Trans-Siberian Railway

Last updated

Trans-Siberian Railway
VL 85-022 container train.jpg
VL85 container haul along the coast of Lake Baikal (2008)
Overview
Native nameТранссибирская магистраль (Russian)
StatusOperational
Owner Government of Russia
LocaleFlag of Russia.svg Russia
Termini
Service
Type
System FER, SZhD, V-SibZhD, Z-SibZhD, KrasZhD, SvZhD, ZabZhD
Operator(s) Russian Railways
History
CommencedMarch 9, 1891 (1891-03-09)
OpenedJune 21, 1904 (1904-06-21)
Technical
Line length9,289 km (5,772 mi)
Number of tracks3
CharacterLong-haul route
Track gauge 1,520 mm (4 ft 11+2732 in) Russian gauge
Electrification 3 kV DC / 25 kV 50 Hz AC overhead line
Operating speed60–140 km/h (37–87 mph)
Route map

Contents

BSicon KBHFa.svg
0 km
0 mi
Moscow
Yaroslavsky
Terminal
BSicon HST.svg
59 km
37 mi
Khotkovo
BSicon HST.svg
73 km
45 mi
Sergiyev Posad
BSicon ABZg+l.svg
BSicon CONTfq.svg
BSicon STR+GRZq.svg
BSicon CONTgq.svg
BSicon ABZgr+r.svg
Greater Ring of the Moscow Railway
BSicon HST.svg
112 km
70 mi
Alexandrov
BSicon HST.svg
130 km
81 mi
Balakirevo
BSicon STR+GRZq.svg
BSicon HST.svg
145 km
90 mi
Berendeevo
BSicon HST.svg
165 km
103 mi
Ryazantsevo
BSicon HST.svg
191 km
119 mi
Silnitsi
BSicon HST.svg
200 km
124 mi
Petrovskoye
BSicon HST.svg
210 km
130 mi
Debolovskaya
BSicon HST.svg
224 km
139 mi
Rostov-Yaroslavsky
BSicon HST.svg
239 km
149 mi
Semibratovo
BSicon HST.svg
262 km
163 mi
Kozmodemyansk
BSicon BHF.svg
281 km
175 mi
Yaroslavl
BSicon BHF.svg
284 km
176 mi
Yaroslavl-Glavny
BSicon hbKRZWae.svg
289 km
180 mi
BSicon BHF.svg
356 km
221 mi
Danilov
BSicon ABZgl.svg
BSicon CONTfq.svg
BSicon HST.svg
Sot
BSicon HST.svg
394 km
245 mi
Lyubim
BSicon HST.svg
Seksha
BSicon STR+GRZq.svg
BSicon HST.svg
Brodni
BSicon HST.svg
Korega
BSicon ABZg+l.svg
BSicon CONTfq.svg
to Vologda
BSicon HST.svg
450 km
280 mi
Bui
BSicon HST.svg
Rossolovo
BSicon HST.svg
Khramki
BSicon HST.svg
501 km
311 mi
Galich
BSicon HST.svg
Krasilnikovo
BSicon HST.svg
Loparevo
BSicon HST.svg
Monakovo
BSicon HST.svg
Antrolovo
BSicon HST.svg
Nikkolo-Ugol
BSicon HST.svg
Nikolo-Poloma
BSicon HST.svg
Nomzha
BSicon HST.svg
Yelenskiy
BSicon HST.svg
Neva
BSicon HST.svg
Nelsha
BSicon HST.svg
Brantovka
BSicon HST.svg
Petrushino
BSicon HST.svg
Kostrikha
BSicon HST.svg
651 km
405 mi
Manturovo
BSicon HST.svg
Vocherovo
BSicon HST.svg
Shekshema
BSicon HST.svg
Varakinskiy
BSicon hbKRZWae.svg
BSicon HST.svg
698 km
434 mi
Sharya
BSicon HST.svg
Zeblyaki
BSicon HST.svg
Yakshanga
BSicon HST.svg
Burunduchikha
BSicon STR+GRZq.svg
BSicon HST.svg
Suprotivniy
BSicon HST.svg
Metil
BSicon HST.svg
Gostovskaya
BSicon HST.svg
Shabalino
BSicon HST.svg
818 km
508 mi
Svetcha
BSicon HST.svg
Yuma
BSicon HST.svg
Kapidantsi
BSicon HST.svg
Atsvezh
BSicon HST.svg
Darovitsa
BSicon CONTgq.svg
BSicon ABZg+r.svg
to Nizhny Novgorod & Moscow
BSicon HST.svg
870 km
541 mi
Kotelnich
BSicon hbKRZWae.svg
BSicon HST.svg
Bistryagi
BSicon HST.svg
Orichi
BSicon HST.svg
Strizhi
BSicon HST.svg
Lyangasovo
BSicon HST.svg
Chukhlominskiy
BSicon BHF.svg
957 km
595 mi
Kirov
BSicon HST.svg
975 km
606 mi
Pozdino
BSicon HST.svg
Poloy
BSicon HST.svg
995 km
618 mi
Bum-Kombinat
BSicon HST.svg
Prosnitsa
BSicon HST.svg
Ardashi
BSicon HST.svg
Rekmino
BSicon HST.svg
1052 km
654 mi
Zuevka
BSicon eABZgl.svg
BSicon exCONTfq.svg
to Verkhnekamskaya, Ivdel & Surgut
BSicon HST.svg
Kosa
BSicon HST.svg
Falenki
BSicon ABZg+l.svg
BSicon CONTfq.svg
to Verkhnekamskaya & Ukhta
BSicon HST.svg
1127 km
700 mi
Yar
BSicon STR+GRZq.svg
BSicon HST.svg
Kozmil
BSicon HST.svg
1165 km
724 mi
Glazov
BSicon eABZgl.svg
BSicon exCONTfq.svg
to Solkamsk, Serov, Demyanka & Surgut
(with 25 kV 50 Hz AC electrification)
BSicon HST.svg
1194 km
742 mi
Balyezino
BSicon HST.svg
Pibanshur
BSicon CONTgq.svg
BSicon ABZgr+r.svg
to Izhevsk
BSicon hbKRZWae.svg
1221 km
759 mi
BSicon HST.svg
1223 km
760 mi
Chepsta
BSicon HST.svg
Kez
BSicon HST.svg
Kabalud
BSicon HST.svg
Kuzma
BSicon STR+GRZq.svg
BSicon HST.svg
Borodulino
BSicon HST.svg
Subbotniki
BSicon HST.svg
1310 km
814 mi
Vereshchagino
BSicon HST.svg
Zyukay
BSicon HST.svg
1340 km
833 mi
Mendeleevo
BSicon HST.svg
Grigorevskaya
BSicon HST.svg
1387 km
862 mi
Chaikovskaya
BSicon HST.svg
Shabunichi
BSicon HST.svg
1410 km
876 mi
Overyata
BSicon HST.svg
Kurya
BSicon hbKRZWae.svg
1432 km
890 mi
BSicon BHF.svg
1436 km
892 mi
Perm
BSicon ABZgl.svg
BSicon CONTfq.svg
to Solikamsk & Nizhny Tagil
BSicon HST.svg
1452 km
902 mi
Ferma
BSicon HST.svg
Mulyanka
BSicon HST.svg
Yug
BSicon HST.svg
Yergach
BSicon HST.svg
1534 km
953 mi
Kungur
BSicon HST.svg
Kishert
BSicon HST.svg
Shumkovo
BSicon HST.svg
Tulumbasi
BSicon HST.svg
Kordon
BSicon STR+GRZq.svg
BSicon HST.svg
Shamary
BSicon HST.svg
1672 km
1039 mi
Shalya
BSicon HST.svg
Sarga
BSicon HST.svg
Sabik
BSicon HST.svg
1729 km
1074 mi
Kuzino
BSicon HST.svg
1770 km
1100 mi
Pervouralsk
BSicon STR+GRZq.svg
1777 km
1104 mi
Europe
Asia
BSicon hbKRZWae.svg
BSicon CONTgq.svg
BSicon ABZg+r.svg
from Kazan
BSicon ABZg+l.svg
BSicon CONTfq.svg
to Nizhny Tagil
BSicon BHF.svg
1816 km
1128 mi
Yekaterinburg
BSicon HST.svg
Shartash
BSicon HST.svg
Putevka
BSicon HST.svg
Kosulino
BSicon HST.svg
Gagarskiy
BSicon HST.svg
Bazhenovo
BSicon HST.svg
Gryaznovskaya
BSicon HST.svg
1912 km
1188 mi
Bogdanovich
BSicon ABZgl+l.svg
BSicon CONTfq.svg
to Serov
BSicon HST.svg
Pishminskaya
BSicon HST.svg
Yelansky
BSicon HST.svg
1955 km
1215 mi
Kamyshlov
BSicon HST.svg
Aksarikha
BSicon HST.svg
Oshchepkovo
BSicon HST.svg
Proselok
BSicon HST.svg
2033 km
1263 mi
Talitsa
BSicon HST.svg
2064 km
1283 mi
Yushala
BSicon HST.svg
Bahkmetskoye
