Track gauge

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In rail transport, track gauge or track gage is the spacing of the rails on a railway track and is measured between the inner faces of the load-bearing rails.

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All vehicles on a rail network must have running gear that is compatible with the track gauge, and in the earliest days of railways the selection of a proposed railway's gauge was a key issue. As the dominant parameter determining interoperability, it is still frequently used as a descriptor of a route or network.

In some places there is a distinction between the nominal gauge and the actual gauge, due to divergence of track components from the nominal. Railway engineers use a device, like a caliper, to measure the actual gauge, and this device is also referred to as a track gauge.

The terms structure gauge and loading gauge , both widely used, have little connection with track gauge. Both refer to two-dimensional cross-section profiles, surrounding the track and vehicles running on it. The structure gauge specifies the outline into which new or altered structures (bridges, lineside equipment etc.) must not encroach. The loading gauge is the corresponding envelope within which rail vehicles and their loads must be contained. If an exceptional load or a new type of vehicle is being assessed to run, it is required to conform to the route's loading gauge. Conformance ensures that traffic will not collide with lineside structures.

Selection of gauge

Early track gauges

The earliest form of railway was a wooden wagonway, along which single wagons were manhandled, almost always in or from a mine or quarry. Initially the wagons were guided by human muscle power; subsequently by various mechanical methods. Timber rails wore rapidly: later, flat cast-iron plates were provided to limit the wear. In some localities, the plates were made L-shaped, with the vertical part of the L guiding the wheels; this is generally referred to as a "plateway". Flanged wheels eventually became universal, and the spacing between the rails had to be compatible with that of the wagon wheels. [1]

As the guidance of the wagons was improved, short strings of wagons could be connected and pulled by teams of horses, and the track could be extended from the immediate vicinity of the mine or quarry, typically to a navigable waterway. The wagons were built to a consistent pattern and the track would be made to suit the needs of the horses and wagons: the gauge was more critical. The Penydarren Tramroad of 1802 in South Wales, a plateway, spaced these at 4 ft 4 in (1,321 mm) over the outside of the upstands. [2]

Fish-belly cast-iron rails from the Cromford and High Peak Railway Chpr rail.jpg
Fish-belly cast-iron rails from the Cromford and High Peak Railway

The Penydarren Tramroad probably carried the first journey by a locomotive, in 1804, and it was successful for the locomotive, but unsuccessful for the track: the plates were not strong enough to carry its weight. A considerable progressive step was made when cast iron edge rails were first employed; these had the major axis of the rail section configured vertically, giving a much stronger section to resist bending forces, and this was further improved when fish-belly rails were introduced. [3]

Edge rails required a close match between rail spacing and the configuration of the wheelsets, and the importance of the gauge was reinforced. Railways were still seen as local concerns: there was no appreciation of a future connection to other lines, and selection of the track gauge was still a pragmatic decision based on local requirements and prejudices, and probably determined by existing local designs of (road) vehicles.

Thus, the Monkland and Kirkintilloch Railway (1826) in the West of Scotland used 4 ft 6 in (1,372 mm); [4] the Dundee and Newtyle Railway (1831) in the north-east of Scotland adopted 4 ft 6 12 in (1,384 mm); [5] the Redruth and Chasewater Railway (1825) in Cornwall chose 4 ft (1,219 mm). [6]

The Arbroath and Forfar Railway opened in 1838 with a gauge of 5 ft 6 in (1,676 mm), [7] and the Ulster Railway of 1839 used 6 ft 2 in (1,880 mm) [7]

Standard gauge appears

An early Stephenson locomotive Killingworth-locomotive.jpg
An early Stephenson locomotive

Locomotives were being developed in the first decades of the 19th century; they took various forms, but George Stephenson developed a successful locomotive on the Killingworth Wagonway, where he worked. His designs were so successful that they became the standard, and when the Stockton and Darlington Railway was opened in 1825, it used his locomotives, with the same gauge as the Killingworth line, 4 ft 8 in (1,422 mm). [8] [9]

The Stockton and Darlington line was immensely successful, and when the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, the first intercity line, was built (it opened in 1830), it used the same gauge. It was also hugely successful, and the gauge (now eased to 4 ft 8 12 in or 1,435 mm [8] ), became the automatic choice: "standard gauge".

