Order of Lenin

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Order of Lenin
Order of Lenin badge with ribbon.png
Order of Lenin, Type 4 awarded from 1943 to 1991
TypeSingle-grade order
Awarded for
  • outstanding services rendered to the State,
  • exemplary service in the armed forces,
  • promoting friendship and cooperation between people and in strengthening peace, and
  • meritorious services to the Soviet state and society
Presented bythe Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
EligibilityCitizens of the Soviet Union; foreigners; institutions, enterprises and collectives
StatusAwarded only by the CPRF
EstablishedApril 6, 1930
First awardedMay 23, 1930
Last awardedDecember 21, 1991
Total431,418
SU Order of Lenin ribbon.svg
Ribbon of the Order of Lenin
Precedence
Next (higher) Hero of the Soviet Union
Next (lower) Order of the October Revolution
Order of Lenin, type 3 Order of Lenin.svg
Order of Lenin, type 3

The Order of Lenin (Russian : Орден Ленина, romanized: Orden Lenina, pronounced  [ˈordʲɪn ˈlʲenʲɪnə] ), named after the leader of the Russian October Revolution, was established by the Central Executive Committee on April 6, 1930. The order was the highest civilian decoration bestowed by the Soviet Union. The order was awarded to:

Contents

From 1944 to 1957, before the institution of specific length of service medals, the Order of Lenin was also used to reward 25 years of conspicuous military service. Those who were awarded the titles "Hero of the Soviet Union" and "Hero of Socialist Labour" were also given the order as part of the award. It was also bestowed on cities, companies, factories, regions, military units and ships. Various educational institutions and military units who received the said Order applied the full name of the order into their official titles.

Design

The first design of the Order of Lenin was sculpted by Pyotr Tayozhny and Ivan Shadr based on sketches by Ivan Dubasov. It was made by Goznak of silver with some lightly gold-plated features. It was a round badge with a central disc featuring Vladimir Lenin's profile surrounded by smokestacks, a tractor and a building, possibly a power plant. A thin red-enamelled border and a circle of wheat panicles surrounded the disc. At the top was a gold-plated "hammer and sickle" emblem, and at the bottom were the Russian initials for "USSR" (Russian : СССР) in red enamel. Only about 800 of this design were minted. It was awarded between 1930–1932. [2]

The second design was awarded from 1934 until 1936. This was a solid gold badge, featuring a silver plated disc bearing Lenin's portrait. The disc is surrounded by two golden panicles of wheat, and a red flag with "LENIN" in Cyrillic script (Russian : ЛЕНИН). A red star is placed on the left and the "hammer and sickle" emblem at the bottom, both in red enamel.

The third design was awarded from 1936 until 1943. Design was same as previous, but the central disc was gray enamelled and Lenin's portrait was separate piece made of platinum fixed by rivets.

The fourth design was awarded from 1943 until 1991. Design was same as previous, but was worn as a medal suspended from a ribbon (all previous were screwback).

The badge was originally worn by screwback on the left chest without ribbon. Later it was worn as a medal suspended from a red ribbon with pairs of yellow stripes at the edges (see image above). The ribbon bar is of the same design. The portrait of Lenin was originally a riveted silver piece. For a time it was incorporated into a one-piece gold badge, but finally returned as a separate platinum piece until the dissolution of the USSR in 1991.

Recipients

The first Order of Lenin was awarded to the newspaper Komsomolskaya Pravda on 23 May 1930. Also among the first ten recipients were five industrial companies, three pilots, and the Secretary to the Central Executive Committee Avel Enukidze. The first person to be awarded a second Order of Lenin was the pilot Valery Chkalov in 1936. Another pilot, Vladimir Kokkinaki, became the first to receive a third Order in 1939.

The first five foreign recipients – who were presented with the Order on May 17, 1932 – comprised a German and four US citizens, one of whom was Frank Bruno Honey. [3] They received the award for helping in the reconstruction of Soviet industry and agriculture, during 1931–1934. [4]

431,418 orders were awarded in total, with the last on 21 December 1991.

Most frequent

Notable collective recipients

Notable individual recipients

Fictional recipients

See also

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References

  1. Орден Ленина: история учреждения, эволюция и разновидности. Часть II
  2. McDaniel & Schmitt, The Comprehensive Guide to Soviet Orders and Medals.
  3. "One American, Frank Bruno Honey, received the Order of Lenin for his work." Dana G. Dalrymple, "The American Tractor Comes to Soviet Agriculture: The Transfer of a Technology", Technology and Culture, Vol. 5, No. 2 (Spring, 1964), pp. 191–214
  4. (in Russian) Order of Lenin - history of establishment, evolution and varieties by Valery Durov
  5. "Nikolai Patolichev". warheroes.ru (in Russian).
  6. Ордена «Комсомольской правды»
  7. The Junior Aircraft Year Book, 1935, p. 8.
  8. Obituary reference in the Indian Parliament
  9. Six Months in 1945: FDR, Stalin, Churchill, and Truman--from World War to Cold War.
  10. "Kim Il Sung". Who's Who in Asian and Australasian Politics. London: Bowker-Saur. 1991. p. 146. ISBN   978-0-86291-593-3.
  11. Tito's Home Page - With world leaders Archived 2005-06-25 at the Wayback Machine
  12. Fleming, Ian. From Russia With Love, Signet Books, p.44