BSicon HST.svg
Tugulym
BSicon HST.svg
Karmak
BSicon STR+GRZq.svg
BSicon BHF.svg
2144 km
1332 mi
Tyumen
BSicon HST.svg
Voynovka
BSicon ABZgl.svg
BSicon CONTfq.svg
to Tobolsk & Surgut
BSicon HST.svg
Ozero Andreyevskoya
BSicon HST.svg
Vinzili
BSicon HST.svg
Bogdaninskaya
BSicon HST.svg
2222 km
1381 mi
Yalutorovsk
BSicon hbKRZWae.svg
BSicon HST.svg
Zavodoukovsk
BSicon HST.svg
Novaya Zaimka
BSicon HST.svg
Vagay
BSicon HST.svg
Omutinskaya
BSicon HST.svg
Lamyenskaya
BSicon HST.svg
Golishmanovo
BSicon HST.svg
Karasulskaya
BSicon HST.svg
2431 km
1511 mi
Ishim
BSicon hbKRZWae.svg
BSicon HST.svg
Maslyanskaya
BSicon HST.svg
Novo Andreyevskiy
BSicon STR+GRZq.svg
BSicon HST.svg
Mangut
BSicon HST.svg
2565 km
1594 mi
Nazyvayevsk
BSicon HST.svg
Dragunskaya
BSicon HST.svg
Lyubinskaya
BSicon hbKRZWae.svg
2706 km
1681 mi
Irtysh
BSicon BHF.svg
2712 km
1685 mi
Omsk
BSicon HST.svg
Kormilovka
BSicon HST.svg
2760 km
1715 mi
Kalachinsk
BSicon HST.svg
Ivanovka
BSicon STR+GRZq.svg
BSicon HST.svg
Karatkansk
BSicon HST.svg
2885 km
1793 mi
Tatarsk
BSicon HST.svg
Kabakly
BSicon HST.svg
Chany
BSicon HST.svg
Ozero Karachinskoye
BSicon HST.svg
Koshkul
BSicon HST.svg
Tebisskaya
BSicon HST.svg
3040 km
1889 mi
Barabinsk
BSicon HST.svg
Kozhurla
BSicon HST.svg
Ubinskaya
BSicon HST.svg
Kargat
BSicon HST.svg
Kokoshino
BSicon HST.svg
3212 km
1996 mi
Chulym
BSicon HST.svg
Duplenskaya
BSicon HST.svg
Lesnaya Polyana
BSicon HST.svg
Chik
BSicon HST.svg
3322 km
2064 mi
Ob
BSicon hbKRZWae.svg
3332 km
2070 mi
Ob
BSicon BHF.svg
3335 km
2072 mi
Novosibirsk
BSicon HST.svg
Mochische
BSicon HST.svg
Oyash
BSicon HST.svg
Chebula
BSicon HST.svg
3463 km
2152 mi
Bolotnaya
BSicon STR+GRZq.svg
BSicon HST.svg
3491 km
2169 mi
Yurga
BSicon hbKRZWae.svg
Tom
BSicon HST.svg
Talmenka
BSicon HST.svg
Yashkino
BSicon HST.svg
Kholkino
BSicon ABZgl+l.svg
BSicon CONTfq.svg
to Tomsk
BSicon HST.svg
3570 km
2218 mi
Tayga
BSicon HST.svg
Likhtach
BSicon HST.svg
3602 km
2238 mi
Anzhero-Sudzhensk
BSicon HST.svg
Yaya
BSicon HST.svg
Izhmorsk
BSicon HST.svg
Berikulsk
BSicon HST.svg
Antibesskiy
BSicon eABZg+l.svg
BSicon exCONTfq.svg
to Asino, Bely Yar,
Nizhnevartovsk & Surgut
BSicon HST.svg
3715 km
2308 mi
Mariinsk
BSicon HST.svg
Suslovo
BSicon HST.svg
Tyazhin
BSicon HST.svg
Itat
BSicon STR+GRZq.svg
BSicon HST.svg
3849 km
2392 mi
Bogotol
BSicon HST.svg
Kritovo
BSicon hbKRZWae.svg
BSicon HST.svg
3917 km
2434 mi
Achinsk
BSicon ABZgl.svg
BSicon CONTfq.svg
to Lesosibirsk & Dudinka
BSicon HST.svg
3960 km
2461 mi
Chernorechsk
BSicon HST.svg
Kozulka
BSicon HST.svg
Zeledeyevo
BSicon HST.svg
Kacha
BSicon HST.svg
Minino
BSicon BHF.svg
4098 km
2546 mi
Krasnoyarsk
BSicon hbKRZWae.svg
4101 km
2548 mi
BSicon HST.svg
Zlobino
BSicon HST.svg
Zikovo
BSicon HST.svg
Sorokino
BSicon HST.svg
Kamarchaga
BSicon HST.svg
Balay
BSicon HST.svg
4227 km
2627 mi
Uyar
BSicon HST.svg
4262 km
2648 mi
Zaozyornaya
BSicon HST.svg
Kamala
BSicon HST.svg
Solyanka
BSicon HST.svg
Boshnyakovo
BSicon HST.svg
4343 km
2699 mi
Kansk-Yeniseysky
BSicon HST.svg
4375 km
2718 mi
Ilanskaya
BSicon HST.svg
Ingashiskaya
BSicon HST.svg
Tinskaya
BSicon HST.svg
Reshoti
BSicon ABZgl.svg
BSicon CONTfq.svg
to Yarki
BSicon HST.svg
Klyuchi
BSicon STR+GRZq.svg
BSicon HST.svg
Yurti
BSicon eABZgl.svg
BSicon exCONTfq.svg
Tayshet diversion line
to Kostomarovo (Baikal-Amur Mainline)
BSicon HST.svg
Biryusinsk
BSicon BHF.svg
4516 km
2806 mi
Tayshet
BSicon KRWgl.svg
BSicon LKRW+r.svg
4520 km
2809 mi
BSicon HST.svg
4555 km
2830 mi
Razgon
BSicon HST.svg
Alzamay
BSicon HST.svg
4631 km
2878 mi
Kamyshet
BSicon HST.svg
Uk
BSicon HST.svg
4680 km
2908 mi
Nizhneudinsk
BSicon HST.svg
Khingoy
BSicon HST.svg
Khudoyelanskaya
BSicon HST.svg
Sheberta
BSicon HST.svg
Utay
BSicon HST.svg
4794 km
2979 mi
Tulun
BSicon HST.svg
Shuba
BSicon HST.svg
Tulyushka
BSicon HST.svg
4875 km
3029 mi
Kuytun
BSicon HST.svg
Kharik
BSicon HST.svg
Kimeltey
BSicon HST.svg
4940 km
3070 mi
Zima
BSicon HST.svg
Tiret
BSicon HST.svg
Zalari
BSicon STR+GRZq.svg
BSicon HST.svg
Golovinskaya
BSicon HST.svg
5027 km
3124 mi
Kutulik
BSicon HST.svg
Zabituy
BSicon STR+GRZq.svg
BSicon HST.svg
5061 km
3145 mi
Cheremkhovo
BSicon HST.svg
5087 km
3161 mi
Polovina
BSicon HST.svg
Belaya
BSicon HST.svg
5124 km
3184 mi
Usolye-Sibirskoye
BSicon HST.svg
5133 km
3189 mi
Telma
BSicon HST.svg
Kitoy
BSicon HST.svg
5160 km
3206 mi
Angarsk
BSicon HST.svg
5170 km
3212 mi
Meget
BSicon HST.svg
5178 km
3217 mi
Irkutsk-Sort
BSicon BHF.svg
5185 km
3222 mi
Irkutsk
BSicon HST.svg
Kaya
BSicon HST.svg
Goncharovo
BSicon HST.svg
B. Lug
BSicon HST.svg
Podkamennaya
BSicon HST.svg
Kultuk
BSicon HST.svg
5312 km
3301 mi
Slyudyanka
BSicon HST.svg
Utulik
BSicon HST.svg
5358 km
3329 mi
Baykalsk
BSicon HST.svg
Murino
BSicon STR+GRZq.svg
BSicon HST.svg
5390 km
3349 mi
Vydrino
BSicon HST.svg
5426 km
3372 mi
Tankhoi
BSicon HST.svg
Pereyemnaya
BSicon HST.svg
5477 km
3403 mi
Mysovaya
BSicon HST.svg
5530 km
3436 mi
Posolskaya
BSicon HST.svg
Timlyuy
BSicon HST.svg
5562 km
3456 mi
Selenginsk
BSicon HST.svg
Talovka
BSicon HST.svg
Tataurovo
BSicon hbKRZWae.svg
BSicon BHF.svg
5642 km
3506 mi
Ulan-Ude
BSicon CONTgq.svg
BSicon ABZgr.svg
5655 km
3514 mi
BSicon HST.svg
Talitsi
BSicon HST.svg
5675 km
3526 mi
Onokhoy
BSicon HST.svg
Zaigraevo
BSicon HST.svg
Chelutay
BSicon HST.svg
Ilka
BSicon HST.svg
5734 km
3563 mi
Novoilinski
BSicon HST.svg
Kizma
BSicon STR+GRZq.svg
BSicon HST.svg
5784 km
3594 mi
Petrovsk-Zabaykalsky
BSicon HST.svg
Balyaga
BSicon HST.svg
Tarbagatai
BSicon HST.svg
Novo-Pavlovka
BSicon HST.svg
Tolbaga
BSicon HST.svg
Khokhotay
BSicon HST.svg
5884 km
3656 mi
Bada
