Nizhny Novgorod

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Nizhny Novgorod

Нижний Новгород
Nizhny Novgorod Montage (2016).png
Clockwise: Dmitrievskaya Tower of the Kremlin, Chkalov Stairs, the Fair, GAZ, Minin and Pozharsky Monument, Saint Alexander Nevsky cathedral and stadium.
Nizhny Novgorod in Russia
Location of Nizhny Novgorod
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Nizhny Novgorod
Location of Nizhny Novgorod
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Nizhny Novgorod
Nizhny Novgorod (Europe)
Coordinates: 56°19′37″N44°00′27″E / 56.32694°N 44.00750°E / 56.32694; 44.00750 Coordinates: 56°19′37″N44°00′27″E / 56.32694°N 44.00750°E / 56.32694; 44.00750
Country Russia
Federal subject Nizhny Novgorod Oblast [1]
Founded1221 [2]
City status since1221 [2]
Government
  Body City Duma [3]
   Mayor [4] Vladimir Panov [5]
Area
[6]
  Total460 km2 (180 sq mi)
Elevation
200 m (700 ft)
Population
  Total1,250,619
  Estimate 
(2018) [8]
1,259,013 (+0.7%)
  Rank 5th in 2010
  Density2,700/km2 (7,000/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Nizhegorodian Blue pencil.svg
  Subordinated to city of oblast significance of Nizhny Novgorod [1]
   Capital ofNizhny Novgorod Oblast [1] , city of oblast significance of Nizhny Novgorod [1]
  Urban okrugNizhny Novgorod Urban Okrug [9]
   Capital ofNizhny Novgorod Urban Okrug [9]
Time zone UTC+3 (MSK Blue pencil.svg [10] )
Postal code(s) [11]
603000-603999
Dialing code(s) +7 831 [12]
City Day3rd Saturday of August [13]
Twin towns Essen, Linz, Philadelphia, Tampere, Kharkiv, Novi Sad, Minsk, Jinan, Matanzas, Suwon, Sant Boi de Llobregat, Sukhumi, Győr, Bălți, Dobrich, Heraklion, Hefei, Simferopol Blue pencil.svg
OKTMO ID22701000001
Website нижнийновгород.рф
Historic city center Central Nizhny Novgorod.png
Historic city center

Nizhny Novgorod ( /ˌnɪʒniˈnɒvɡərɒd/ ; [14] Russian :Ни́жний Но́вгород,IPA:  [ˈnʲiʐnʲɪj ˈnovɡərət] ), colloquially shortened to Nizhny, is a city in Russia and the administrative center (capital [15] ) of Volga Federal District and Nizhny Novgorod Oblast. From 1932 to 1990, it was known as Gorky (Го́рький, IPA:  [ˈɡorʲkʲɪj] ), [16] after the writer Maxim Gorky, who was born there.

Russian language East Slavic language

Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although nearly three decades have passed since the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia.

The classification system of the types of inhabited localities in Russia, the former Soviet Union, and some other post-Soviet states has certain peculiarities compared with the classification systems in other countries.

Volga Federal District Federal district of Russia

Volga (Privolzhsky) Federal District is one of the eight federal districts of Russia. It forms the southeastern part of European Russia. Its population was 29,899,699 according to the 2010 Census, living on an area of 1,038,000 square kilometers (401,000 sq mi). Igor Komarov was appointed the federal district's Presidential Envoy on 18 September 2018.

Contents

The city is an important economic, transportation, scientific, educational and cultural center in Russia and the vast Volga-Vyatka economic region, and is the main center of river tourism in Russia. In the historic part of the city there is a large number of universities, theaters, museums and churches. Nizhny Novgorod is located about 400 km (250 mi) east of Moscow, where the Oka River empties into the Volga. Population: 1,250,619(2010 Census); [7] 1,311,252(2002 Census); [17] 1,438,133(1989 Census). [18]

Volga-Vyatka economic region economic region of Russia

Volga-Vyatka economic region is one of twelve economic regions of Russia. It accounted for almost 3 per cent of the national GRP in 2008. All of it is in the Volga Federal District

Moscow Capital city of Russia

Moscow is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits, 17 million within the urban area and 20 million within the metropolitan area. Moscow is one of Russia's federal cities.

Oka River river in Russia

Oka is a river in central Russia, the largest right tributary of the Volga. It flows through the regions of Oryol, Tula, Kaluga, Moscow, Ryazan, Vladimir and Nizhny Novgorod and is navigable over a large part of its total length, as far upstream as to the town of Kaluga. Its length exceeds 1,500 kilometres (930 mi). The Russian capital Moscow sits on one of the Oka's tributaries—the Moskva River.

The city was founded in 4 February 1221 [19] by Prince Yuri II of Vladimir. In 1612 Kuzma Minin and Prince Dmitry Pozharsky organized an army for the liberation of Moscow from the Poles. In 1817 Nizhny Novgorod became a great trade center of the Russian Empire. In 1896 at a fair, an All-Russia Exhibition was organized. During the Soviet period, the city turned into an important industrial center. In particular, the Gorky Automobile Plant was constructed in this period. Then the city was given the nickname "Russian Detroit". During World War II, Gorky became the biggest provider of military equipment to the Eastern Front. Due to this, the Luftwaffe constantly bombed the city from the air. The majority of the German bombs fell in the area of the Gorky Automobile Plant. Although almost all the production sites of the plant were completely destroyed, the citizens of Gorky reconstructed the factory after 100 days.

Yuri II of Vladimir Grand Prince of Vladimir

Yuri II, also known as George II of Vladimir or Georgy II Vsevolodovich, was the fourth Grand Prince of Vladimir who presided over Vladimir-Suzdal at the time of the Mongol invasion of Rus'.

Kuzma Minin Russian military leader

Kuzma (Kozma) Minin was a Russian merchant from Nizhny Novgorod, Russia, who, together with Prince Dmitry Pozharsky, became a national hero for his role in defending the country against the Polish invasion in the early 17th century.