Gauge differences

The Liverpool and Manchester was quickly followed by other trunk railways, with the Grand Junction Railway and the London and Birmingham Railway forming a huge critical mass of standard gauge. When Bristol promoters planned a line from London, they employed the innovative engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel. He decided on a wider gauge, to give greater stability, and the Great Western Railway adopted a gauge of 7 ft (2,134 mm), later eased to 7 ft 14 in (2,140 mm). This became known as broad gauge . The Great Western Railway (GWR) was successful and was greatly expanded, directly and through friendly associated companies, widening the scope of broad gauge.

At the same time, other parts of Britain built railways to standard gauge, and British technology was exported to European countries and parts of North America, also using standard gauge. Britain polarised into two areas: those that used broad gauge and those that used standard gauge. In this context, standard gauge was referred to as "narrow gauge" to indicate the contrast. Some smaller concerns selected other non-standard gauges: the Eastern Counties Railway adopted 5 ft (1,524 mm). Most of them converted to standard gauge at an early date, but the GWR's broad gauge continued to grow.

The larger railway companies wished to expand geographically, and large areas were considered to be under their control. When a new independent line was proposed to open up an unconnected area, the gauge was crucial in determining the allegiance that the line would adopt: if it was broad gauge, it must be friendly to the Great Western railway; if narrow (standard) gauge, it must favour the other companies. The battle to persuade or coerce that choice became very intense, and became referred to as "the gauge wars".

As passenger and freight transport between the two areas became increasingly important, the difficulty of moving from one gauge to the other—the break of gauge —became more prominent and more objectionable. In 1845 a Royal Commission on Railway Gauges was created to look into the growing problem, and this led to the Regulating the Gauge of Railways Act 1846, [10] which forbade the construction of broad gauge lines unconnected with the broad gauge network. The broad gauge network was eventually converted—a progressive process completed in 1892, called gauge conversion. The same Act mandated the gauge of 5 ft 3 in (1,600 mm) for use in Ireland.

Gauge selection in other countries

Comparison of track gauges Dual Gauge Afghanistan.png
Comparison of track gauges
Different gauges, from left: 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 /2 in), 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 /8 in), and 600 mm (1 ft 11 /8 in), on display at the China Railway Museum in Beijing Different gauges in China Railway Museum.jpg
Different gauges, from left: 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 2 in), 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 8 in), and 600 mm (1 ft 11 8 in), on display at the China Railway Museum in Beijing

As railways were built in other countries, the gauge selection was pragmatic: the track would have to fit the rolling stock. If locomotives were imported from elsewhere, especially in the early days, the track would be built to fit them. In some cases standard gauge was adopted, but many countries or companies chose a different gauge as their national gauge, either by governmental policy, or as a matter of individual choice. [11]

Couplers

To keep the rail traffic compatible within a network, not only the track gauge needs to be the same, but also the couplers, at least for locomotive-hauled vehicles. For this reason, most of the standard gauge railways in Europe use the standard buffers and chain coupler with some use of the buckeye coupler in the UK, for locomotive hauled vehicles, and some use Scharfenberg couplers on suburban multiple unit as well as variants of the SA3 couplers on some rolling stock, while narrow gauge railways use a variation of couplers, since they often are isolated from each other, so standardisation is not needed. Similarly, standard gauge railways in Canada, the US and Mexico use the janney coupler or the compatible tightlock coupling for locomotive-hauled equipment.

Terminology

Terms such as broad gauge and narrow gauge do not have any fixed meaning, although standard gauge is generally known world-wide as being 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in).

In British practice, the space between the rails of a track is colloquially referred to as the "four-foot", and the space between two tracks the "six-foot", descriptions relating to the respective dimensions.

Standard gauge

In modern usage the term "standard gauge" refers to 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in). Standard gauge is dominant in a majority of countries.

Broad gauge

In modern usage, the term "broad gauge" generally refers to track spaced significantly wider than 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in).

Broad gauge is the dominant gauge in countries in Indian subcontinent, the former Soviet Union (CIS states, Baltic states, Georgia and Ukraine), Mongolia and Finland, Spain, Portugal, Argentina, Chile and Ireland.

Medium gauge

The term "medium gauge" had different meanings throughout history, depending on the local dominant gauge in use.

In 1840s, the 1,600 mm (5 ft 3 in) Irish gauge was considered a medium gauge compared to Brunel's 7 ft 14 in (2,140 mm) broad gauge and the 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) narrow gauge, nowadays being standard gauge. [12]

Narrow gauge

In modern usage, the term "narrow gauge" generally refers to track spaced significantly narrower than 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in).