BSicon HST.svg
Zhipkhegen
BSicon HST.svg
5932 km
3686 mi
Khilok
BSicon HST.svg
Khushenga
BSicon HST.svg
Kharagun
BSicon HST.svg
6053 km
3761 mi
Mogzon
BSicon hbKRZWae.svg
Khilok
BSicon HST.svg
6093 km
3786 mi
Sokhondo
BSicon HST.svg
6125 km
3806 mi
Yablonovaya
BSicon HST.svg
Lesnoy
BSicon HST.svg
Ingoda
BSicon HST.svg
Chernovskaya
BSicon HST.svg
Kadala
BSicon BHF.svg
6199 km
3852 mi
Chita
BSicon HST.svg
Peschanka
BSicon HST.svg
Atamanovka
BSicon HST.svg
Novaya
BSicon HST.svg
Makkaveyevo
BSicon HST.svg
6265 km
3893 mi
Darasun
BSicon HST.svg
6293 km
3910 mi
Karaymskaya
BSicon CONTgq.svg
BSicon ABZgr.svg
6312 km
3922 mi
BSicon HST.svg
Urulga
BSicon HST.svg
Zubarevo
BSicon HST.svg
Razmakhnino
BSicon HST.svg
Solntsevaya
BSicon HST.svg
6417 km
3987 mi
Onon
BSicon HST.svg
6446 km
4005 mi
Shilka-Pass
BSicon HST.svg
Kholbon
BSicon HST.svg
6496 km
4036 mi
Priiskavaya
BSicon ABZgl.svg
BSicon KBHFeq.svg
Nerchinsk
BSicon HST.svg
6532 km
4059 mi
Kuenga
BSicon CONTgq.svg
BSicon ABZgr.svg
branch to Sretensk
BSicon HST.svg
6593 km
4097 mi
Chernyshevsky-Zabaikalski
BSicon HST.svg
6629 km
4119 mi
Bushuley
BSicon HST.svg
Khoktonga
BSicon HST.svg
6670 km
4145 mi
Zilovo
BSicon HST.svg
Ulyakan
BSicon HST.svg
Uryum
BSicon HST.svg
Sbega
BSicon HST.svg
6789 km
4218 mi
Ksenevskaya
BSicon HST.svg
Kislyy Klug
BSicon HST.svg
Arteushka
BSicon HST.svg
Razdolnoye
BSicon HST.svg
6906 km
4291 mi
Mogocha
BSicon HST.svg
Taptugari
BSicon HST.svg
Semiozernyy
BSicon HST.svg
7010 km
4356 mi
Amazar
BSicon HST.svg
Zhanna
BSicon STR+GRZq.svg
7075 km
4396 mi
BSicon HST.svg
7119 km
4424 mi
Yerofei Pavlovich
BSicon HST.svg
7211 km
4481 mi
Urusha
BSicon HST.svg
7266 km
4515 mi
Takhtamigda
BSicon HST.svg
Bamovskaya
BSicon ABZgl+l.svg
BSicon LSTRr.svg
7273 km
4519 mi
BSicon HST.svg
7306 km
4540 mi
Skovorodino
BSicon HST.svg
7323 km
4550 mi
Bolshoy Never
BSicon HST.svg
Taladan
BSicon HST.svg
Gonzha
BSicon HST.svg
7501 km
4661 mi
Magdagachi
BSicon HST.svg
Sulus
BSicon HST.svg
Tigda
BSicon HST.svg
7602 km
4724 mi
Ushumun
BSicon HST.svg
Sivaki
BSicon HST.svg
Mukhinskaya
BSicon HST.svg
Bereya
BSicon HST.svg
7723 km
4799 mi
Shimanovskaya
BSicon HST.svg
7772 km
4829 mi
Ledyanaya
BSicon HST.svg
Buzuli
BSicon HST.svg
7815 km
4856 mi
Svobodny
BSicon hbKRZWae.svg
BSicon HST.svg
M. Chesnokovskaya
BSicon HST.svg
Serishevo
BSicon HST.svg
7873 km
4892 mi
Belogorsk
BSicon CONTgq.svg
BSicon ABZgr.svg
7875 km
4893 mi
BSicon HST.svg
Vozhayevka
BSicon HST.svg
Pozdeyevka
BSicon HST.svg
Yekaterinoslavka
BSicon HST.svg
7992 km
4966 mi
Zavitaya
BSicon HST.svg
8037 km
4994 mi
Bureya
BSicon HST.svg
Domikan
BSicon HST.svg
8088 km
5026 mi
Arkhara
BSicon HST.svg
Rachi
BSicon HST.svg
Kundur-Khabarovskiy
BSicon STR+GRZq.svg
BSicon HST.svg
8198 km
5094 mi
Obluchye
BSicon HST.svg
Kimkan
BSicon ABZg+l.svg
BSicon CONTfq.svg
to Novy Urgal
BSicon HST.svg
8234 km
5116 mi
Izvestkovaya
BSicon HST.svg
Birakan
BSicon HST.svg
Teploye Ozero
BSicon HST.svg
Londoko
BSicon HST.svg
8306 km
5161 mi
Bira
BSicon BHF.svg
8351 km
5189 mi
Birobidzhan
BSicon HST.svg
In
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8480 km
5269 mi
Volochayevka
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Dezhnevka
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Nikolayevka
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8512 km
5289 mi
Priamurskaya
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8515 km
5291 mi
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8523 km
5296 mi
Khabarovsk
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Korfovskaya
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to Nakhodka, Imbo, Selikhino & De-Kastri
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8598 km
5343 mi
Verino
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8621 km
5357 mi
Khor
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Dormidontovka
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8642 km
5370 mi
Vyazemskaya
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Rozengartovka
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8756 km
5441 mi
Bikin
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Zvenevoi
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Burlit-Volochayevskiy
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Luchegorsk
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Guberovo
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8890 km
5524 mi
Dalnerechensk
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8900 km
5530 mi
Lazo
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Ruzhino
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Lesozavodsk
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Shmakovka
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Sviyagino
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9050 km
5623 mi
Spassk-Dalny
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Muchnaya
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9109 km
5660 mi
Sibirtsevo
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Ipplolitovka
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Ozernaya Pad
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Dubininskiy
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9177 km
5702 mi
Ussuriysk
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Baranovsky
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Nadezdinskaya
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9255 km
5751 mi
Ugolnaya
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9289 km
5772 mi
Vladivostok