Dmitry Pozharsky Rurikid prince

Dmitry Mikhaylovich Pozharsky was a Russian prince known for his military leadership during the Polish–Muscovite War from 1611 to 1612. Pozharsky formed the Second Volunteer Army with Kuzma Minin in Nizhny Novgorod against the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth's occupation of Russia during the Time of Troubles, resulting in Polish withdrawal after Russian victory at the Battle of Moscow in 1612. Pozharsky received the unprecedented title of Saviour of the Motherland from Mikhail I of Russia, becoming a folk hero in Russian culture and honored in the Monument to Minin and Pozharsky in Moscow's Red Square.

After the war, Gorky became a "closed city" and remained one until after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1990. At that time, the city was renamed Nizhny Novgorod once again. In 1985, the Nizhny Novgorod Metro was opened. In 2016, Vladimir Putin opened the new 70th Anniversary of Victory Plant which is part of the Almaz-Antey Air and Space Defence Corporation.

Closed city settlement where specific authorization is required to visit

A closed city or closed town is a settlement where travel or residency restrictions are applied so that specific authorization is required to visit or remain overnight. They may be sensitive military establishments or secret research installations that require much more space or freedom than is available in a conventional military base. There may also be a wider variety of permanent residents including close family members of workers or trusted traders who are not directly connected with its clandestine purposes.

Dissolution of the Soviet Union Process leading to the late-1991 breakup of the USSR

The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on 26 December 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). It was a result of the declaration number 142-Н of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union. The declaration acknowledged the independence of the former Soviet republics and created the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), although five of the signatories ratified it much later or did not do so at all. On the previous day, 25 December, Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev, the eighth and final leader of the USSR, resigned, declared his office extinct and handed over its powers—including control of the Soviet nuclear missile launching codes—to Russian President Boris Yeltsin. That evening at 7:32 p.m., the Soviet flag was lowered from the Kremlin for the last time and replaced with the pre-revolutionary Russian flag.

Nizhny Novgorod Metro metro system in Nizhny Novgorod, Russia

The Nizhny Novgorod Metro, formerly known as the Gorky Metro, is a rapid-transit system which serves the city of Nizhny Novgorod, Russia. Opened in 1985, it consists of 15 stations and is 21.6 kilometres (13.4 mi) long. The metro connects with the City Rail system at the Moskovskaya station. It has the third-largest number of stations of any Russian subway system, the largest two being Moscow and St. Petersburg.

The Kremlin – the main center of the city – contains the main government agencies of the city and the Volga Federal District. The demonym for a Nizhny Novgorod resident is "нижегородец" (nizhegorodets) for male or "нижегородка" (nizhegorodka) for female, rendered in English as Nizhegorodian. Novgorodian is inappropriate; it refers to a resident of Veliky Novgorod, in northwestern Russia.

Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin Fortified complex in Nizhny Novgorod, Russia

The Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin is a fortress in Nizhny Novgorod, the historic city center.

Historic centre of Nizhny Novgorod Reservation in Nizhny Novgorod, Russia

The historic centre of Nizhny Novgorod is the downtown of Nizhny Novgorod with historical buildings in the borders up to 1917. A large number of ancient buildings, natural landmarks and historic districts are found in the area. In the old city there are buildings of different epochs and architectural styles, including Neo-Byzantine, Stroganov's Baroque, Empire, Modern. These include the medieval Kremlin, 19th-century mansions and Stalinist monumental houses.

A demonym or gentilic is a word that identifies residents or natives of a particular place and is usually derived from the name of the place.

History

Name

Originally the name was just Novgorod ("Newtown"), but to distinguish it from the other, older and well-known Novgorod to the west, the city was commonly called "Novgorod of the Lower lands". This land was named "lower" because it is situated downstream, especially from the point of view of other Russian cities such as Moscow, Vladimir and Murom. Later it was transformed into the contemporary name of the city that literally means "Lower Newtown".

Veliky Novgorod City in Novgorod Oblast, Russia

Veliky Novgorod, also known as Novgorod the Great, or Novgorod Veliky, or just Novgorod, is one of the oldest and most important historic cities in Russia, with more than 1000 years of history. The city serves as the administrative center of Novgorod Oblast. The city lies along the Volkhov River just downstream from its outflow from Lake Ilmen and is situated on the M10 federal highway connecting Moscow and Saint Petersburg. UNESCO recognized Novgorod as a World Heritage Site in 1992. The city has a population of 218,717 (2010 Census);

Vladimir, Russia City in Vladimir Oblast, Russia

Vladimir is a city and the administrative center of Vladimir Oblast, Russia, located on the Klyazma River, 200 kilometers (120 mi) to the east of Moscow. It is served by a railway and the M7 motorway. Its population is 345,373 (2010 Census); 315,954 (2002 Census); 349,702 (1989 Census). Vladimir has a notable significance in Russian history, as it served as the country's capital city in the 12th-13th centuries.

Murom City in Vladimir Oblast, Russia

Murom is a historical city in Vladimir Oblast, Russia, which sprawls along the left bank of the Oka River. Population: 116,075 (2010 Census); 126,901 (2002 Census); 124,229 (1989 Census).

Seat of medieval princes

The city traces its origin from a small Russian wooden hillfort that was founded by Grand Duke Yuri II in 1221 at the confluence of two of the most important rivers in his principality, the Volga and Oka rivers. Its independent existence was threatened by the continuous Mordvin attacks against it; the major attempt made by forces under Purgaz in April 1229 was repulsed, but after the death of Yuri II on March 4, 1238 at the Battle of the Sit River, the Mongols occupied the fortress. Later a major stronghold for border protection, Nizhny Novgorod fortress took advantage of a natural moat formed by the two rivers.