Narrow gauge is the dominant or second dominant gauge in countries of Southern, Central Africa, East Africa, Southeast Asia, Japan, Taiwan, Philippines, Central America and South America,

During the period known as "the Battle of the gauges", Stephenson's standard gauge was commonly known as "narrow gauge", while Brunel's railway's 7 ft 14 in (2,140 mm) gauge was termed "broad gauge". Many narrow gauge railways were built in mountainous regions such as Wales, the Rocky Mountains of North America, Central Europe and South America. Industrial railways and mine railways across the world are often narrow gauge. Sugar cane and banana plantations are mostly served by narrow gauges.

Minimum-gauge

Very narrow gauges of under 2 feet (610 mm) were used for some industrial railways in space-restricted environments such as mines or farms. The French company Decauville developed 500 mm (19 34 in) and 400 mm (15 34 in) tracks, mainly for mines; Heywood developed 15 in (381 mm) gauge for estate railways. The most common minimum-gauges were 15 in (381 mm), [13] 400 mm (15 34 in), 16 in (406 mm), 18 in (457 mm), 500 mm (19 34 in) or 20 in (508 mm).

Break of gauge

A cartoon depicting the horrors of goods transfer at the break of gauge at Gloucester in 1843 Break of gauge GWR Gloucester.jpg
A cartoon depicting the horrors of goods transfer at the break of gauge at Gloucester in 1843

Through operation between railway networks with different gauges was originally impossible; goods had to be transshipped and passengers had to change trains. This was obviously a major obstacle to convenient transport, and in Great Britain, led to political intervention.

On narrow gauge lines, Rollbocks or transporter wagons are used: standard gauge wagons are carried on narrow gauge lines on these special vehicles, generally with rails of the wider gauge to enable those vehicles to roll on and off at transfer points.

On the Transmongolian Railway, Russia and Mongolia use 1,520 mm (4 ft 11 2732 in) while China uses the standard gauge of 1,435 mm. At the border, each carriage is lifted and its bogies are changed. The operation can take several hours for a whole train of many carriages.

Other examples include crossings into or out of the former Soviet Union: Ukraine/Slovakia border on the Bratislava–L'viv train, and the Romania/Moldova border on the Chișinău-Bucharest train. [14]

A system developed by Talgo and Construcciones y Auxiliar de Ferrocarriles (CAF) of Spain uses variable gauge wheelsets; at the border between France and Spain, through passenger trains are drawn slowly through apparatus that alters the gauge of the wheels, which slide laterally on the axles. This is fully described in Automatic Gauge Changeover for Trains in Spain. [15]

A similar system is used between China and Central Asia, and between Poland and Ukraine, using the SUW 2000 and INTERGAUGE variable axle systems. [16] China and Poland use standard gauge, while Central Asia and Ukraine use 1,520 mm (4 ft 11 2732 in).

Dual gauge

Mixed gauge track at Sassari, Sardinia: 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 /2 in) standard gauge and 950 mm (3 ft 1 /8 in) Mixed gauge Sassari.jpg
Mixed gauge track at Sassari, Sardinia: 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 2 in) standard gauge and 950 mm (3 ft 1 8 in)

Where a railway corridor is used by trains of two gauges, mixed gauge (or dual gauge) track can be provided, in which three rails are supported in the same track structure. This arose particularly when individual railway companies chose different gauges and were subsequently required to share a route; this is most commonly found at the approaches to city terminals, where land space is limited.

Trains of different gauges sharing the same track can save considerable expense compared to using separate tracks for each gauge, but introduces complexities in track maintenance and signalling, and may require speed restrictions for some trains. If the difference between the two gauges is large enough, for example between 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge and 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm), three-rail dual-gauge is possible, but if not, for example between 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm) and 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 38 in) metre gauge , four-rail triple-gauge is used. Dual-gauge rail lines are used in Switzerland, Australia, Argentina, Brazil, Japan, North Korea, Spain, Tunisia and Vietnam.

Reconstructed mixed-gauge, 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 /2 in) standard gauge / 7 ft /4 in (2,140 mm) track at Didcot Railway Museum, England Mixed gauge track Didcot.JPG
Reconstructed mixed-gauge, 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 2 in) standard gauge / 7 ft 4 in (2,140 mm) track at Didcot Railway Museum, England

On the GWR, there was an extended period between political intervention in 1846 that prevented major expansion of its 7 ft 14 in (2,140 mm) broad gauge [note 1] and the final gauge conversion to standard gauge in 1892.

During this period, there were many locations where practicality required mixed gauge operation, and in station areas, the track configuration was extremely complex. This was compounded by the fact that the common rail had to be at the platform side in stations, so in many cases, standard-gauge trains needed to be switched from one side of the track to the other at the approach. A special fixed point arrangement was devised for the purpose, where the track layout was simple enough. Jenkins and Langley [17] give an illustration and description.

