Double agent

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In the field of counterintelligence, a double agent (also double secret agent ) is an employee of a secret intelligence service for one country, whose primary purpose is to spy on a target organization of another country, but who, in fact, has been discovered by the target organization and is now spying on their own country's organization for the target organization. [1]

Counterintelligence Information gathered and activities conducted to protect against espionage or other intelligence activities

Counterintelligence is an activity aimed at protecting an agency's intelligence program against an opposition's intelligence service. It likewise refers to information gathered and activities conducted to counter espionage, other intelligence activities, sabotage, or assassinations conducted for or on behalf of foreign powers, organizations or persons, international terrorist activities, sometimes including personnel, physical, document, or communications security programs.

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Double agentry may be practiced by spies of the target organization who infiltrate the controlling organization or may result from the turning (switching sides) of previously loyal agents of the controlling organization by the target. The threat of execution is the most common method of turning a captured agent (working for an intelligence service) into a double agent (working for a foreign intelligence service) or a double agent into a re-doubled agent . It is unlike a defector, who is not considered an agent as agents are in place to function for an intelligence service and defectors are not, but some consider that defectors in place are agents until they have defected.

Defection giving up of allegiance to one state for allegiance to another in a manner considered illegitimate by the first state

In politics, a defector is a person who gives up allegiance to one state in exchange for allegiance to another, in a way which is considered illegitimate by the first state. More broadly, it involves abandoning a person, cause, or doctrine to which one is bound by some tie, as of allegiance or duty.

Double agents are often used to transmit disinformation or to identify other agents as part of counter-espionage operations. They are often very trusted by the controlling organization since the target organization will give them true, but useless or even counterproductive, information to pass along. [2]

Disinformation False information spread deliberately to deceive

Disinformation is false information spread deliberately to deceive.

Double agents

  Double agent  Re-doubled agent  Mole

Examples of known double agents and moles
ContextAgentNationalityLoyal toSpying onCommentsReferences
Wars of the Three Kingdoms
1639 – 1651
Samuel Morland Flag of England.svg   English Flag of England.svg   Restoration Flag of the Commonwealth (1649-1651).svg Commonwealth of England  
Richard Willis Flag of England.svg English Flag of the Commonwealth (1649-1651).svg Commonwealth of England Flag of England.svg Restoration  
World War I
1914 – 1918
Mata Hari Flag of the Netherlands.svg Dutch Flag of the German Empire.svg German Empire Flag of France.svg French Third Republic  
World War II
1939 – 1945
Mathilde Carré "La Chatte" Flag of France.svg French Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Double-Cross System
Roman Czerniawski "Brutus" Flag of Poland.svg Polish Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Double-Cross System
Eddie Chapman "ZigZag" Flag of England.svg English Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Double-Cross System Infiltrated the German Abwehr during World War II whilst feeding intelligence to MI5. He was so trusted by the Germans that he is reportedly the only British citizen to have ever been awarded the Iron Cross
Walter Dicketts "Celery" Flag of England.svg English Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Double-Cross System (1940-1943)Ex RNAS officer sent to Lisbon and Germany to infiltrate the Abwehr, report on invasion plans for Britain, and establish the bona fides of Snow (subsequently imprisoned until the end of war). Subjected to an intensive five-day interrogation in Hamburg and survived. [3] Later sent back to Lisbon to persuade Abwehr officer, George Sessler, to defect and worked undercover in Brazil.
Roger Grosjean "Fido" Flag of France.svg French Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Double-Cross System French Air Force pilot who worked for the British
Christiaan Lindemans "King Kong" Flag of the Netherlands.svg Dutch Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Abwehr (1944) Flag of the Netherlands.svg Flag of the United Kingdom.svg SOE (1940-1944)
Dutch resistance (1941-1944)
 