The Trans-Siberian Railway, [lower-alpha 1] historically known as the Great Siberian Route [lower-alpha 2] and often shortened to Transsib, [lower-alpha 3] is a large railway system that connects European Russia to the Russian Far East. [1] Spanning a length of over 9,289 kilometers (5,772 miles), it is the longest railway line in the world. [2] It runs from the city of Moscow in the west to the city of Vladivostok in the east.

During the period of the Russian Empire, government ministers—personally appointed by Alexander III and his son Nicholas II—supervised the building of the railway network between 1891 and 1916. Even before its completion, the line attracted travelers who documented their experiences. [3] Since 1916, the Trans-Siberian Railway has directly connected Moscow with Vladivostok. As of 2021, expansion projects remain underway, with connections being built to Russia's neighbors (namely Mongolia, China, and North Korea). [4] [5] Additionally, there have been proposals and talks to expand the network to Tokyo, Japan, with new bridges or tunnels that would connect the mainland railway through the Russian island of Sakhalin and the Japanese island of Hokkaido. [4]

Route

Trans-Siberian line in red; Baikal-Amur Mainline in green Transsib international.svg
Trans-Siberian line in red; Baikal–Amur Mainline in green

The railway is often associated with the main transcontinental Russian line that connects many large and small cities of the European and Asian parts of Russia. At a Moscow–Vladivostok track length of 9,289 kilometers (5,772 miles), [6] it spans a record eight time zones. [7] Taking eight days to complete the journey, it was the third-longest single continuous service in the world,[ when? ] after the Moscow–Pyongyang service 10,267 kilometers (6,380 mi) [8] and the formerKyiv (Kiev)–Vladivostok service 11,085 kilometers (6,888 mi), [9] both of which also follow the Trans-Siberian for much of their routes. [10]

The main route begins in Moscow at Yaroslavsky Vokzal, runs through Yaroslavl or Chelyabinsk, Omsk, Novosibirsk, Krasnoyarsk, Irkutsk, Ulan-Ude, Chita, and Khabarovsk to Vladivostok via southern Siberia. A second primary route is the Trans-Manchurian, which coincides with the Trans-Siberian east of Chita as far as Tarskaya (a stop 12 km (7 mi) east of Karymskoye, in Chita Oblast), about 1,000 km (621 mi) east of Lake Baikal. From Tarskaya the Trans-Manchurian heads southeast, via Harbin Harbin–Manzhouli railway and Mudanjiang Harbin–Suifenhe railway in China's Northeastern provinces (from where a connection to Beijing is used by one of the Moscow–Beijing trains), joining the main route in Ussuriysk just north of Vladivostok.

The third primary route is the Trans-Mongolian Railway, which coincides with the Trans-Siberian as far as Ulan-Ude on Lake Baikal's eastern shore. From Ulan-Ude the Trans-Mongolian heads south to Ulaanbaatar before making its way southeast to Beijing. In 1991, a fourth route running further to the north was finally completed, after more than five decades of sporadic work. Known as the Baikal–Amur Mainline (BAM), this recent extension departs from the Trans-Siberian line at Taishet several hundred miles west of Lake Baikal and passes the lake at its northernmost extremity. It crosses the Amur River at Komsomolsk-na-Amure (north of Khabarovsk), and reaches the Tatar Strait at Sovetskaya Gavan. [10]

History

Demand and design

In the late 19th century, the development of Siberia was hampered by poor transport links within the region and with the rest of the country. Aside from the Great Siberian Route, roads suitable for wheeled transport were rare. For about five months of the year, rivers were the main means of transport. During winter, cargo and passengers traveled by horse-drawn sledges over the winter roads, many of which were the same rivers but frozen. [11]

The first steamboat on the River Ob, Nikita Myasnikov's Osnova, was launched in 1844. However early innovation had proven to be difficult, and it was not until 1857 that steamboat shipping had begun major development on the Ob system. Steamboats began operation on the Yenisei in 1863, and on the Lena and Amur in the 1870s. While the comparative flatness of Western Siberia was served by good river systems, the major river systems ObIrtyshTobolChulym of Eastern Siberia had difficulties. The Yenisei, the upper course of the Angara River below Bratsk which was not easily navigable because of the rapids, and the Lena, were mostly navigable only in the north–south direction, making west–east transportation difficult. An attempt to partially remedy the situation by building the Ob–Yenisei Canal had not yielded great success. These issues in the region created the need for a railway to be constructed. [10]

The first railway projects in Siberia emerged after the completion of the Saint Petersburg–Moscow Railway in 1851. [12] One of the first was the IrkutskChita project, proposed by the American entrepreneur Perry Collins and supported by Transport Minister Constantine Possiet with a view toward connecting Moscow to the Amur River, and consequently the Pacific Ocean. Siberia's governor, Nikolay Muravyov-Amursky, was anxious to advance Russian colonization of the now Russian Far East, but his plans were unfeasible due to colonists importing grain and food from China and Korea. [13] It was on Muravyov's initiative that surveys for a railway in the Khabarovsk region were conducted.

Before 1880, the central government had virtually ignored these projects, due to weaknesses in Siberian enterprises, an inefficient bureaucracy, and financial risk. By 1880, there was a large number of rejected and upcoming applications for permission to construct railways in order to connect Siberia with the Pacific, but not Eastern Russia. This worried the government and made connecting Siberia with Central Russia a pressing concern. The design process lasted 10 years. Along with the actual route constructed, alternative projects were proposed:

The line was divided into seven sections, most or all of which was simultaneously worked on by 62,000 workers. With financial support provided by leading European financier, Baron Henri Hottinguer of the Parisian bankers Hottinger & Cie, the total cost estimated at £35 million was raised with the first section (Chelyabinsk to the River Ob) and finished at a cost of £900,000 lower than anticipated. [14] Railwaymen argued against suggestions to save funds, such as installing ferryboats instead of bridges over the rivers until traffic increased.

Unlike the rejected private projects that intended to connect the existing cities that required transport, the Trans-Siberian did not have such a priority. Thus, to save money and avoid clashes with land owners, it was decided to lay the railway outside the existing cities. However, due to the swampy banks of the Ob River near Tomsk (the largest settlement at the time), the idea to construct a bridge was rejected.