Along with Moscow and Tver, Nizhny Novgorod was among several newly founded towns that escaped Mongol devastation on account of their insignificance, but grew into (great) centers in vassalic Russian political life during the period of the Tatar Yoke. With the agreement of the Mongol Khan, Nizhny Novgorod was incorporated into the Vladimir-Suzdal Principality in 1264. After 86 years its importance further increased when the seat of the powerful Suzdal Principality was moved here from Gorodets in 1350. Grand Duke Dmitry Konstantinovich (1323–1383) sought to make his capital a rival worthy of Moscow; he built a stone citadel and several churches and was a patron of historians. The earliest extant manuscript of the Russian Primary Chronicle, the Laurentian Codex , was written for him by the local monk Laurentius in 1377.

Strongest fortress of the Grand Duchy of Moscow

After the city's incorporation into the Grand Duchy of Moscow in 1392, the local princes took the name Shuisky and settled in Moscow, where they were prominent at the court and briefly ascended the throne in the person of Vasily IV. After being burnt by the powerful Crimean Tatar chief Edigu in 1408, Nizhny Novgorod was restored and regarded by the Muscovites primarily as a great stronghold in their wars against the Tatars of Kazan. The enormous red-brick kremlin, one of the strongest and earliest preserved citadels in Russia, was built in 1508–1511 under the supervision of Peter the Italian. The fortress was strong enough to withstand Tatar sieges in 1520 and 1536.

Kuzma Minin appeals to the people of Nizhny Novgorod to raise a volunteer army against the Poles (painting by Konstantin Makovsky, 1896). Appeal of Minin.jpg
Kuzma Minin appeals to the people of Nizhny Novgorod to raise a volunteer army against the Poles (painting by Konstantin Makovsky, 1896).

In 1612, the so-called "national militia", gathered by a local merchant, Kuzma Minin, and commanded by Knyaz Dmitry Pozharsky expelled the Polish troops from Moscow, thus putting an end to the "Time of Troubles" and establishing the rule of the Romanov dynasty. The main square in front of the Kremlin is named after Minin and Pozharsky, although it is locally known simply as Minin Square. Minin's remains are buried in the citadel. (In commemoration of these events, on October 21, 2005, an exact copy of the Red Square statue of Minin and Pozharsky was placed in front of St John the Baptist Church, which is believed to be the place from where the call to the people had been proclaimed.)

In the course of the following century, the city prospered commercially and was chosen by the Stroganovs (the wealthiest merchant family of Russia) as a base for their operations. A particular style of architecture and icon painting, known as the Stroganov style, developed there at the turn of the 17th and 18th centuries.

The historical coat of arms of Nizhny Novgorod in 1781 was a red deer with black horns and hooves on a white field. The modern coat of arms from 2006 is the same, with a ribbon of order of Lenin and gold crown from above.

Great trade center

Main building of the Great Russian Fair, 19th-century postcard Nizhny Novgorod Fair 1903.jpg
Main building of the Great Russian Fair, 19th-century postcard

In 1817, the Makaryev Fair, one of the liveliest in the world, was transferred to Nizhny Novgorod, and started to attract millions of visitors annually. By the mid-19th century, the city was firmly established as the trade capital of the Russian Empire. The world's first radio receiver by engineer Alexander Popov and the world's first hyperboloid tower and lattice shell-coverings by engineer Vladimir Shukhov were demonstrated at the All-Russia industrial and art exhibition in Nizhny Novgorod in 1896. According to official Imperial Russian statistics the population of Nizhny Novgorod as of 14 January 1913 was 97,000.

The largest industrial enterprise was the Sormovo Iron Works which was connected by the company's own railway to Moscow station in the Lower Area of Nizhny Novgorod. The private Moscow to Kazan Railway Company's station was in the Upper Area of the city. Other industries gradually developed, and by the start of the 20th century the city was also a first-rank industrial hub. Henry Ford helped build a large truck and tractor plant (GAZ) in the late 1920s, sending engineers and mechanics, including future labour leader Walter Reuther.

Soviet era

Victory Day on the Minin and Pozharsky Square, 9 May 1945 9th May. Day of the German surrender. Gorky 1.jpg
Victory Day on the Minin and Pozharsky Square, 9 May 1945

There were no permanent bridges over the Volga or Oka before the October Revolution in 1917. Temporary bridges were built during the trade fair. The first bridge over the Volga was started by the Moscow–Kazan Railway Company in 1914, but only finished in the Soviet Era when the railway to Kotelnich was opened for service in 1927.

Maxim Gorky was born in Nizhny Novgorod in 1868 as Alexey Maximovich Peshkov. In his novels he described the dismal life of the city proletariat. When he returned to the Soviet Union in 1932 on the invitation of Joseph Stalin, the city was renamed Gorky. The city bore Gorky's name until 1990. His childhood home is preserved as a museum, known as the Kashirin House, after Alexey's grandfather who owned the place.

During the World War II, from 1941 to 1943, Gorky was subjected to air raids and bombardments by Germany. The Germans tried to destroy the city industry because it was the main supplier of military equipment to the front. These attacks became the most powerful in the entire World War II in the rear of the Soviet Union.