Arthur Owens "Snow" Flag of Wales (1807-1953).svg   Welsh Flag of the United Kingdom.svg   Double-Cross System  
Johann-Nielsen Jebsen
"Jonny" "Artist"
Flag of the German Empire.svg   German Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Abwehr (1939-1941)
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg MI6 (1941-1945)
Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Abwehr (1941-1945)Anti-Nazi German intelligence officer and British double agent. Jebsen recruited Dušan Popov.
Ivan Popov "LaLa" "Aesculap" "Dreadnought" "Hans" Naval Ensign of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.svg   Serbian Naval Ensign of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.svg VOA (1939-1945)
Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Abwehr (1940-1944)
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg MI6 (1941-1945)
Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Abwehr (1941-1945)Yugoslav working for his national military agency VOA. He also worked for British MI6 and German Abwehr. In German Gestapo he held rank of Obersturmbannführer. Brother of Dušan Popov.
Dušan Popov "Duško" "Tricycle" "Ivan" Naval Ensign of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.svg   Serbian Naval Ensign of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.svg VOA (1939-1945)
Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Abwehr (1940-1941)
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg MI6 (1940-1945)
Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Abwehr (1941-1945)Yugoslav working for his national military agency VOA. He also worked for British MI6 and German Abwehr. In British army he held rank of Colonel. Brother of Ivan Popov.
John Herbert Neal Moe "Mutt and Jeff" Flag of Norway.svg   Norwegian Flag of the United Kingdom.svg   Double-Cross System  
Tor Glad "Mutt and Jeff" Flag of Norway.svg   Norwegian Flag of the United Kingdom.svg   Double-Cross System  
Juan Pujol García "Garbo" Flag of Spain (1938-1945).svg   Spanish [4] Flag of the United Kingdom.svg   Double-Cross System British double agent in German spy service-awarded both an MBE and an Iron Cross
Johann Wenzel Flag of Poland.svg   Polish
Before 1942

Flag of the Soviet Union.svg   Red Orchestra

After 1942

Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg   Gestapo

Before 1942

Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg   Nazi Germany

After 1942

Flag of the Soviet Union.svg   Soviet Union

Member of Red Orchestra spy ring who, after being unmasked by the Germans, fed false information to the Soviet Union
William Sebold "Tramp" Flag of the German Empire.svg   German
Flag of the United States.svg U.S. citizen
Flag of the United States.svg   FBI (1939) Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg   Abwehr (1939)Coerced by the Abwehr into becoming a spy, exposed the Duquesne Spy Ring to the FBI.
Cold War
1947 – 1991
Aldrich Ames Flag of the United States.svg   American Flag of the Soviet Union.svg   KGB Flag of the United States.svg   CIA (1957-1993) 
John Cairncross "Liszt" Flag of Scotland.svg   Scottish Flag of the Soviet Union.svg   MGB
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg   Cambridge Five
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg   MI5 (1941-1944)
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg   GC&CS (1942-1943)
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg   MI6 (1944-1945)
 
Anthony Blunt "Johnson" Flag of England.svg   English Flag of the Soviet Union.svg   NKVD
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg   Cambridge Five
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg   MI5  
Guy Burgess "Hicks" Flag of England.svg   English Flag of the Soviet Union.svg   MGB
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg   Cambridge Five
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg   MI5 (1939-1941)
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg   Foreign Office (1944-1956)
 
Donald Maclean "Homer" Flag of England.svg   English Flag of the Soviet Union.svg   MGB
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg   Cambridge Five
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg   MI5
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg   MI6
 
