinsk Oblast and the territory of the town of republic significance of Sibay in the east, Khaybullinsky District in the south, and with Zilairsky District in the south and west. The area of the district is 5,432 square kilometers (2,097 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Baymak. As of the 2010 Census, the total population of the district was 40,862.
Khaybullinsky District an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the fifty-four in the Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia. It is located in the south of the republic and borders with Zilairsky and Baymaksky Districts in the north, Orenburg Oblast in the east and south, and with Zianchurinsky District in the west. The area of the district is 3,912 square kilometers (1,510 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Akyar. As of the 2010 Census, the total population of the district was 33,398, with the population of Akyar accounting for 20.8% of that number.
Salavatsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the fifty-four in the Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia. It is located in the northeast of the republic and borders Duvansky District in the north, Kiginsky District in the northeast, Chelyabinsk Oblast in the east, south, and west, and Nurimanovsky District in the west. The area of the district is 2,182 square kilometers (842 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Maloyaz. As of the 2010 Census, the total population of the district was 26,566, with the population of Maloyaz accounting for 18.5% of that number.
Zilairsky District is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the fifty-four in the Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia. It is located in the south of the republic and borders with Burzyansky District in the north, Baymaksky District in the east, Khaybullinsky District in the southeast and south, Zianchurinsky District in the southwest and west, and with Kugarchinsky District in the west and northwest. The area of the district is 5,773.99 square kilometers (2,229.35 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Zilair. As of the 2010 Census, the total population of the district was 16,590, with the population of Zilair accounting for 33.7% of that number.
Karaidel is a rural locality and the administrative center of Karaidelsky District in the Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia, located on the Ufa River. Population: 5,980 (2010 Census); 5,174 (2002 Census); 4,284 (1989 Census).
Dyurtyuli is a town in the Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia, located on the left bank of the Belaya River 126 kilometers (78 mi) northwest of Ufa. Population: 31,274 (2010 Census); 29,984 (2002 Census); 25,264 (1989 Census).
Uchaly is a town in the Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia, in the east of the republic, in the southern Urals, among the lakes of the Uraltau Range. Population: 37,788 (2010 Census).
As the treaty was not successfully re-approved, Bashkortostan lost its autonomy on July 7th, 2005.
Tatar and Bashkir literary works constitute a particularly rich body of indigenous historical sources of Inner Asia, particularly for the nineteenth and twentieth centuries
A celebration of Bashkirian Literature and Art to be held in Moscow..
The main themes of the meeting were the discussion of the state of Byelorussian and Bashkirian literature..
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Bashkortostan .|
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