During much of the Soviet era, the city was closed to foreigners to safeguard the security of Soviet military research and production facilities, even though it was a popular stopping point for Soviet tourists traveling up and down the Volga in tourist boats. Unusually for a Soviet city of that size, even street maps were not available for sale until the mid-1970s. In 1970, by the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, the city was awarded the Order of Lenin. Mátyás Rákosi, communist leader of Hungary, died there in 1971. November 20, 1985 in the city was launched the first section of the metro. The physicist and Nobel laureate Andrei Sakharov was exiled there during 1980–1986 to limit his contacts with foreigners. An end to the "closed" status of the city accompanied the reinstatement of the city's original name in 1990. [16]

Administrative and municipal status

Nizhny Novgorod is the administrative center (capital) of Volga Federal District and Nizhny Novgorod Oblast. [1] Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with one resort settlement and twelve rural localities, incorporated as the city of oblast significance of Nizhny Novgorod—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. [1] As a municipal division, the city of oblast significance of Nizhny Novgorod is incorporated as Nizhny Novgorod Urban Okrug. [9] In December 2011, Marat Safin was elected to the Russian Parliament as a member of Vladimir Putin's United Russia Party, representing Nizhny Novgorod. [20]

City layout and divisions

Nizhny Novgorod is divided by the Oka River into two distinct parts. The Upper City (Russian : Нагорная часть, Nagornaya chast, Mountainous part) is located on the hilly eastern (right) bank of the Oka. It includes three of the eight city districts into which the city is administratively divided:

The Lower City (Russian : Заречная часть, Zarechnaya chast, Over river part) occupies the low (western) side of the Oka, and includes five city districts:

All of today's lower city was annexed by Nizhny Novgorod in 1929–1931.

Demographics

Nizhny Novgorod is the fifth-largest city in Russia, ranking after Moscow, St Petersburg, Novosibirsk, and Yekaterinburg. For a long time it was the third-largest city after Moscow and St Petersburg.

Geographу and climate

Time

The area operates in what is referred to in international standards as Moscow Standard Time (MSK), which is 3 hours ahead of UTC, or UTC+3. Daylight saving time is no longer observed.

Climate

The climate in the region is continental, specifically humid continental (Dfb), and it is similar to the climate in Moscow, although colder in winter, which lasts from late November until late March with a permanent snow cover. Average temperatures range from +19 °C (66 °F) in July to −9 °C (16 °F) in January.

A maximum temperature of +38.2 °C (100.8 °F) was recorded during the 2010 Northern Hemisphere summer heat waves.

Climate data for Nizhny Novgorod
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)5.7
(42.3)
7.0
(44.6)
17.3
(63.1)
26.3
(79.3)
32.5
(90.5)
36.3
(97.3)
38.2
(100.8)
38.0
(100.4)
31.0
(87.8)
24.2
(75.6)
13.8
(56.8)
8.5
(47.3)
38.2
(100.8)
Average high °C (°F)−5.9
(21.4)
−5.3
(22.5)
1.1
(34.0)
10.9
(51.6)
18.7
(65.7)
22.6
(72.7)
24.7
(76.5)
22.1
(71.8)
15.6
(60.1)
8.0
(46.4)
−0.5
(31.1)
−4.7
(23.5)
8.9
(48.0)
Daily mean °C (°F)−8.9
(16.0)
−8.7
(16.3)
−2.6
(27.3)
6.1
(43.0)
12.9
(55.2)
17.2
(63.0)
19.4
(66.9)
16.9
(62.4)
11.1
(52.0)
4.7
(40.5)
−2.8
(27.0)
−7.4
(18.7)
4.8
(40.6)
Average low °C (°F)−11.6
(11.1)
−11.7
(10.9)
−5.8
(21.6)
2.1
(35.8)
7.9
(46.2)
12.6
(54.7)
14.8
(58.6)
12.6
(54.7)
7.6
(45.7)
2.1
(35.8)
−4.8
(23.4)
−9.9
(14.2)
1.3
(34.3)
Record low °C (°F)−41.2
(−42.2)
−37.2
(−35.0)
−28.3
(−18.9)
−19.7
(−3.5)
−6.9
(19.6)
−1.8
(28.8)
4.6
(40.3)
0.9
(33.6)
−5.5
(22.1)
−16.0
(3.2)
−29.4
(−20.9)
−41.4
(−42.5)
−41.4
(−42.5)
Average precipitation mm (inches)47
(1.9)
38
(1.5)
37
(1.5)
36
(1.4)
46
(1.8)
76
(3.0)
73
(2.9)
69
(2.7)
61
(2.4)
64
(2.5)
55
(2.2)
55
(2.2)
657
(25.9)
Average rainy days54513171918181818106151
Average snowy days282418710.100182026133
Average relative humidity (%)86817464606970747982878676
Mean monthly sunshine hours 43791451962752872802381528138251,839
Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net [21]
Source #2: NOAA (sun 1961–1990) [22]

Economy

State Bank of Nizhny Novgorod, built in 1913 NN BolPokrovskaya Street 08-2016 img2.jpg
State Bank of Nizhny Novgorod, built in 1913
IT-Park Ankudinovka IT-Park-01.jpg
IT-Park

Information technology

Nizhny Novgorod is one of the centers of the IT industry in Russia. It ranks among the leading Russian cities in terms of the quantity of software R&D providers. Intel has a big software research and development center with more than 500 engineers in the city, as well as a major datacenter. In Nizhny Novgorod there are also a number of offshore outsourcing software developers, including Bell Integrator, Itseez, Tecom, Luximax Systems Ltd., MERA, RealEast Networks, Auriga, SoftDrom, and Teleca, and many other smaller companies specializing in the delivery of services to telecommunication vendors.

There are 25 scientific R&D institutions focusing on telecommunications, radio technology, theoretical and applied physics, and 33 higher educational institutions, among them are Nizhny Novgorod State University, Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University, Privolzhsky Research Medical University, as well as Nizhny Novgorod Institute of Information Technologies, that focuses on information technologies, software development, system administration, telecommunications, cellular networks, Internet technologies, and IT management.

Nizhny Novgorod has also been chosen as one of four sites for building an IT-oriented technology park – a special zone that has an established infrastructure and enjoys a favorable tax and customs policy.

Engineering industry

Engineering is the leading industry of Nizhny Novgorod's economy with transportation – the auto industry, shipbuilding, diesel engines, aircraft manufacture and machine tools – predominating; the auto industry being the leading sector (50%).

Some of the largest plants include:

Transportation

Local public transportation

Avtozavodskaya metro station NN Metro Avtozavodskaya station 08-2016.jpg
Avtozavodskaya metro station

Public transportation within the city is provided by a trams, marshrutkas (routed taxis), buses, and trolleybuses. Electric and diesel commuter trains run to suburbs in several directions.