Kim Philby "Stanley" Flag of England.svg   English
British Raj Red Ensign.svg  Born in India
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg   MGB
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg   Cambridge Five
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg   MI6  
George Blake Flag of the Netherlands.svg   Dutch Flag of the Soviet Union.svg   KGB Flag of the United Kingdom.svg   MI6  
Oleg Gordievsky "Sunbeam" "Nocton" "Pimlico" "Ovation" Flag of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic.svg   Russian Flag of the United Kingdom.svg   MI6 (1968-2008) Flag of the Soviet Union.svg   KGB (1963-1985)Abducted in Moscow in 1985; escaped to the United Kingdom two months later.
Matei Pavel Haiducu Flag of Romania (1948-1952).svg   Romanian Flag of France.svg   DST (1981) Flag of Romania (1948-1952).svg   DIE (1975-1982)Defected to France in 1981.
Dmitri Polyakov Flag of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic.svg   Ukrainian Flag of the United States.svg   FBI
Flag of the United States.svg   CIA
Flag of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic.svg   GRU Executed in 1988.
Robert Hanssen Flag of the United States.svg   American Flag of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic.svg   GRU Flag of the United States.svg   FBI Worked for the FBI and sold information to the Soviet Union as a mole.
Oleg Kalugin Flag of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic.svg   Russian Flag of the United States.svg   CIA Flag of the Soviet Union.svg   KGB Longtime head of KGB operations in the U.S., provided disinformation regarding American involvement in Prague Spring; and also played a role in the establishment of Yeltsin as post-USSR leader. Sentenced in absentia in 2002 to 15 years imprisonment; the US refuses to extradite him
Oleg Penkovskiy "Hero" Flag of The Russian Empire 1883.svg   Russian Flag of the United States.svg   NSA
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg   MI6
Flag of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic.svg   GRU A colonel with GRU informed the U.K. and the U.S. about the Soviet emplacement of missiles in Cuba; executed by the Soviets in 1963.
Stig Bergling Flag of Sweden.svg   Swedish Flag of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic.svg   GRU Flag of Sweden.svg   SÄPO Among other things, handed over the entire Swedish "FO-code", a top secret list of Sweden's defence establishments, coastal artillery fortifications and mobilization stores. Convicted in 1979 and sentenced to life imprisonment for treason.
Eduardo Sagaro Flag of Cuba.svg   Cuba Flag of Cuba.svg   Dirección General de Inteligencia Flag of the United States.svg   CIA A Cuban paediatrician who was recruited by the CIA to report on the health of Fidel Castro, other Cuban leaders, Cuban troops in Angola and health related issues in Cuba including the effect of infectious diseases but in fact during his CIA career he worked for the Cubans. [5]
Arab–Israeli conflict
1948 –
Ashraf Marwan Flag of Egypt.svg   Egyptian Flag of Israel.svg   Mossad Flag of Egypt.svg   Egypt Egyptian businessman and an alleged spy for Israel, or possibly an Egyptian double agent; managed to become celebrated as a hero in each country for his alleged work against the other.
Basque conflict
1959 – 2011
Mikel Lejarza "El Lobo" Flag of the Basque Country.svg   Basque Flag of Spain.svg   CESID Flag of the Basque Country.svg   ETA  
Northern Ireland conflict
1968 – 1998
Denis Donaldson Ulster Banner.svg   Northern Irish Flag of the United Kingdom.svg   MI5
Ulster Banner.svg   PSNI
Flag of Ireland.svg   Provisional IRA
Flag of Ireland.svg   Sinn Féin
Assassinated at his cottage in County Donegal after being exposed by a Northern Ireland newspaper, The Derry Journal .
"Kevin Fulton" Ulster Banner.svg   Northern Irish Flag of the British Army.svg   Royal Irish Rangers
Flag of the British Army.svg   Int Corps
Flag of Ireland.svg   Provisional IRA
Freddie Scappaticci "Stakeknife" Flag of Italy.svg   Italian Flag of the British Army.svg   FRU Flag of Ireland.svg   Provisional IRA
Flag of Ireland.svg   ISU
Robert Nairac Flag of England.svg   English
Flag of Mauritius.svg  born in Mauritius
Flag of the British Army.svg   British Army Flag of Ireland.svg   Provisional IRA Murdered by the Provisional IRA in County Louth in 1977.
South African espionage in Zimbabwe and the Gukurahundi
1980 – 1987
Matt Calloway Flag of Zimbabwe.svg Zimbabwean Flag of South Africa (1928-1994).svg NIS Flag of Zimbabwe.svg CIO [6]
Philip Conjwayo Flag of Zimbabwe.svg Zimbabwean

Flag of South Africa (1928-1994).svg South African citizen

Flag of South Africa (1928-1994).svg NIS Flag of Zimbabwe.svg CIO [7]
Geoffrey Price Flag of Zimbabwe.svg Zimbabwean Flag of South Africa (1928-1994).svg NIS Flag of Zimbabwe.svg CIO [6]
Michael Smith Flag of Zimbabwe.svg Zimbabwean