In some cases, mixed gauge trains operated, conveying wagons of both gauges. For example, MacDermot [18] says:

In November 1871 a novelty in the shape of a mixed-gauge goods train was introduced between Truro and Penzance. It was worked by a narrow-gauge engine, and behind the narrow-gauge trucks came a broad-gauge match-truck with wide buffers and sliding shackles, followed by the broad-gauge trucks. Such trains continued to run in West Cornwall until the abolition of the Broad Gauge; they had to stop or come down to walking pace at all stations where fixed points existed and the narrow portion side-stepped to right or left.

Nominal track gauge

The nominal track gauge is the distance between the inner faces of the rails. In current practice, it is specified at a certain distance below the rail head as the inner faces of the rail head (the gauge faces) are not necessarily vertical.

Rolling stock on the network must have running gear (wheelsets) that are compatible with the gauge, and therefore the gauge is a key parameter in determining interoperability, but there are many others – see below. In some cases in the earliest days of railways, the railway company saw itself as an infrastructure provider only, and independent hauliers provided wagons suited to the gauge. Colloquially the wagons might be referred to as "four-foot gauge wagons", say, if the track had a gauge of four feet. This nominal value does not equate to the flange spacing, as some freedom is allowed for.

An infrastructure manager might specify new or replacement track components at a slight variation from the nominal gauge for pragmatic reasons.

Units

The gauge is defined in Imperial units, metric units or SI units.

Imperial units were established in the United Kingdom by The Weights and Measures Act of 1824. The United States customary units for length did not agree with the Imperial system until 1959, when one International yard was defined as 0.9144 meters, i.e. 1 foot as 0.3048 meter and 1 inch as 25.4 mm.

The list shows the Imperial and other units that have been used for track gauge definitions:

UnitSI equivalentTrack gauge example
Imperial foot 304.8 mm
Castilian foot [ citation needed ]278.6 mm
  • 6 Castilian feet = 1,672 mm (5 ft 5 1316 in)
  • 2 Castilian feet 558 mm(1 ft 9 3132 in)
Portuguese foot 332.8 mm5 Portuguese feet = 1,664 mm (5 ft 5 12 in)
Swedish foot 296.904 mm
  • 3 Swedish feet = 891 mm (2 ft 11 332 in)
  • 2.7 Swedish feet = 802 mm (2 ft 7 916 in)
Prussian foot (Rheinfuß)313.85 mm2 12 Prussian feet = 785 mm (2 ft 6 2932 in)
Austrian fathom [ citation needed ]1520 mm12 Austrian fathom = 760 mm (2 ft 5 1516 in)

Temporary way – permanent way

Narrow gauge work train in an East Side Access cavern that will eventually house a standard gauge station for the Long Island Rail Road. East Side Access GCT cavern with work train.jpg
Narrow gauge work train in an East Side Access cavern that will eventually house a standard gauge station for the Long Island Rail Road.

A temporary way is the temporary track often used for construction, to be replaced by the permanent way (the structure consisting of the rails, fasteners, sleepers/ties and ballast (or slab track), plus the underlying subgrade) when construction nears completion. In many cases narrow-gauge track is used for a temporary way because of the convenience in laying it and changing its location over unimproved ground.

In restricted spaces such as tunnels, the temporary way might be double track even though the tunnel will ultimately be single track. The Airport Rail Link in Sydney had construction trains of 900 mm (2 ft 11 716 in) gauge, which were replaced by permanent tracks of 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) gauge.

During World War I trench warfare led to a relatively static disposition of infantry, requiring considerable logistics to bring them support staff and supplies (food, ammunition, earthworks materials, etc.). Dense light railway networks using temporary narrow gauge track sections were established by both sides for this purpose. [19]

In 1939 it was proposed to construct the western section of the Yunnan–Burma Railway using a gauge of 15 14 in (387 mm), since such tiny or "toy" gauge facilitates the tightest of curves in difficult terrain. [20]

Maintenance standards

Engineers checking the gauge between rails at Plymouth (England) Checking the gauge at Plymouth.JPG
Engineers checking the gauge between rails at Plymouth (England)

Infrastructure owners specify permitted variances from the nominal gauge, and the required interventions when non-compliant gauge is detected. For example, the Federal Railroad Administration in the USA specifies that the actual gauge of a 1,435 mm track that is rated for a maximum of 60 mph (96.6 km/h) must be between 4 ft 8 in (1,422 mm) and 4 ft 9.5 in (1,460 mm). [21]