Nizhny Novgorod City Rail is a network of railway transport (S-Train) in the city. Together with the metro it forms a system of high-speed rail transport of the city. It has two lines: Sormovskaya and Priokskaya. It was founded on June 24, 2013 on the basis of the Gorky Railway, as an addition to the metro.

Metro

Nizhny Novgorod Metro underground rapid transit system was opened in 1985; it now has two lines with 15 stations, connecting all five railway terminals, and carrying 102,000 passengers daily. [23]

Railway

Emperor's Pavilion on Moskovsky railway terminal. NN Emperor's Pavilion on Moscow Station 08-2016.jpg
Emperor's Pavilion on Moskovsky railway terminal.

The Gorky Railway, a Russian Railways department which operates some 5,700 km (3,500 mi) of rail lines throughout the Middle Volga region and 1,200 km (750 mi) in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, is headquartered in Nizhny Novgorod. Since 1862, there has been a railway connection between Nizhny Novgorod and Moscow. [24] Overnight trains provide access to Nizhny Novgorod from Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Kazan, Yaroslavl and others. А fast train transports passengers between Nizhny Novgorod and Moscow in less than four hours. One can continue from Nizhny Novgorod eastward along the Trans-Siberian Railway, with direct trains to major cities in the Urals and Siberia, as well as to Beijing, Pyongyang, and Ulan-Bator.

The first high-speed rail Sapsan train to Moscow (Kursky Rail Terminal) and Saint Petersburg (Moskovsky Rail Terminal) was launched on July 30, 2010. [25] The route has been run using Strizh trains since 2015.

Suburban commuter trains ( elektrichka ) connect Nizhny Novgorod with Vladimir, Dzerzhinsk, Murom, Kirov, Arzamas, Zavolzhye, Balakhna, and others.

Waterways

River terminal NN Volga Terminal 08-2016.jpg
River terminal

Nizhny Novgorod is an important center of Volga cargo and passenger shipping. During summer, cruise vessels operate between Nizhny Novgorod, Moscow, Saint Petersburg, and Astrakhan. In 2006 a small number of Meteor-class hydrofoils resumed operations on the Volga river.

Highway

The city is served by the Russian highway M-7 (Moscow  – Nizhny Novgorod Kazan  Ufa), and is a hub of the regional highway network. Also through the city passes the federal highway P158 (Nizhny Novgorod Saransk  Penza  Saratov).

Intercity buses

The system of Nizhny Novgorod's bus terminals underwent significant changes in 2015, as the old main intercity bus terminal in Lyadov Square (just south of downtown) closed, and a new bus terminal opened in Scherbinki, a few miles to the south. [26] [27] Presently, the city's main bus terminals are the following:

Out of the three bus terminals, only the Kanavino station is near a subway line; the other two are connected with the rest of the city by city buses.

Aerial cableway

Nizhny Novgorod-Bor Cableway NN-Bor Volga Cableway 08-2016 img10.jpg
Nizhny Novgorod-Bor Cableway

In 2012, the cableway connecting Nizhny Novgorod and Bor was launched. [28] The length of the cableway is 3.5 km (2.2 mi). It has the largest unsupported span in Europe above the water surface is 861 metres (2,825 feet). The main purpose is to provide an alternative type of passenger transportation in addition to river taxis, electric trains and buses. The cable car has also become a popular tourist attraction, thanks to panoramic views from the cabins. Not far from Nizhegorodskaya station there are the Nizhny Novgorod Cathedral Mosque and Pechersky Ascension Monastery.100 metres (330 feet) from the Borskaya station is located the park of historical reconstruction of Pax Romana , which represents a collective image of a site of the Roman borderland at the turn of the 1st-2nd centuries AD, with a military camp and a small town that developed from the Marktant village at the camp. July 31, 2014 on the cable car there was an incident. The lightning struck a metal support near the booth in which people were. At this time there was a heavy thunderstorm and the cable car was stopped. However, people were already in the cabins. [29]

Air travel

Strigino International Airport. Nizhny Novgorod International Airport (Strigino) - new terminal.jpg
Strigino International Airport.

Nizhny Novgorod is served by Strigino International Airport, [30] which has direct flights to major Russian cities, Europe and the Middle East. The air base Sormovo was an important military airlift facility, and Pravdinsk air base was an interceptor aircraft base during the Cold War. S7 Airlines and UTair Aviation fly to Moscow's Domodedovo and Vnukovo Airports daily.

It is unknown when the first aerodrome in Nizhny Novgorod was built, but its location was 0.5 km (0 mi) north from where the "Moscow" movie theater stands today. This aerodrome was named Nizhny Novgorod Airport. In 2011 HC Airports of Regions won their bid on the investment project into Nizhny Novgorod International Airport. In 2012, certain renovations were made in order to more efficiently exploit the existing facility whilst the new one is being built.

In June 2014, the construction of new terminal started. It is supposed to be opened by December 2015 and be able to handle around 300 passengers per hour. The second terminal will be built after the 2018 FIFA World Cup, hosted by Nizhny Novgorod among others, and the aforementioned railway station is planned to be constructed during that time as well. The new terminal was opened on December 29, 2015 as the first flight, from Moscow, was directed there. Airport authority plans to redirect all the domestic flights to the new terminal by February 2016 and all the international flights by April 2016.

Main sights

Much of the city downtown is built in the Russian Revival and Stalin Empire styles. The dominating feature of the city skyline is the grand Kremlin (1500–1511), with its red-brick towers. After Bolshevik devastation, the only ancient edifice left within the Kremlin walls is the tent-like Archangel Cathedral (1624–1631), first built in stone in the 13th century.