The railway was laid 70 km (43 mi) to the south (instead crossing the Ob at Novonikolaevsk, later renamed Novosibirsk); a dead-end branch line connected with Tomsk, depriving the city of the prospective transit railway traffic and trade. [10]

Construction

Clearing on the right-of-way of the Eastern Siberian Railway, 1895 Clearing on the right-of-way of the Eastern Siberian Railway, A LCCN2004708023 (cropped).jpg
Clearing on the right-of-way of the Eastern Siberian Railway, 1895
Construction work being performed by convicts on the Eastern Siberian Railway near Khabarovsk, 1895 Construction work on the Eastern Siberian Railway near Khabarovsk LCCN2004708079.jpg
Construction work being performed by convicts on the Eastern Siberian Railway near Khabarovsk, 1895

On 9 March 1891, the Russian government issued an imperial rescript in which it announced its intention to construct a railway across Siberia. [15] Tsarevich Nicholas (later Tsar Nicholas II) inaugurated the construction of the railway in Vladivostok on 19 May that year. [16]

Lake Baikal is more than 640 kilometers (400 miles) long and more than 1,600 meters (5,200 feet) deep. Until the Circum-Baikal Railway was built the line ended on either side of the lake. The ice-breaking train ferry SS Baikal built in 1897 and smaller ferry SS Angara built in about 1900 made the four-hour crossing to link the two railheads. [17] [18]

The Russian admiral and explorer Stepan Makarov (1849–1904) designed Baikal and Angara but they were built in Newcastle upon Tyne, by Armstrong Whitworth. They were "knock down" vessels; that is, each ship was bolted together in the United Kingdom, every part of the ship was marked with a number, the ship was disassembled into many hundreds of parts and transported in kit form to Listvyanka where a shipyard was built especially to reassemble them. [18] Their boilers, engines and some other components were built in Saint Petersburg [18] and transported to Listvyanka to be installed. Baikal had 15 boilers, four funnels, and was 64 meters (210 ft) long. it could carry 24 railway coaches and one locomotive on the middle deck. Angara was smaller, with two funnels. [17] [18]

Completion of the Circum-Baikal Railway in 1904 bypassed the ferries, but from time to time the Circum-Baikal Railway suffered from derailments or rockfalls so both ships were held in reserve until 1916. Baikal was burnt out and destroyed in the Russian Civil War [17] [18] but Angara survives. It has been restored and is permanently moored at Irkutsk where it serves as an office and a museum. [17]

In winter, sleighs were used to move passengers and cargo from one side of the lake to the other until the completion of the Lake Baikal spur along the southern edge of the lake. With the Amur River Line north of the Chinese border being completed in 1916, there was a continuous railway from Petrograd to Vladivostok that, to this day, is the world's second longest railway line. Electrification of the line, begun in 1929 and completed in 2002, allowed a doubling of train weights to 6,000 metric tons (5,900 long tons; 6,600 short tons). There were expectations upon electrification that it would increase rail traffic on the line by 40 percent. [19]

The entire length of the Trans-Siberian Railway was double track by 1939. [20]

Effects

Siberian peasants watching a train at a station, 1902 Siberian peasants watching a train at a station, (1902).jpg
Siberian peasants watching a train at a station, 1902

Siberian agriculture began to send cheap grain westwards beginning around 1869.[ citation needed ] Agriculture in Central Russia was still under economic pressure after the end of serfdom, which was formally abolished in 1861. To defend the central territory and prevent possible social destabilization, the Tsarist government introduced the Chelyabinsk tariff-break (Челябинский тарифный перелом) in 1896, a tariff barrier for grain passing through Chelyabinsk, and a similar barrier in Manchuria. This measure changed the nature of export: mills emerged to produce bread from grain in Altai Krai, Novosibirsk and Tomsk, and many farms switched to corn (maize) production.

The railway immediately filled to capacity with local traffic, mostly wheat. From 1896 until 1913 Siberia exported on average 501,932 metric tons (494,005 long tons; 553,285 short tons) (30,643,000 pood) of grain and flour annually. [21] During the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–1905, military traffic to the east disrupted the flow of civil freight.

The Trans-Siberian Railway brought with it millions of peasant-migrants from the Western regions of Russia and Ukraine. [22] Between 1906 and 1914, the peak migration years, about 4 million peasants arrived in Siberia. [23]

Historian Christian Wolmar argues that the railroad was a failure, because it was built for narrow political reasons, with poor supervision and planning. The costs were vastly exaggerated to enrich greedy bureaucrats. The planners hoped it would stimulate settlement, but the Siberian lands were too infertile and cold and distant. There was little settlement beyond 30 miles from the line. The fragile system could not handle the heavy traffic demanded in wartime, so the Japanese in 1904 knew they were safe in their war with Russia. Wolmar concludes:

The railway, which was single track throughout, with the occasional passing loop, had, unsurprisingly, been built to a deficient standard in virtually every way. The permanent way was flimsy, with lightweight rails that broke easily, insufficient ballast, and railroad ties often carved from green wood that rotted in the first year of use. The small bridges were made of soft pine and rotted easily. The embankments were too shallow and narrow, often just 10 ft wide instead of the 16 ft prescribed in the design, and easily washed away. There were vicious gradients and narrow curves that wore out the fringe flanges on the wheels of the rolling stock after as little as six weeks use. [24]

War and revolution

Trans-Siberian Railway, c. 1904 War. Russian National Dance.jpg
Trans-Siberian Railway, c. 1904

In the Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905), the strategic importance and limitations of the Trans-Siberian Railway contributed to Russia's defeat in the war. As the line was single track, transit was slower as trains had to wait in crossing sidings for opposing trains to cross. This limited the capacity of the line and increased transit times. A troop train or a train carrying injured personnel traveling from east to west would delay the arrival of troops or supplies and ammunition in a train traveling from west to east. The supply difficulties meant the Russian forces had limited troops and supplies while Japanese forces with shorter lines of communication were able to attack and advance.

After the Russian Revolution of 1917, the railway served as the vital line of communication for the Czechoslovak Legion and the allied armies that landed troops at Vladivostok during the Siberian Intervention of the Russian Civil War. These forces supported the White Russian government of Admiral Alexander Kolchak, based in Omsk, and White Russian soldiers fighting the Bolsheviks on the Ural front. The intervention was weakened, and ultimately defeated, by partisan fighters who blew up bridges and sections of track, particularly in the volatile region between Krasnoyarsk and Chita. [25]

There was traveling the leader of legions politician Milan Rastislav Stefanik [26] from Moscow to Vladivostok in March and August 1918, on his journey to Japan and United States of America. [27] The Trans-Siberian Railway also played a very direct role during parts of Russia's history, with the Czechoslovak Legion using heavily armed and armored trains to control large amounts of the railway (and of Russia itself) during the Russian Civil War at the end of World War I. [28] As one of the few fighting forces left in the aftermath of the imperial collapse, and before the Red Army took control, the Czechs and Slovaks were able to use their organization and the resources of the railway to establish a temporary zone of control before eventually continuing onwards towards Vladivostok, from where they emigrated back to Czechoslovakia.