Flag of South Africa (1928-1994).svg South African citizen

Flag of South Africa (1928-1994).svg NIS Flag of Zimbabwe.svg CIO [7]
Kevin Woods Flag of Zimbabwe.svg Zimbabwean

Flag of South Africa (1928-1994).svg South African citizen

Flag of South Africa (1928-1994).svg NIS Flag of Zimbabwe.svg CIO [6] [7]
Global War on Terrorism
2001 –
"April Fool" Flag of the United States.svg   American Flag of the United States.svg   United States Flag of Iraq.svg   Iraq Allegedly, an American officer who provided false information to Saddam Hussein
Iyman Faris Flag of Pakistan.svg   Pakistani
Flag of the United States.svg   U.S. citizen
Flag of al-Qaeda.svg  al-Qaeda Flag of the United States.svg   FBI  
Chinese espionage in the United States Katrina Leung Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg   Chinese
Flag of the Republic of China.svg   Taiwan citizen
Flag of the United States.svg   U.S. citizen
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg   MSS Flag of the United States.svg   FBI  

Re-doubled agent

A re-doubled agent is an agent who gets caught as a double agent and is forced to mislead the foreign intelligence service. F.M. Begoum describes the redoubled agent as "one whose duplicity in doubling for another service has been detected by his original sponsor and who has been persuaded to reverse his affections again". [2]

Triple agent

A triple agent is a spy who pretends to be a double agent for one side, while he or she is truthfully a double agent for the other side. Unlike a re-doubled agent, who changes allegiance due to being compromised, a triple agent is usually considered to have always been loyal to their original side. It may also refer to a spy who works for three opposing sides, such that each side thinks the spy works for them alone. The definitions of a double agent, re-doubled agent and triple agent are not easily explained and there is some discourse and overlap in defining them due to the individual complexities of the role.

Events in which double agents played an important role

Operation Overlord Successful invasion of Nazi-held northern Europe in World War II

Operation Overlord was the codename for the Battle of Normandy, the Allied operation that launched the successful invasion of German-occupied Western Europe during World War II. The operation was launched on 6 June 1944 with the Normandy landings. A 1,200-plane airborne assault preceded an amphibious assault involving more than 5,000 vessels. Nearly 160,000 troops crossed the English Channel on 6 June, and more than two million Allied troops were in France by the end of August.

Camp Chapman attack Terrorist attack

The Camp Chapman attack was a suicide attack by Humam Khalil Abu-Mulal al-Balawi against the Central Intelligence Agency facility inside Forward Operating Base Chapman on December 30, 2009. One of the main tasks of the CIA personnel stationed at the base was to provide intelligence supporting drone attacks against Pakistan. Seven American CIA officers and contractors, an officer of Jordan's intelligence service, and an Afghan working for the CIA were killed when al-Balawi detonated a bomb sewn into a vest he was wearing. Six other American CIA officers were wounded. The bombing was the most lethal attack against the CIA in more than 25 years.

Cold War State of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc and the Western Bloc

The Cold War was a period of geopolitical tension between the Soviet Union with its satellite states, and the United States with its allies after World War II. A common historiography of the conflict begins between 1946, the year U.S. diplomat George F. Kennan's "Long Telegram" from Moscow cemented a U.S. foreign policy of containment of Soviet expansionism threatening strategically vital regions, and the Truman Doctrine of 1947, and ending between the Revolutions of 1989 and the 1991 collapse of the USSR, which ended communism in Eastern Europe. The term "cold" is used because there was no large-scale fighting directly between the two sides, but they each supported major regional conflicts known as proxy wars.

See also

The Clandestine HUMINT page deals with the functions of that discipline, including espionage and active counterintelligence. This page deals with Clandestine HUMINT operational techniques, also called "tradecraft". It applies to clandestine operations for espionage, and for a clandestine phase prior to direct action (DA) or unconventional warfare (UW). Clandestine HUMINT sources may also act as local guides for special reconnaissance (SR).