Nizhny Novgorod banner.jpg
The Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin (swipe left or right)

There are more than 600 unique historic, architectural, and cultural monuments in the city. There are about 200 municipal and regional art and cultural institutions within Nizhny Novgorod. Among these institutions there are eight theaters, five concert halls, 97 libraries (with branches), 17 movie theaters (including five for children), 25 institutions of children's optional education, eight museums (16 including branches), and seven parks.

The Fair

The Main Fair Building NN Trade Fair 08-2016 img1.jpg
The Main Fair Building

The center of the fair was the main building in the spirit of classicism and the side administrative buildings that formed the central square. To protect from floods, a 3.5 m (11 ft) high dam was built. On November 4, 2017, a new multimedia exhibition called "Russia is My History" was opened in the Main Fair Building. The main focus of the exhibition is the history of Nizhny Novgorod, starting from Finno-Ugric peoples. On the territory of the complex there are departments in which they tell about the foundation of the city, the struggle for independence in the Time of Troubles and the bombing of the city during the World War II. On the first day of work, the entrance to the exhibition was free, because of which a long line lined up in front of the Main Fair Building.

The State art gallery NN Kremlin 08-2016 img9.jpg
The State art gallery

The art gallery in Nizhny Novgorod is a large and important art gallery and museums of human history and culture.

Nizhny Novgorod has a great and extraordinary art gallery with more than 12,000 exhibits, an enormous collection of works by Russian artists such as Viktor Vasnetsov, Karl Briullov, Ivan Shishkin, Ivan Kramskoi, Ilya Yefimovich Repin, Isaak Iljitsch Lewitan, Vasily Surikov, Ivan Aivazovsky, there are also greater collections of works by Boris Kustodiev and Nicholas Roerich, not only Russian art is part of the exhibition it include also a vast accumulation of Western European art like works by David Teniers the Younger, Bernardo Bellotto, Lucas Cranach the Elder, Pieter de Grebber, Giuseppe Maria Crespi, Giovanni Battista Piranesi, and lot more.

Finally what makes this gallery extremely important is the amazing collection Russian avant-garde with works by Kazimir Malevich, Wassily Kandinsky, Natalia Goncharova, Mikhail Larionov and so on. There is also collection of East Asian art.

Houses of worship

Pechersky Ascension Monastery NN Pechersky Monastery 08-2016.jpg
Pechersky Ascension Monastery
Alexander Nevsky Cathedral (New Fair Cathedral) NN AlexanderNevsky Cathedral 08-2016.jpg
Alexander Nevsky Cathedral (New Fair Cathedral)

Other notable landmarks are the two great medieval abbeys. The Pechersky Ascension Monastery features the austere five-domed cathedral (1632) and two rare churches surmounted by tent roofs, dating from the 1640s. The Annunciation monastery, likewise surrounded by strong walls, has another five-domed cathedral (1649) and the Assumption church (1678). The only private house preserved from that epoch formerly belonged to the merchant Pushnikov.

There can be little doubt that the most original and delightful churches in the city were built by the Stroganovs in the nascent Baroque style. Of these, the Virgin's Nativity Church [31] (1719) graces one of the central streets, whereas the Church of Our Lady of Smolensk [32] (1694–97) survives in the former village of Gordeyevka (now, part of the city's Kanavinsky District), where the Stroganov palace once stood.

Other notable churches include:

There is also a mosque in Sennaya Square, where the Muslim populations of the city go for Friday prayers, Islamic activities and activities which are organized by the mosque. There is also a small shop to buy halal meats. Most of the Muslims in this city are Tatars.

The centrally located Nizhny Novgorod Synagogue was built in 1881–1883; disused during the Soviet era, it was renovated and reopened circa 1991.

Chkalov Stairs

The Chkalov Staircase connecting Minin and Pozharsky Square, the Upper Volga and the Lower Volga embankments. It was built by the architects Alexander Yakovlev, Lev Rudnev and Vladimir Munts. The staircase itself was constructed in the late 1940s by German prisoners of war forced to labor around Gorky. It is the longest staircase in Russia. The staircase starts from the monument to Chkalov, near St. George's Tower of the Kremlin. It is built in the form of a figure of eight and consists of 560 steps, if you count it both sides. The number of steps from the bottom to the top is 442 on the right. In the intersections of the side slopes there are two observation platforms. At the bottom of the stairs is a monument to the boat "Hero", which is located at the Lower Volga embankment.

Nizhny Novgorod Stadium

Standing on a spit of the Volga and Oka Rivers in the city center is the international-class Nizhny Novgorod Stadium. This arena will host six games of the 2018 FIFA World Cup. After the World Cup, the stadium will serve as a multipurpose sports complex.

Other

A singular monument of industrial architecture is a 128 m (420 ft) open-work hyperboloid tower built on the bank of the Oka near Dzerzhinsk as part of a powerline river crossing by the eminent engineer and scientist Vladimir Shukhov in 1929.

Rozhdestvenskaja st.jpg
View as seen to Rozhdestvenskaya st., Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin, Church of St John the Baptist and the Spit

Education

Main Entrance of Medical University NN Minin and Pozharsky Square 08-2016 img3.jpg
Main Entrance of Medical University

Nizhny Novgorod is home to the following educational facilities:

There are also twenty research institutes located in the city.