World War II

During World War II, the Trans-Siberian Railway played an important role in the supply of the powers fighting in Europe. In 1939–1941 it was a source of rubber for Germany thanks to the USSR-Germany pact. While Germany's merchant shipping was shut down, the Trans-Siberian Railway (along with its Trans-Manchurian branch) served as the essential link between Germany and Japan, especially for rubber. By March 1941, 300 metric tons (300 long tons; 330 short tons) of this material would, on average, traverse the Trans-Siberian Railway every day on its way to Germany. [29]

At the same time, a number of Jews and anti-Nazis used the Trans-Siberian Railway to escape Europe, including the mathematician Kurt Gödel and Betty Ehrlich Löwenstein, mother of British actor, director and producer Heinz Bernard. [30] Several thousand Jewish refugees were able to make this trip thanks to the Curaçao visas issued by the Dutch consul Jan Zwartendijk [31] and the Japanese visas issued by the Japanese consul, Chiune Sugihara, in Kaunas, Lithuania. Typically, they took the TSR to Vladivostok, then by ship to US. Until June 1941, pro-Nazi ethnic Germans from the Americas used the TSR to go to Germany. [32]

The situation reversed after 22 June 1941. By invading the Soviet Union, Germany cut off its only reliable trade route to Japan. Instead, it had to use fast merchant ships and later large oceanic submarines to evade the Allied blockade. On the other hand, the USSR received Lend-Lease supplies from the US. Even after Japan went to war with the US, despite German complaints, Japan usually allowed Soviet ships to sail between the US and Vladivostok unmolested. [33] As a result, the Pacific Route – via northern Pacific Ocean and the TSR – became the safest connection between the US and the USSR.[ citation needed ]

Accordingly, it accounted for as much freight as the North Atlantic–Arctic and Iranian routes combined, though cargoes were limited to raw materials and non-military goods. From 1941 to 1942 the TSR also played an important role in relocating Soviet industries from European Russia to Siberia in the face of the German invasion. The TSR also transported Soviet troops west from the Far East to take part in the Soviet counter-offensive in December 1941.

In 1944–45 the TSR was used to prepare for the Soviet–Japanese War of August 1945; see Pacific Route. When an Anglo-American delegation visited Moscow in October 1944 to discuss the Soviet Union joining the war against Japan, Alanbrooke was told by General Antonov and Stalin himself that the line capacity was 36 pairs of trains per day, but only 26 could be counted on for military traffic; see Pacific Route. The capacity of each train was from 600 to 700 tons. [34]

Although the Japanese estimated that an attack was not likely before Spring 1946, Stavka had planned for a mid-August 1945 offensive, and had concealed the buildup of a force of 90 divisions; many had crossed Siberia in their vehicles to avoid straining the rail link. [35]

Post World War II

The Trans-Siberian is a vital link to the Russian Far East. Gare de Omsk (4871704288).jpg
The Trans-Siberian is a vital link to the Russian Far East.

A trainload of containers can be taken from Beijing to Hamburg, via the Trans-Mongolian and Trans-Siberian lines in as little as 15 days, but typical cargo transit times are usually significantly longer [36] and typical cargo transit time from Japan to major destinations in European Russia was reported as around 25 days. [37]

According to a 2009 report, the best travel times for cargo block trains from Russia's Pacific ports to the western border (of Russia, or perhaps of Belarus) were around 12 days, with trains making around 900 km (559 mi) per day, at a maximum operating speed of 80 km/h (50 mph). In early 2009; however, Russian Railways announced an ambitious "Trans-Siberian in Seven Days" plan. According to this plan, $11 billion will be invested over the next five years to make it possible for goods traffic to cover the same 9,000 km (5,592 mi) distance in just seven days. The plan will involve increasing the cargo trains' speed to 90 km/h (56 mph) in 2010–2012, and, at least on some sections, to 100 km/h (62 mph) by 2015. At these speeds, goods trains will be able to cover 1,500 km (932 mi) per day. [38]

Developments in shipping

On January 11, 2008, China, Mongolia, Russia, Belarus, Poland, and Germany agreed to collaborate on a cargo train service between Beijing and Hamburg. [39]

The railway can typically deliver containers in 13 to 12 of the time of a sea voyage, and in late 2009 announced a 20% reduction in its container shipping rates.[ citation needed ] With its 2009 rate schedule, the Trans-Siberian Railway will transport a forty-foot container to Poland from Yokohama for $2,820, or from Busan for $2,154. [40]

Trans-Siberian route in seven days

In 2008, the Russian Railways JSC (state company) launched a program for the accelerated delivery of containers cargo by block trains from the Far-Eastern ports (Vladivostok, Nakhodka and others) to the western borders of Russia, called "Transsib in 7 days". Within the framework of the program it is planned to decrease the cargo delivery time from the Far East from 11 days in 2008 to seven days in 2015.[ needs update ] The length of the routes is about 10,000 km (6,200 mi). The speed of delivery via the block trains should increase from 900 km (560 mi) per day in 2008 to 1,500 km (930 mi) per day in 2015. The first accelerated experimental block-train was launched in February 2009 from Vladivostok to Moscow. The length of the route was about 9,300 km (5,800 mi), the actual time of the experimental train's delivery was 7 days and 5 hours, and the average route speed was up to 1,289 km (801 mi) per day. The maximum route speed of the train was 1,422 km (884 mi) per day.

Routes

Trans-Siberian line

A commonly used main line route is as follows. Distances and travel times are from the schedule of train No. 002M, Moscow–Vladivostok. [6]

LocationDistanceTravel
Time
Time ZoneNotes
Moscow, Yaroslavsky Rail Terminal 0 km (0 mi)Moscow
Time (MT)
Vladimir 210 km (130 mi)MT
Nizhny Novgorod 461 km (286 mi)6 hoursMTon the Volga River
Kirov 917 km (570 mi)13 hoursMTon the Vyatka River
Perm 1,397 km (868 mi)20 hoursMT+2on the Kama River
Yekaterinburg 1,816 km (1,128 mi)1 day 2 hoursMT+2in the Urals, still called by its old Soviet name Sverdlovsk in most timetables
Tyumen 2,104 km (1,307 mi)MT+2
Omsk 2,676 km (1,663 mi)1 day 14 hoursMT+3on the Irtysh River
Novosibirsk 3,303 km (2,052 mi)1 day 22 hoursMT+4on the Ob River; Turk-Sib railway branches from here
Krasnoyarsk 4,065 km (2,526 mi)2 days 11 hoursMT+4on the Yenisei River
Taishet 4,483 km (2,786 mi)MT+5junction with the Baikal-Amur Mainline
Irkutsk 5,153 km (3,202 mi)3 days 4 hoursMT+5near Lake Baikal's southern extremity
Ulan Ude 5,609 km (3,485 mi)3 days 12 hoursMT+5eastern shore of Lake Baikal
Junction with the Trans-Mongolian line5,622 km (3,493 mi)
Chita 6,166 km (3,831 mi)3 days 22 hoursMT+6
Junction with the Trans-Manchurian line at Tarskaya6,274 km (3,898 mi)MT+6
Birobidzhan 8,312 km (5,165 mi)5 days 13 hoursMT+7capital of the Jewish Autonomous Region
Khabarovsk 8,493 km (5,277 mi)5 days 15 hoursMT+7on the Amur River
Ussuriysk 9,147 km (5,684 mi)MT+7junction with the Trans-Manchurian line and Korea branch; located in Baranovsky, 13 km (8 miles) from Ussuriysk
Vladivostok 9,289 km (5,772 mi)6 days 4 hoursMT+7on the Pacific Ocean
Services to North Korea continue from Ussuriysk via:
Primorskaya station9,257 km (5,752 mi)6 days 14 hoursMT+7
Khasan 9,407 km (5,845 mi)6 days 19 hoursMT+7border with North Korea
Tumangang 9,412 km (5,848 mi)7 days 10 hoursMT+6 North Korean side of the border
Pyongyang 10,267 km (6,380 mi)9 days 2 hoursMT+6

There are many alternative routings between Moscow and Siberia. For example:

Circum-Baikal railway RZD ED9MK-0029 at Polovinniy stop, Circum-Baikal Railway, 2009 (32356262012).jpg
Circum-Baikal railway

Depending on the route taken, the distances from Moscow to the same station in Siberia may differ by several tens of km (a few dozen miles).