Advantages and disadvantages of different track gauges

Speed, capacity, and economy are generally objectives of rail transport, but there is often an inverse relationship between these priorities. There is a common misconception that a narrower gauge permits a tighter turning radius, but for practical purposes, there is no meaningful relationship between gauge and curvature. [22] [23]

Construction cost

Narrower gauge railways usually cost less to build because they are usually lighter in construction, using smaller cars and locomotives (smaller loading gauge), as well as smaller bridges, smaller tunnels (smaller structure gauge). [24] Narrow gauge is thus often used in mountainous terrain, where the savings in civil engineering work can be substantial. It is also used in sparsely populated areas, with low potential demand, and for temporary railways that will be removed after short-term use, such as for construction, the logging industry, the mining industry, or large-scale construction projects, especially in confined spaces (see Temporary way – permanent way). For temporary railways which will be removed after short-term use, such as logging, mining or large-scale construction projects (especially in confined spaces, such as the Channel Tunnel), a narrow-gauge railway is substantially cheaper and easier to install and remove. Such railways have almost vanished, however, due to the capabilities of modern trucks. In many countries, narrow-gauge railways were built as branch lines to feed traffic to standard-gauge lines due to lower construction costs. The choice was often not between a narrow- and standard-gauge railway, but between a narrow-gauge railway and none at all.

Broader gauge railways are generally more expensive to build, because they are usually heavier in construction, use larger cars and locomotives (larger loading gauge), as well as larger bridges, larger tunnels (larger structure gauge). But broader gauges offer higher speed and capacity. For routes with high traffic, greater capacity may more than offset the higher initial cost of construction.

Interchangeability

In addition to the general trade-off, another important factor is Interchangeability or standardization. Once a standard has been chosen, and equipment, infrastructure, and training calibrated to that standard, conversion becomes difficult and expensive. This also makes it easier to adopt an existing standard than to invent a new one. This is true of many technologies, including railroad gauges. For rail gauge in particular, break-of-gauge often causes inefficiency far in excess of the merits of any particular gauge. The reduced cost, greater efficiency, and greater economic opportunity offered by the use of a common standard explains why a small number of gauges predominate worldwide.

Different gauge railways cannot freely interchange rolling stock (such as freight and passenger cars) within themselves, and the transfer of passengers and freight require time-consuming manual labour or substantial capital expenditure. [25] Some bulk commodities, such as coal, ore, and gravel, can be mechanically transshipped, but this is time-consuming, and the equipment required for the transfer is often complex to maintain.

If rail lines with other gauges coexist in a network, in times of peak demand it is difficult to move rolling stock to where it is needed when a break of gauge exists. Sufficient rolling stock must be available to meet a narrow-gauge railway's peak demand (which might be greater in comparison to a broad-gauge network), and the surplus equipment generates no cash flow during periods of low demand. In regions where narrow gauge forms a small part of the rail network (as was the case on Russia's Sakhalin Railway), extra money is needed to design, produce or import narrow-gauge equipment.

Solutions to interchangeability problems include bogie exchanges, a rollbock system, variable gauge, dual gauge or gauge conversion.

Growth potential

Historically, in many places narrow gauge railways were built to lower standards to prioritize cheap and fast construction. As a result, many narrow-gauge railways have often limited scope for increase in maximum load or speed. An example is the use of low curve radius, which simplifies construction but limits the maximum allowed speed.

In Japan, a few narrow-gauge lines have been upgraded to standard-gauge mini-shinkansen to allow through service by standard-gauge high-speed trains. Due to the alignment and minimum curve radius of those lines, however, the maximum speed of the through service is the same as the original narrow-gauge line. If a narrow-gauge line is built to a higher standard, like Japan's proposed Super Tokkyu, this problem can be minimized. [26]

If narrow-gauge rails are designed with potential growth in mind (or at the same standard as standard-gauge rails), obstacles to future growth would be similar to other rail gauges. For lines constructed to a lower standard, speed can be increased by realigning rail lines to increase the minimum curve radius, reducing the number of intersections or introducing tilting trains.

Dominant railway gauges

Approximately 61% of the world's railways use the 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge . [27] Narrow gauges in India are being converted to broad gauge, while new standard gauge railways are being built in Africa.