Dangle is a term used in intelligence work to refer to an agent or officer of one intelligence agency or group who pretends to be interested in defecting or turning to another intelligence agency or group.

In politics, dual loyalty is loyalty to two separate interests that potentially conflict with each other, leading to a conflict of interest.

Related Research Articles

Espionage or spying, is the act of obtaining secret or confidential information without the permission of the holder of the information. Spies help agencies uncover secret information. Any individual or spy ring, in the service of a government, company or independent operation, can commit espionage. The practice is clandestine, as it is by definition unwelcome and in many cases illegal and punishable by law. Espionage is a method of intelligence gathering which includes information gathering from public sources.

Defense Intelligence Agency United States federal agency

The Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), an external intelligence service of the United States federal government, specializes in defense and military intelligence.

Human intelligence is intelligence gathered by means of interpersonal contact, as opposed to the more technical intelligence gathering disciplines such as signals intelligence (SIGINT), imagery intelligence (IMINT) and measurement and signature intelligence (MASINT).

In espionage jargon, a mole is a long-term spy who is recruited before having access to secret intelligence, subsequently managing to get into the target organization. However, it is popularly used to mean any long-term clandestine spy or informant within an organization, government or private. In police work, a mole is an undercover law-enforcement agent who joins an organization in order to collect incriminating evidence about its operations and so bring its members to justice.

An Intelligence Officer is a person employed by an organization to collect, compile and/or analyze information which is of use to that organization. The term of 'Officer' is a working title, and is not to be confused with rank as in the police services, where Sergeants are also 'Police Officers,' or with Non-Commissioned Military ranks that can be Intelligence Officers as well. Organizations which employ intelligence officers include armed forces, police, civilian intelligence agencies, customs agencies and private corporations.

A sleeper agent is a spy who is placed in a target country or organization not to undertake an immediate mission but to act as a potential asset if activated. Even if unactivated, the "sleeper agent" is still an asset and is still playing an active role in sedition, treason or espionage by virtue of agreeing to act if activated. Sleeper agents are popular plot devices in fiction, particularly in espionage fiction and science fiction. This common use in fiction is directly related to and results from repeated instances of real-life "sleeper agents" participating in spying, espionage, sedition, treason, and assassinations.

Foreign Intelligence Service (Russia) Russias primary external intelligence agency

The Foreign Intelligence Service of the Russian Federation or SVR RF is Russia's external intelligence agency, mainly for civilian affairs. The SVR RF succeeded the First Chief Directorate (PGU) of the KGB in December 1991. The headquarters of SVR are in the Yasenevo District of Moscow.

James Jesus Angleton chief of CIA Counterintelligence

James Jesus Angleton was chief of CIA Counterintelligence from 1954 to 1975. His official position within the organization was Associate Deputy Director of Operations for Counterintelligence (ADDOCI). Angleton was significantly involved in the US response to the purported KGB defectors Anatoliy Golitsyn and Yuri Nosenko. Angleton later became convinced the CIA harbored a high-ranking mole, and engaged in an intensive search. Whether this was a highly destructive witch hunt or appropriate caution vindicated by later moles remains a subject of intense historical debate.

In intelligence organizations, agent handling is the management of so-called agents, principal agents, and agent networks (

The Directorate of Operations (DO), less formally called the Clandestine Service, is one of the smallest components of the US Central Intelligence Agency. It was known as the Directorate of Plans from 1951 to 1973; as the Directorate of Operations from 1973 to 2005; and as the National Clandestine Service (NCS) from 2005 to 2015.

<i>Enemies: How Americas Foes Steal Our Vital Secrets – And How We Let It Happen</i> book by Bill Gertz

Enemies: How America's Foes Steal Our Vital Secrets – And How We Let It Happen is a 2006 book by Bill Gertz. In this book, Gertz brings to light instances where national security had been damaged by negligence and incompetence. Gertz makes the claim that more high-level attention is needed, as well as more resources, better leadership and proactive programs.