Trans-Manchurian line

The Trans–Manchurian line, as e.g. used by train No.020, Moscow–Beijing [41] follows the same route as the Trans-Siberian between Moscow and Chita and then follows this route to China:

The express train (No. 020) travel time from Moscow to Beijing is just over six days. There is no direct passenger service along the entire original Trans-Manchurian route (i.e., from Moscow or anywhere in Russia, west of Manchuria, to Vladivostok via Harbin), due to the obvious administrative and technical (gauge break) inconveniences of crossing the border twice. Assuming sufficient patience and possession of appropriate visas, however, it is still possible to travel all the way along the original route, with a few stopovers (e.g. in Harbin, Grodekovo and Ussuriysk).[ citation needed ]

Such an itinerary would pass through the following points from Harbin east:

Trans-Mongolian line

Trans-Mongolian Railway Trans Mongolian Railway.jpg
Trans–Mongolian Railway

The Trans–Mongolian line follows the same route as the Trans-Siberian between Moscow and Ulan Ude, and then follows this route to Mongolia and China:

Highest point

The highest point of Trans–Siberian Railroad is at Yablonovy pass at an altitude of 1070m situated in the Yablonoi Mountains, in Transbaikal (mainly in Zabaykalsky Krai), Siberia, Russia. The Trans–Siberian Railroad passes the mountains at Chita and runs parallel to the range before going through a tunnel to bypass the heights. [42]

See also

Notes

  1. Транссибирская магистраль, pronounced [trənsːʲɪˈbʲirskəjəməɡʲɪˈstralʲ]
  2. Великий Сибирский Путь, pronounced [vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪjsʲɪˈbʲirʲsʲkʲɪjputʲ]
  3. /ˈtrænsɪb/ TRAN-sib; Транссиб, pronounced [trɐnˈsːʲip]

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The Eurasian Land Bridge, sometimes called the New Silk Road, is the rail transport route for moving freight and passengers overland between Pacific seaports in the Russian Far East and China and seaports in Europe. The route, a transcontinental railroad and rail land bridge, currently comprises the Trans-Siberian Railway, which runs through Russia and is sometimes called the Northern East-West Corridor, and the New Eurasian Land Bridge or Second Eurasian Continental Bridge, running through China and Kazakhstan. As of November 2007, about one percent of the $600 billion in goods shipped from Asia to Europe each year were delivered by inland transport routes.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Grigory Mikhaylovich Semyonov</span> Russian general (1890–1946)

Grigory Mikhaylovich Semyonov, or Semenov, was a Japanese-supported leader of the White movement in Transbaikal and beyond from December 1917 to November 1920, a lieutenant general, and the ataman of Baikal Cossacks (1919). He was the commander of the Far Eastern Army during the Russian Civil War. He was also a prominent figure in the White Terror. U.S. Army intelligence estimated that he was responsible for executing 30,000 people in one year.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Trans-Siberian Highway</span> Network of highways spanning Russia

The Trans-Siberian Highway is the unofficial name for a network of federal highways that span the width of Russia from the Baltic Sea of the Atlantic Ocean to the Sea of Japan. In the Asian Highway Network, the route is known as AH6. It stretches over 11,000 kilometres from St. Petersburg to Vladivostok. The road disputes the title of the longest national highway in the world with Australia's Highway 1. The highway became fully paved on 12 August 2015.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Manzhouli</span> Sub-prefectural city in Inner Mongolia, China

Manzhouli is a sub-prefectural city located in Hulunbuir prefecture-level city, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China. Located on the border with Russia, it is a major land port of entry. It has an area of 696.3 square kilometres (268.8 sq mi) and a population of almost 250,000.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Siberian intervention</span> 1918–1922 military operation against Soviet Russia

The Siberian intervention or Siberian expedition of 1918–1922 was the dispatch of troops of the Entente powers to the Russian Maritime Provinces as part of a larger effort by the western powers, Japan, and China to support White Russian forces and the Czechoslovak Legion against Soviet Russia and its allies during the Russian Civil War. The Imperial Japanese Army continued to occupy Siberia even after other Allied forces withdrew in 1920.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Zabaykalsk</span> Urban-type settlement in Zabaykalsky Krai, Russia

Zabaykalsk is an urban locality and the administrative center of Zabaykalsky District of Zabaykalsky Krai, Russia, located on the Sino-Russian border just opposite the Chinese border town of Manzhouli. Population: 10,210 (2002 Census); 8,632 (1989 Soviet census).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Japanese intervention in Siberia</span> Dispatch of Japanese military forces to the Russian Far East

The Japanese Siberian Intervention of 1918–1922 was a dispatch of Japanese military forces to the Russian Maritime Provinces, as part of a larger effort by western powers and Japan to support White Russian forces against the Bolshevik Red Army during the Russian Civil War. The Japanese suffered 1,399 killed and another 1,717 deaths from disease. Japanese military forces occupied Russian cities and towns in the province of Primorsky Krai from 1918—1922.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">R297 highway</span> Road in Russia

The Russian route R297 or the Amur Highway is a federal highway in Russia, part of the Trans-Siberian Highway. With a length of 2,100 km (1,300 mi), it is the longest segment, from Chita to Khabarovsk, connecting the paved roads of Siberia with those of the Russian Far East. The construction of the road united the Russian federal highways into a single system stretching from Saint Petersburg to Vladivostok. Before completion of the road, the Russian Pacific coast was connected to the rest of the country only by airlines, the Trans-Siberian Railway, and the Baikal–Amur Mainline.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">East Siberian Railway</span> Railway in Russia

The East Siberian Railway is a railway in Russia, which runs across Irkutsk Oblast, Chita Oblast, Buryatia, and Yakutia. The railway administration is located in Irkutsk. The East Siberian Railway borders with the Krasnoyarsk Railway, Trans-Baikal Railway, and Baikal Amur Mainline. To the south, the East Siberian Railway runs close to the Russo-Mongolian border. As of 2008, the total working length of the East Siberian Railway was 3,848.1 km (2,391.1 mi); number of employees – 46,233 ; net weight hauled – 76 million tonnes ; long-distance passenger traffic – 3.6 million people ; suburban traffic – 29 million people. Annual cargo turnover is 278 million tonnes.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Rail transport in China</span>

Rail transport is an important mode of long-distance transportation in China. As of 2024, the country had more than 159,000 km (98,798 mi)[a] of railways, the second longest network in the world. By the end of 2023, China had more than 45,000 kilometres of high-speed rail (HSR), the longest HSR network in the world.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Transbaikal conifer forests</span> Ecoregion in southern Siberia and Mongolia

The Transbaikal conifer forests ecoregion covers a 1,000 km by 1,000 km region of mountainous southern taiga stretching east and south from the shores of Lake Baikal in the Southern Siberia region of Russia, and including part of northern Mongolia. Historically, the area has been called "Dauria", or Transbaikal. It is in the Palearctic realm, and mostly in the boreal forests/taiga biome with a subarctic, humid climate. It covers 200,465 km2 (77,400 sq mi).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Nikolay Gondatti</span> Russian statesman (1860–1946)

Nikolay Lvovich Gondatti was a Russian statesman, a researcher of Northern and Northeastern Siberia. Stallmeister of the Court of His Imperial Majesty Nicholas II, Active State Councillor. A member of many Russian scientific societies.