SystemInstallation
GaugeNamein kmin miles% worldby location
1,000 mm (3 ft 3 38 in) Metre gauge 95,00059,0007.2% Argentina (11,000 km or 6,800 mi), Brazil (23,489 km or 14,595 mi), Bolivia, northern Chile, Spain (Feve, FGC, Euskotren, FGV, SFM), Switzerland (RhB, MOB, BOB, MGB), Malaysia, Thailand, Indochina, Bangladesh, East Africa
1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in) Three foot six inch gauge 112,00070,0008.5%Southern and Central Africa; Nigeria (most); Indonesia; Japan; Taiwan; Philippines; New Zealand; and the Australian states of Queensland, Western Australia, Tasmania and South Australia.
1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) Standard gauge 720,000450,00054.9% Albania, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil (194 km or 121 mi), Bulgaria, Canada, China, Croatia, Cuba, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, DR Congo (Kamina-Lubumbashi section, planned), Ethiopia, France, Germany, Great Britain (United Kingdom), Greece, Hong Kong, Hungary, India (only used in rapid transit), Indonesia (Aceh and Sulawesi), Italy, Israel, Kenya (Mombasa–Nairobi Standard Gauge Railway) Liechtenstein, Lithuania (Rail Baltica), Luxembourg, Macedonia, Mexico, Montenegro, Netherlands, North Korea, Norway, Panama, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Korea, Spain (AVE, Alvia and FGC), Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United States, Uruguay, Venezuela, Also private companies' lines and JR high-speed lines in Japan. High-speed lines in Taiwan. Gautrain commuter system in South Africa. New lines in Tanzania and Nigeria.
1,520 mm (4 ft 11 2732 in) Five foot and 1520 mm gauge 220,000140,00016.8% Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Finland, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Mongolia, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan.
(all contiguous – redefined from 1,524 mm (5 ft))
1,524 mm (5 ft)7,0654,3900.5% Estonia, [28] Finland
(contiguous, and generally compatible, with 1,520 mm (4 ft 11 2732 in)
1,600 mm (5 ft 3 in) Five foot three inch gauge 9,8006,1000.7% Ireland, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom) (1,800 km or 1,100 mi), and in the Australian states of Victoria and South Australia (4,017 km or 2,496 mi), Brazil (4,057 km or 2,521 mi)
1,668 mm (5 ft 5 2132 in) Iberian gauge 15,3949,5651.2% Portugal, Spain. Sometimes referred to as Iberian gauge. In Spain the Administrador de Infraestructuras Ferroviarias (ADIF) managed 11,683 km (7,259 mi) of this gauge and 22 km (14 mi) of mixed gauge at end of 2010. [29] The Portuguese Rede Ferroviária Nacional (REFER) managed 2,650 km (1,650 mi) of this gauge of this track at the same date. [29]
1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) Five foot six inch gauge 134,00883,26910.2% India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Argentina, Chile, BART in the United States San Francisco Bay Area

Proportions

Total for each type of gauge in 2020.[ citation needed ]

GaugeInstallation (km)Installation (mi)PercentagePercentage (2014)
Narrow gauge(s)233,391145,02217.5%15.8%
Standard gauge807,616501,82960.6%54.9%
Broad gauge(s)290,705180,63621.8%29.3%
Totals1,331,712827,48799.9%99.0%

Future

Further convergence of rail gauge use seems likely, as countries seek to build inter-operable networks, and international organisations seek to build macro-regional and continental networks. The European Union has set out to develop inter-operable freight and passenger rail networks across its area, and is seeking to standardise gauge, signalling and electrical power systems. As countries build High-speed rails, they also tend to converge these rails' gauge to standard gauge, with the exceptions of Uzbekistan and Russia.

Europe

EU funds have been dedicated to assist Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia in the building of some key railway lines (Rail Baltica) of standard gauge, and to assist Spain and Portugal in the construction of high-speed lines to connect Iberian cities to one another and to the French high-speed lines. The EU has developed plans for improved freight rail links between Spain, Portugal, and the rest of Europe.

Trans-Asian Railway

The United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP) is planning a Trans-Asian Railway that will link Europe and the Pacific, with a Northern Corridor from Europe to the Korean Peninsula, a Southern Corridor from Europe to Southeast Asia, and a North–South corridor from Northern Europe to the Persian Gulf. All these would encounter breaks of gauge as they cross Asia. Current plans have mechanized facilities at the breaks of gauge to move containers from train to train rather than widespread gauge conversion. The Northern Corridor through Russia already operates since before year 2000, with increasing volumes China–Europe.