Countries with major counterintelligence failures are presented alphabetically. In each case, there is at least one systemic problem with seeking penetration agents when few or none may actually have existed, to the detriment of the functioning of the national service involved.

Clandestine human intelligence is intelligence collected from human sources using clandestine espionage methods. These sources consist of people working in a variety of roles within the intelligence community. Examples include the quintessential spy, who collects intelligence, couriers and related personnel, who handle an intelligence organization's (ideally) secure communications, and support personnel, such as access agents, who may arrange the contact between the potential spy and the case officer who recruits them. The recruiter and supervising agent may not necessarily be the same individual. Large espionage networks may be composed of multiple levels of spies, support personnel, and supervisors. Espionage networks are typically organized as a cell system, in which each clandestine operator knows only the people in his own cell, perhaps the external case officer, and an emergency method to contact higher levels if the case officer or cell leader is captured, but has no knowledge of people in other cells. This cellular organization is a form of compartmentalisation, which is an important tactic for controlling access to information, used in order to diminish the risk of discovery of the network or the release of sensitive information.

National governments deal in both intelligence and military special operations functions that either should be completely secret, or simply cannot be linked to the sponsor. It is a continuing and unsolved question for governments whether clandestine intelligence collection and covert action should be under the same agency. The arguments for doing so include having centralized functions for monitoring covert action and clandestine HUMINT and making sure they do not conflict, as well as avoiding duplication in common services such as cover identity support, counterespionage, and secret communications. The arguments against doing so suggest that the management of the two activities takes a quite different mindset and skills, in part because clandestine collection almost always is on a slower timeline than covert action.

Clandestine HUMINT asset recruiting refers to the recruitment of human agents, commonly known as spies, who work for a foreign government, or within a host country's government or other target of intelligence interest for the gathering of human intelligence. The work of detecting and "doubling" spies who betray their oaths to work on behalf of a foreign intelligence agency is an important part of counterintelligence.

There is a long history of close cooperation between the United States and the United Kingdom intelligence services; see Clandestine HUMINT and Covert Action for World War II and subsequent relationships. There are permanent liaison officers of each country in major intelligence agencies of the other, such as CIA and Secret Intelligence Service ("MI6"), FBI and the Security Service (MI5), and National Security Agency (NSA) and Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ).

Defense Clandestine Service component of the U.S. Defense Intelligence Agency tasked with carrying out espionage operations around the world

The Defense Clandestine Service (DCS) is an arm of the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), which conducts clandestine espionage activities around the world to answer national-level defense objectives for senior U.S. policymakers and military leaders. Staffed by civilian and military personnel, DCS is part of DIA's Directorate of Operations and works in conjunction with the Central Intelligence Agency's Directorate of Operations and the U.S. military's Joint Special Operations Command. DCS consists of about 500 clandestine operatives, which is roughly how many case officers the CIA maintained in the early 2000s prior to its expansion.

David Henry Blee served in the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) from its founding in 1947 until his 1985 retirement. During World War II in the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), he had worked in Southeast Asia. In the CIA, he served as Chief of Station (COS) in Asia and Africa, starting in the 1950s. He then led the CIA's Near East Division.

References

  1. "Definition of DOUBLE AGENT". merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 21 February 2018.
  2. 1 2 Begoum, F.M. "Observations on the Double Agent". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved January 5, 2010.
  3. Witt, Carolinda (November 2017). Double Agent Celery. Barnsley, UK: Pen & Sword Books. ISBN   9781526716149. pp. 182-186
  4. García, Juan Pujol; West, Nigel (2011). "Childhood". Operation Garbo: The Personal Story of the Most Successful Spy of World War II. Biteback Publishing. ISBN   9781849546256.
  5. Becker, Brian (12 December 2016). "How Cuba Penetrated the CIA Ring in Cuba: Spy VS Spy-Hunter". Loud & Clear. Sputnik.
  6. 1 2 3 Berkeley, Bill (1989-10-22). "Apartheid's Spies". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2018-10-18.
  7. 1 2 3 Dube, Benson (2014-02-21). "Philip Conjwayo dies". Southern Eye. Retrieved 2018-10-22.