References

  1. "Lonely Planet Guide to the Trans-Siberian Railway" (PDF). Lonely Planet Publications. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 5, 2012.
  2. Thomas, Bryn; McCrohan, Daniel (2019). Trans-Siberian Handbook: The Guide to the World's Longest Railway Journey with 90 Maps and Guides to the Route, Cities and Towns in Russia, Mongolia and China (10 ed.). Trailblazer Publications. ISBN   978-1912716081 . Retrieved October 15, 2020.
  3. Meakin, Annette, A Ribbon of Iron (1901), reprinted in 1970 as part of the Russia Observed series (Arno Press/New York Times)( OCLC   118166).
  4. 1 2 "Russia offers a bridge across history to connect Tokyo to the Trans-Siberian railway". siberiantimes.com. Retrieved November 11, 2020.
  5. "New 8,400 mile train journey will connect London to Tokyo". The Independent . September 8, 2017. Retrieved November 11, 2020.
  6. 1 2 "CIS railway timetable, route No. 002, Moscow-Vladivostok". Archived from the original on December 3, 2009.
  7. Moscow is at UTC+3, Vladivostok is at UTC+10; therefore the line passes through 8 time zones; see map
  8. "CIS railway timetable, route No. 002, Moscow-Pyongyang". Archived from the original on April 6, 2020.
  9. "CIS railway timetable, route No. 350, Kiev-Vladivostok". Archived from the original on April 6, 2020.
  10. 1 2 3 4 "Trans-Siberian Railroad | railway, Russia | Britannica". December 7, 2023.
  11. P. E. Garbutt, "The Trans-Siberian Railway." Journal of Transport History 4 (1954): 238-249.
  12. Alexeev, V.V.; Bandman, M.K.; Kuleshov–Novosibirsk, V. V., eds. (2002). Problem Regions of Resource Type: Economical Integration of European North-East, Ural and Siberia. IEIE. ISBN   5-89665-060-4.
  13. March, G. Patrick (1996). Eastern Destiny: Russia in Asia and the North Pacific. Praeger/Greenwood. pp. 152–53. ISBN   0-275-95648-2.
  14. "The Great Siberian Iron Road", The Daily News (London), 30 December 1896, p. 7.
  15. Davis, Clarence B.; Wilburn, Kenneth E. Jr; Robinson, Ronald E. (1991). "Russia, the Soviet Union, and the Chinese Eastern Railway". Railway Imperialism. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. p. 140. ISBN   978-0313259661. Archived from the original on April 6, 2020.
  16. Pleshakov, Constantine (2002). The Tsar's Last Armada: The Epic Journey to the Battle of Tsushima. New York: Basic Books. p. 10. ISBN   0465057926. Archived from the original on June 3, 2019.
  17. 1 2 3 4 "Irkutsk: Ice-Breaker "Angara"". Lake Baikal Travel Company. Archived from the original on September 24, 2011. Retrieved September 15, 2011.
  18. 1 2 3 4 5 Babanine, Fedor (2003). "Circumbaikal Railway". Lake Baikal Homepage. Fedor Babanine. Retrieved September 15, 2011.
  19. "Russia's legendary Trans-Siberian railroad line completely electrified". Associated Press. December 25, 2002. Archived from the original on September 4, 2015. Retrieved June 14, 2015 via HighBeam Research.
  20. Manley, Deborah (2011). The Trans-Siberian Railway: A Traveller's Anthology. Andrews UK Limited. p. xviii.
  21. Храмков, А. А. (2001). "Железнодорожные перевозки хлеба из Сибири в западном направлении в конце XIX – начале XX вв" [Railroad transportation of bread from Siberia westwards in the late 19th–early 20th centuries]. Предприниматели и предпринимательство в Сибири. Вып.3 [Entrepreneurs and business undertakings in Siberia. 3rd issue]. Barnaul: Изд-во АГУ. ISBN   5-7904-0195-3. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved July 1, 2006.
  22. Subtelny, Orest (2000). Ukraine: a history . University of Toronto Press. p.  262. ISBN   0-8020-8390-0.
  23. Dronin, N. M.; Bellinger, E. G. (2005). Climate dependence and food problems in Russia, 1900–1990: the interaction of climate and agricultural policy and their effect on food problems. Central European University Press. p. 38. ISBN   963-7326-10-3.
  24. Christian Wolmar, Blood, iron, and gold: How the railroads transformed the world (Public Affairs, 2011), pp 169–70.
  25. Isitt, Benjamin (2006). "Mutiny from Victoria to Vladivostok, December 1918". Canadian Historical Review. 87 (2): 223–64. doi:10.3138/chr/87.2.223 . Retrieved October 3, 2016.
  26. Kšiňan, Michal (2021). Milan Rastislav Štefánik – Muž, ktorý sa rozprával s hviezdami. Slovart. ISBN   9788055639048.
  27. Preclík, Vratislav. Masaryk a legie (Masaryk and legions), váz. kniha, 219 str., vydalo nakladatelství Paris Karviná, Žižkova 2379 (734 01 Karviná) ve spolupráci s Masarykovým demokratickým hnutím (Masaryk Democratic Movement, Prague), 2019, ISBN   978-80-87173-47-3, pp. 38–50, 52–102, 104–22, 124–28, 140–48, 184–90
  28. Willmott, H.P. (2003). First World War. Dorling Kindersley. p. 251.[ ISBN missing ]
  29. Martin, Bernd (1969), Deutschland und Japan Im Zweiten Weltkrieg, Musterschmidt Verlag, p. 155
  30. Lowenstein, Jonathan (April 26, 2010). "The Journey of a Lifetime: my grandmother's escape on the Trans-Siberian railway". Telaviv1.
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  32. "German Intelligence Activities in China during WW I." United States War Department Strategic Services Unit, March 1, 1946
  33. Martin 1969 , p. 174
  34. Alanbrooke, Field Marshal Lord (2001). War Diaries 1939–1945. Phoenix Press. pp. 607, 608. ISBN   1-84212-526-5.
  35. Glantz, David M. (1995). When Titans Clashed: How the Red Army Stopped Hitler. Kansas: University Press of Kansas. p.  278. ISBN   0-7006-0899-0.
  36. Donahue, Patrick (January 24, 2008). "China-to-Germany Cargo Train Completes Trial Run in 15 Days". Bloomberg.com.
  37. Kachi, Hiroyuki (July 20, 2007). "Mitsui talking to Russian railway operator on trans-Siberian freight service". MarketWatch.com.
  38. "Trans-Siberian in seven days". Railway Gazette International . May 5, 2009.
  39. "Beijing to Hamburg fast cargo rail link planned". The China Post. January 11, 2008. Retrieved April 23, 2012.
  40. "Chapter 4: Freight Rates" (PDF). Review of Maritime Transport. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development: 89. 2010. ISSN   0566-7682 . Retrieved December 31, 2011.
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  42. "Yablonovy Range". Farlex, Inc. Retrieved January 30, 2013.

Further reading

Template:Attached KML/Trans-Siberian Railway
KML is from Wikidata
External videos
on RT Documentary Official YouTube Channel(in English)
Nuvola apps kaboodle.svg Trans-Siberian Odyssey (Trailer) on YouTube
Nuvola apps kaboodle.svg Sad holiday parting & bumpy start – Trans-Siberian Odyssey (E1) on YouTube
Nuvola apps kaboodle.svg Irate passengers, strange guests & holiday cheer – Trans-Siberian Odyssey (E2) on YouTube
Nuvola apps kaboodle.svg Father Frost and a Snowmaiden pay the train a visit – Trans-Siberian Odyssey (E3) on YouTube
Nuvola apps kaboodle.svg Father Frost and a Snowmaiden pay the train a visit – Trans-Siberian Odyssey (E4) on YouTube
Nuvola apps kaboodle.svg Cabin fever, Christmas carols, and a concerning call – Trans-Siberian Odyssey (E5) on YouTube
Nuvola apps kaboodle.svg Bargains in Russia's Far East & short circuit in a freight car – Trans-Siberian Odyssey (E6) on YouTube
Nuvola apps kaboodle.svg Food poisoning on board & a tough decision – Trans-Siberian Odyssey (E7) on YouTube
Nuvola apps kaboodle.svg Raw nerves, ruined rendezvous, and a tragedy dodged – Trans-Siberian Odyssey (E8) on YouTube
Nuvola apps kaboodle.svg A joyous arrival & nervous reunion – Trans-Siberian Odyssey (E9) on YouTube