The Americas

Africa

The East African Railway Master Plan is a proposal for rebuilding and expanding railway lines connecting Ethiopia, Djibouti, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Tanzania, South Sudan and beyond. [32] The plan is managed by infrastructure ministers from participating East African Community countries in association with transport consultation firm CPCS Transcom. [33] Older railways are of 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 38 in) metre gauge or 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm) gauge. Newly rebuilt lines will use standard gauge. Regular freight and passenger services began on the standard gauge Mombasa–Nairobi railway in 2017 and on the standard gauge Addis Ababa–Djibouti railway in 2018.

Lines for iron ore to Kribi in Cameroon are likely to be 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge with a likely connection to the same port from the 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 38 in) metre gauge Cameroon system. This line owned by Sundance Resources may be shared with Legend Mining.

Nigeria's railways are mostly 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm) Cape gauge. The Lagos–Kano Standard Gauge Railway is a gauge conversion project by the Nigerian Government to create a north-south standard gauge rail link. The first converted segment, between Abuja and Kaduna, was completed in July 2016.

AIHSRN is a 50 year plan approved by the African Union to connect the capital cities and major centres by highspeed railways.

Timeline

GaugeDateChosen by
4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm)1825 George Stephenson
5 ft (1,524 mm)1827 Horatio Allen for the South Carolina Canal and Rail Road Company
1 ft 11 12 in (597 mm)1836 Henry Archer for the Festiniog Railway to easily navigate mountainous terrain
(started Britain's first narrow gauge passenger service in 1865) (originally horse-drawn)
7 ft 14 in (2,140 mm)1838 I. K. Brunel
5 ft (1,524 mm)1842 George Washington Whistler for the Moscow – Saint Petersburg Railway based on Southern US practice
5 ft 3 in (1,600 mm)1846chosen in Ireland as a compromise
5 ft 6 in (1,676 mm)1853 Lord Dalhousie in India following Scottish practice
3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm)1862 Carl Pihl for the Røros Line in Norway to reduce costs
3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm)1865 Abraham Fitzgibbon for the Queensland Railways to reduce costs
3 ft (914 mm)1870 William Jackson Palmer for the Denver & Rio Grande Railway to reduce costs (inspired by the Festiniog Railway)
2 ft (610 mm)1877 George E. Mansfield for the Billerica and Bedford Railroad to reduce costs (inspired by the Festiniog Railway)
2 ft 6 in (762 mm)1887 Everard Calthrop to reduce costs; had designs for a matching fleet of rolling stock

See also

Notes

  1. The Act of Parliament did not prohibit expansion of the existing broad gauge system, but it had the indirect and delayed effect of forcing conformity with the "standard" gauge eventually

Related Research Articles

Narrow-gauge railway

A narrow-gauge railway is a railway with a track gauge narrower than standard 1,435 mm. Most narrow-gauge railways are between 600 mm and 1,067 mm.

Standard-gauge railway

A standard-gauge railway is a railway with a track gauge of 1,435 mm. The standard gauge is also called Stephenson gauge after George Stephenson, International gauge, UIC gauge, uniform gauge, normal gauge and European gauge in Europe. It is the most widely used railway track gauge across the world, with approximately 55% of the lines in the world using it. All high-speed rail lines use standard gauge except those in Russia, Finland, Portugal and Uzbekistan. The distance between the inside edges of the rails is defined to be 1435 mm except in the United States and on some heritage British lines, where it is still defined in U.S. customary units or Imperial units as exactly "four feet eight and one half inches".

Broad-gauge railway

A broad-gauge railway is a railway with a track gauge broader than the 1,435 mm standard-gauge railways.

Loading gauge

A loading gauge defines the maximum height and width for railway vehicles and their loads to ensure that they can pass safely through tunnels and under bridges, and keep clear of trackside buildings and structures. Classification systems vary between different countries, and gauges may vary across a network, even if the track gauge is uniform.

Permanent way (history)

The permanent way is the elements of railway lines: generally the pairs of rails typically laid on the sleepers or ties embedded in ballast, intended to carry the ordinary trains of a railway. It is described as permanent way because in the earlier days of railway construction, contractors often laid a temporary track to transport spoil and materials about the site; when this work was substantially completed, the temporary track was taken up and the permanent way installed.

Dual gauge

A dual gauge railway is a track that allows the passage of trains of two different track gauges. It is sometimes called a "mixed gauge" track. A dual gauge track consists of three rails. There will be two vital rails, one for each gauge close together and a third rail, a "common" rail further away. Sometimes, four rails are required using two outer and two inner rails to create the dual gauge. Dual gauge is not to be confused with a "third rail" or "check or guard rails".