Sports

Several sports clubs are active in the city:

ClubSportFoundedCurrent LeagueLeague
Rank
Stadium
FC Nizhny Novgorod Football 2015 Russian National Football League 2nd Nizhny Novgorod Stadium
Torpedo Nizhny Novgorod Ice hockey 1946 Kontinental Hockey League 1st Trade Union Sport Palace
Start Nizhny Novgorod Bandy 1932 Bandy Super League 1stStart Stadium
BC Nizhny Novgorod Basketball 2000 VTB United League 1st Trade Union Sport Palace
ASC Volleyball 2016Major League A2ndFOK Zarechye
Sparta Volleyball 2000Women's Volleyball Supreme League A2ndFOK Zarechye
Futbol-Hokkey NN Futsal 1996Futsal Supreme League2ndFOK Krasnaya Gorka

2018 FIFA World Cup

Russia hosted the 2018 FIFA World Cup, and six matches were played at the new Nizhny Novgorod Stadium. The stadium is built beside the confluence of the Volga and Oka rivers and has a capacity of 44,899 people. [43] The stadium hosted 6 matches of the FIFA World Cup:

During the World Cup, the Minin and Pozharsky Square hosted the FIFA Fan Fest. The venue was open on game days from 13.00 till 00.00. The Fan Fest venue included a hospitality area, a folk art craft shop and food outlets (20 stationary and 7 mobile outlets). The games were broadcast on a big screen.

Media

Nizhpoligraf - Polygraphic industrial and Publishing Center Nizhny Novgorod. Printing Company building.jpg
Nizhpoligraf - Polygraphic industrial and Publishing Center

Nizhny Novgorod is the center of the television and radio broadcasting on the region and the Volga Federal District. There are local TV stations, the Internet and print media.

Newspapers

In city, there are some popular urban newspapers. Nizhegorodskaya Pravda, Stolitsa Nizhny and Nizhegorodsky rabochiy are Russian-language media headquartered in Nizhny Novgorod. Nizhegorodskaya pravda is the oldest newspaper of the city.

TV and radio

View of TV-Tower Nizhny Novgorod TV-Tower.jpg
View of TV-Tower
House of the Communication NN House of the Communication 08-2016.jpg
House of the Communication

One of the first TV channel in the city is NNTV. It was created during the Soviet period, on the basis of the Gorky television. Also there is the TV channel Volga. The earlier existing most popular TV channel - Seti-NN, but he stopped broadcasting in December 2015.

Nizhny Novgorod television networks:

Nizhny Novgorod radio stations:

  • 3ABN Russia Radio
  • "Russian (Russkoye) Radio"
  • "Europa Plus"
  • "DFM"
  • "NRJ (Russia)"
  • "Radio Maximum"
  • "Obraz"
  • "NN-Radio"
  • "Comedy Radio"
  • "Love Radio"
  • "Pioneer FM"
  • "Radio Dacha"
  • "Nashe Radio"
  • "Radio 7"
  • "Humor FM"
  • "Retro FM"
  • "Politseiskaya Volna (Police Wave)"
  • "Radio Rendez Vous"
  • "Zvezda"
  • "Radio Rossii"
  • "Mayak"
  • "Business FM"
  • "Autoradio"
  • "Silver Rain"
  • "Chanson"
  • "Dorozhnoe Radio (Radio of roads)"
  • "Vesti FM"
  • "Kommersant FM"
  • "Children's Radio"
  • "Radio Alla"
  • "Hit FM"
  • "Radio Record"

Notable people

International relations

Volga riverside, Kremlin and Chkalov Stairs view Chkalov Stairs.JPG
Volga riverside, Kremlin and Chkalov Stairs view

Twin towns and sister cities

Nizhny Novgorod is twinned with:

Related Research Articles

Nizhny Novgorod Oblast First-level administrative division of Russia

Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, also known as Nizhegorod Oblast, is a federal subject of Russia. Its administrative center is the city of Nizhny Novgorod. It has a population of 3,310,597 as of the 2010 Census. From 1932 to 1990 it was known as Gorky Oblast.

Gorodets, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast Town in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia

Gorodets is a town and the administrative center of Gorodetsky District in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia, located on the left bank of the Volga River, 53 kilometers (33 mi) northwest of Nizhny Novgorod, the administrative center of the oblast. Population: 30,658 (2010 Census); 32,442 (2002 Census); 34,210 (1989 Census); 34,000 (1970).

Bor, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast Town in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia

Bor is a town in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia, located on the left (northern) bank of the Volga River, across from Nizhny Novgorod. The two cities are connected by bridges built in 1965 and 2017, and by ferry service. Population: 78,058 (2010 Census); 61,525 (2002 Census); 64,512 (1989 Census); 51,000 (1969).

Arzamas City in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia

Arzamas is a city in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia, located on the Tyosha River, 410 kilometers (250 mi) east of Moscow. Population: 106,362 (2010 Census); 109,432 (2002 Census); 108,951 (1989 Census).

Pavlovo, Pavlovsky District, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast Town in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia

Pavlovo, also known as Pavlovo-na-Oke, is a town and the administrative center of Pavlovsky District in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia, located on the right bank of Oka River in the northwestern part of the Volga Upland. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 60,698.

Kstovsky District District in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia

Kstovsky District is an administrative district (raion), one of the forty in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia. Municipally, it is incorporated as Kstovsky Municipal District. It is located in the center of the oblast. The area of the district is 1,225 square kilometers (473 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Kstovo. Population: 112,823 ; 46,759 (2002 Census); 47,917 (1989 Census). The population of Kstovo accounts for 59.1% of the district's total population.

Zavolzhye, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast Town in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia

Zavolzhye is a town in Gorodetsky District of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia, located on the right bank of the Volga River, opposite Gorodets, the administrative centre of the district, and 56 kilometers (35 mi) northwest of Nizhny Novgorod, the administrative center of the oblast. Population: 40,460 (2010 Census); 43,971 (2002 Census); 44,630 (1989 Census).

Strigino International Airport airport

Strigino Airport (Russian: Аэропорт Стригино is the international airport serving the city of Nizhny Novgorod, Russia. It is located on the outskirts of the city's Avtozavodsky District, 14 km southwest of city centre. Strigino is responsible for serving the 3,281,000 residents of the Nizhny Novgorod Oblast.

Navashino Town in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia

Navashino is a town in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia, located on a branch of the Oka River, 10km east of Murom and 158 kilometers (98 mi) southwest of Nizhny Novgorod. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 16,416.