Transporter wagon

A transporter wagon, in railway terminology, is a wagon (UIC) or railroad car (US) designed to carry other railway equipment. Normally, it is used to transport equipment of a different rail gauge. In most cases, a transporter wagon is a narrower gauge wagon for transporting a wider gauge equipment, allowing freight in a wider gauge wagons to reach destinations on the narrower gauge network without the expense and time of transshipment into a narrower gauge wagons.

Break of gauge

With railways, a break of gauge occurs where a line of one gauge meets a line of a different gauge: specifically a different track gauge. Trains and rolling stock cannot run through without some form of conversion between gauges, and freight and passengers must otherwise be transshipped. A break of gauge adds delays, cost, and inconvenience.

Rail transport in Finland

The Finnish railway network consists of a total track length of 9,216 km (5,727 mi) of railways built with 1,520 mm Russian gauge track having electrified track length of 3,249 km (2,019 mi). Passenger trains are operated by the state-owned VR which covers track length of 7,225 km (4,489 mi). They serve all the major cities and many rural areas, though railway connections are available to fewer places than bus connections. Most passenger train services originate or terminate at Helsinki Central railway station, and a large proportion of the passenger rail network radiates out of Helsinki. VR also operates freight services. Maintenance and construction of the railway network itself is the responsibility of the Finnish Rail Administration, which is a part of the Finnish Transport Agency. The network is divided in six areal centres, that manage the use and maintenance of the routes in co-operation. Cargo yards and large stations may have their own signalling systems.

5 ft and 1520 mm gauge railways

Railways with a railway track gauge of 5 ft first appeared in the United Kingdom and the United States. This gauge became commonly known as Russian gauge because the government of the Russian Empire later chose it in 1843 - former areas of the Empire have inherited this standard. In the 1960s Soviet Railways re-defined the gauge as 1,520 mm.

The African Union of Railways is an organisation under the auspices of the new African Union dealing with railways. It is similar to the International Union of Railways (UIC).

Rail transport in Queensland

The rail network in Queensland, Australia, was the first in the world to adopt 1,067 mm narrow gauge for a main line, and now the second largest narrow gauge network in the world, consists of:

Rollbock

Rollbocks, sometimes called transporter trailers, are narrow gauge railway trucks or bogies that allow a standard gauge wagon to 'piggyback' on a narrow-gauge line. The Vevey system enables a coupled train of standard gauge wagons to be automatically loaded or rolled onto Rollbocks, so that the train can then continue through a change of gauge.

Rail transport in Australia involves a number of narrow-gauge railways. In some states they formed the core statewide network, but in the others they were either a few government branch lines, or privately owned and operated branch lines, often for mining, logging or industrial use.

Rail transport in Turkey Aspect of Turkish transportation

Turkey has a well-developed, state-owned railway system built to standard gauge which falls under the remit of the Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure. The primary rail carrier is the Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Devlet Demiryolları (TCDD) which is responsible for all long-distance and cross-border freight and passenger trains. A number of other companies operate suburban passenger trains in urban conurbations.

Bogie exchange

Bogie exchange is a system for operating railway wagons on two or more gauges to overcome difference in the track gauge. To perform a bogie exchange, a car is converted from one gauge to another by removing the bogies or trucks, and installing a new bogie with differently spaced wheels. It is generally limited to wagons and carriages, though the bogies on diesel locomotives can be exchanged if enough time is available.

Track gauge conversion

Gauge conversion is the change of one railway track gauge to another. This may be required if loads are too heavy for the existing track gauge or if rail cars are of a broader gauge than the existing track gauge. Gauge conversion may become less important as time passes due to the development of variable gauge systems, also called Automatic Track Gauge Changeover Systems.

Iberian-gauge railways

Iberian gauge is a track gauge of 1,668 mm, most extensively used by the railways of Spain and Portugal. This is the second-widest gauge in regular use anywhere in the world. The Indian gauge, 5 ft 6 in, is 8 mm wider.

Track gauge in Canada

Track gauge in Canada is standard gauge of 4 ft 8 12 in, except for Toronto transit systems. Rail lines built during the 19th century with a broad gauge of 5 ft 6 in were converted to standard gauge.

Minimum railway curve radius

The minimum railway curve radius is the shortest allowable design radius for the centerline of railway tracks under a particular set of conditions. It has an important bearing on construction costs and operating costs and, in combination with superelevation in the case of train tracks, determines the maximum safe speed of a curve. The minimum radius of a curve is one parameter in the design of railway vehicles as well as trams; monorails and automated guideways are also subject to a minimum radius.

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