Chkalovsk, Russia Town in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia

Chkalovsk is a town in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia, located on the right bank of the Volga River, 95 kilometers (59 mi) northwest of Nizhny Novgorod, the administrative center of the oblast. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 12,368.

FC Torpedo NN Nizhny Novgorod is a Russian football team from Nizhny Novgorod that currently plays in a Nizhny Novgorod Oblast championship.

The 2012–13 Volga season was the 2nd season that the club played in the Russian Premier League, the highest tier of football in Russia. They finished the season in 12th place and were eliminated from the Russian Cup at the Round of 32 stage by Russian National Football League side FC Khimki. Manager Dmitri Cheryshev was sacked during pre-season and was replaced by Gadzhi Gadzhiev on 7 June 2012 Gadzhiev then resigned on 19 January 2013 and was replaced by Yuriy Kalitvintsev.

Nizhny Novgorod railway station Central railway station in Nizhny Novgorod

Nizhny Novgorod railway station is a central station in Nizhny Novgorod, Russia. In terms of the amount of work performed, the 1st class station, and by the nature of the work performed, is a cargo station. It was opened on August 2, 1862.

Trams in Nizhny Novgorod

The Nizhny Novgorod tram network comprises 16 tramlines and uses a standard Russian broad gauge. Trams have been operating in Nizhny Novgorod since 1896, but services were interrupted for a few years following the 1917 Russian Revolution.

Rozhdestvenskaya Street street in Nizhny Novgorod, Russia

Rozhdestvenskaya Street – a beautiful historic street in Nizhny Novgorod. Is a unique open-air museum, there are only stone houses, the history of the oldest of which dates back to the middle of the 18th century. Officially there are 35 monuments of architecture. The most famous landmark is the Church of the Nativity.

Minin and Pozharsky Square main square of Nizhny Novgorod

The Minin and Pozharsky Square is the main square of Nizhny Novgorod. It is a social and cultural center of the city, the venue of the most important celebrations. It is located in the historical centre of the old town from the southeast side of the Kremlin.

History of Nizhny Novgorod

Nizhny Novgorod was founded by Prince Yuri II of Vladimir in 4 February 1221. Citizens organized an army to liberate Moscow from the Poles in 1611, led by Kuzma Minin and Prince Dmitry Pozharsky. During the Russian Empire, in 1817 Nizhny Novgorod became the country's main trading city. In 1896, the city hosted the largest All-Russia exhibition. In the Soviet era, Nizhny Novgorod was renamed Gorky, in honor of the writer Maxim Gorky. Then it was the industrial center of the Soviet Union. During the World War II, the city sent to the front a huge amount of military equipment and ammunition. Therefore, the German air force bombed the city for 3 years. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the city was renamed back to Nizhny Novgorod. In Russia, the city became a political center and the capital of the Volga Federal District. Now the city is the center of information technology and develops tourism.

Spit of Nizhny Novgorod street in Nizhny Novgorod, Russia

The Spit of Nizhny Novgorod is one of the main natural landmarks in the historical centre of Nizhny Novgorod. It is located at the confluence of the Oka and Volga rivers.

References

Notes

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Law #184-Z
  2. 1 2 "Founding of Nizhny Novgorod". nizhnynovgorod.com. Retrieved August 15, 2016.
  3. Charter of Nizhny Novgorod, Article 26.1.1
  4. Charter of Nizhny Novgorod, Article 26.1.2
  5. Мэром Нижнего Новгорода избран Владимир Панов. The Village (in Russian). Retrieved January 17, 2018.
  6. Official website of Nizhny Novgorod. Overview of the city Archived April 30, 2009, at the Wayback Machine ‹See Tfd› (in Russian)
  7. 1 2 3 Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  8. "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  9. 1 2 3 Law #205-Z
  10. "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  11. Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) ‹See Tfd› (in Russian)
  12. "Contacts". adm.nnov.ru. Retrieved August 15, 2016.
  13. "Вновь окончательно. День города в Нижнем Новгороде перенесли на август — Новости NN.RU". www.nn.ru (in Russian). May 22, 2019. Retrieved May 22, 2019.
  14. Wells, John C. (2008). Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.). Longman. ISBN   978-1-4058-8118-0.
  15. "Нижний Новгород – Столица Поволжья и "карман России" | www.Nischni-Nowgorod.ru". www.nischni-nowgorod.ru (in German). Retrieved July 31, 2017.
  16. 1 2 Decree of October 22, 1990, Article 1
  17. 1 2 Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000](XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
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  19. Vladimir Kuchin (2018). Десять веков Нижегородского края. 1152—2018. 3. Издательские решения. ISBN   978-5-4490-6270-3.
  20. "Д1 (2 чтение) ФЗ №186614-6 "О мерах воздействия на лиц, причастных к нарушению основополагающих прав и свобод человека, прав и свобод граждан РФ" – Система анализа результатов голосований на заседаниях Государственной Думы". Vote.duma.gov.ru. December 19, 2012. Retrieved July 18, 2013.
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  24. "Google". Archived from the original on June 20, 2012. Retrieved June 23, 2012.
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  27. Полный список автобусов, которые будут отправляться с новой автостанции «Щербинки»: Новый вокзал откроется 25 октября (Full list of bus routes which will depart from the new Scherbinki bus terminal. The new terminal will open on October 25), 2015-10-19
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  33. "Нижний Новгород-Собор Происхождения Честных Древ Креста Господня (Спасский Староярмарочный)".
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  38. "Нижний Новгород. Церковь Успения Пресвятой Богородицы на Ильинской горе, фотография".
  39. "Нижний Новгород. Церковь Успения Пресвятой Богородицы на новом Бугровском кладбище, фотография".
  40. "Нижний Новгород. Музей-заповедник "Щёлоковский хутор". Церковь Покрова Пресвятой Богородицы из с. Зелёного Городецкого района, фотография".
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Bibliography