Tampere

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Tampere

Tammerfors
City
Tampereen kaupunki
Tammerfors stad
City of Tampere
Tampere Montage 1.jpg
Clockwise from top-left: the cityscape (viewed from Näsinneula); Tampere City Hall; Särkänniemi (from Näsinneula); Tampere Hall; the skyline with Näsinneula; Tammerkoski from Hämeensilta Bridge; and the Cathedral.
Tampere.lippu.svg
Flag
Tampere.vaakuna.svg
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): 
Manchester of the North, Manse (in Finnish), [1] Nääsville (in Finnish), [lower-alpha 1] [1] Sauna Capital of the World
Pirkanmaa Tampere 2011 clean.svg
Location of Tampere (in red) in the Tampere sub-region (in yellow) and in the Pirkanmaa region (all).
Finland adm location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Tampere
Location of Tampere in Finland
Europe blank laea location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Tampere
Location of Tampere in Europe
Coordinates: 61°30′N23°46′E / 61.500°N 23.767°E / 61.500; 23.767 Coordinates: 61°30′N23°46′E / 61.500°N 23.767°E / 61.500; 23.767
CountryFlag of Finland.svg  Finland
Region Pirkanmaa.vaakuna.svg Pirkanmaa
Sub-region Tampere
Founded1 October 1779
Government
  Mayor Lauri Lyly
Area
 (2018-01-01) [2]
  City689.59 km2 (266.25 sq mi)
  Land525.03 km2 (202.72 sq mi)
  Water164.56 km2 (63.54 sq mi)
  Urban
258.52 km2 (99.82 sq mi)
Area rank 166th largest in Finland
Population
 (2021-03-31) [3]
  City241,672
  Rank 3rd largest in Finland
  Density460.3/km2 (1,192/sq mi)
   Urban
334,112 [4]
  Urban density1,211.0/km2 (3,136/sq mi)
   Metro
385,610
Demonym(s) tamperelainen (Finnish)
tammerforsare (Swedish)
Tamperean (English)
Population by native language
[5]
   Finnish 94.9% (official)
   Swedish 0.5%
  Others4.5%
Population by age
[6]
  0 to 1413.3%
  15 to 6467.5%
  65 or older19.2%
Time zone UTC+02:00 (EET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+03:00 (EEST)
Municipal tax rate [7] 20.25%
Website Tampere

Tampere ( /ˈtæmpər/ , US also /ˈtæmpərə,ˈtɑːmpər/ , [8] [9] Finnish:  [ˈtɑmpere] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); Swedish : Tammerfors [tɑmːærˈforsː] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); Latin : Tammerforsia [10] ) is a city in Pirkanmaa in the western part of Finland. Tampere is the most populous inland city in the Nordic countries; it has a population of 238,140 with the urban area holding 334,112 people [11] and the metropolitan area, also known as the Tampere sub-region, holding 385,301 inhabitants in an area of 4,970 km2 (1,920 sq mi). [12] Tampere is the second-largest urban area [13] and third most-populous individual municipality in Finland, after the cities of Helsinki and Espoo and the most populous Finnish city outside the Greater Helsinki area, within which both Helsinki and Espoo are located. Today, Tampere is one of the major urban, economic, and cultural hubs in the whole inland region. [14]

Contents

Tampere and its environs belong to the historical province of Satakunta. The area belonged to the Tavastia Province from 1831 to 1997, and over time it has often been considered to belong to Tavastia as a province. For example, in Uusi tietosanakirja published in the 1960s, the Tampere region is presented as part of the then Tavastia Province. Around the 1950s, Tampere and its surroundings began to establish itself as their own province of Pirkanmaa. Tampere became the center of Pirkanmaa, and in the early days of the province, Tammermaa was also used several times in its early days - for example, in the Suomi-käsikirja published in 1968. [15] Tampere is wedged between two lakes, Näsijärvi and Pyhäjärvi. Since the two lakes differ in level by 18 metres (59 ft), the rapids linking them, Tammerkoski, have been an important power source throughout history, most recently for generating electricity. [16] Tampere is dubbed the "Manchester of the North" for its industrial past as the former center of Finnish industry, and this has given rise to its Finnish nickname "Manse" [1] and terms such as "Manserock". [17] [18] [19] Also, Tampere has been officially declared the "Sauna Capital of the World", because it has the most public saunas in the world. [20] [21] [22] [23]

Helsinki is approximately 160 kilometres (100 mi) south of Tampere, and can be reached in 1 hr, 31 minutes by Pendolino high-speed rail service [24] and 2 hours by car. The distance to Turku is roughly the same. Tampere–Pirkkala Airport is Finland's eighth-busiest airport, with over 230,000 passengers in 2017. [25] Tampere also serves as an important transit route for three Finnish highways: Highway 3 (E12), Highway 9 (E63) and Highway 12.

Tampere ranked 26th in the list of 446 cities in the world's hipster cities, [26] and it has often been rated as the most popular city in Finland. [27]

By 2021, a new multi-purpose sports and entertainment center, Tampere Deck Arena, is nearing completion. [28] The arena will serve as the main venue for the 2022 IIHF World Championship. [29] [30]

Names and etymology

Although the name Tampere is derived from the Tammerkoski rapids (both the city and the rapids are called Tammerfors in Swedish), the origin of the Tammer- part of that name has been the subject of much debate. Ánte accepts the "straightforward" etymology of Rahkonen and Heikkilä in Proto-Samic *Tëmpël(kōškë), *tëmpël meaning "deep, slow section of a stream" and *kōškë "rapids" (cognate with the Finnish koski). [15] [31] [32] [33] This has become the most accepted explanation in the academia, according to the Institute for the Languages of Finland. [34] Other theories include that it comes from the Swedish word damber, meaning milldam; another, that it originates from the ancient Scandinavian words þambr ("thick bellied") and þambion ("swollen belly"), possibly referring to the shape of the rapids. Another suggestion links the name to the Swedish word Kvatemberdagar, or more colloquially Tamperdagar, meaning the Ember days of the Western Christian liturgical calendar. The Finnish word for oak, tammi, also features in the speculation, [35] although Tampere is situated outside the natural distribution range of the European oak. [36]

Heraldry

The first coat of arms in 1839-1960 Tampere.vaakuna.1839-1960.svg
The first coat of arms in 1839–1960

The first coat of arms of Tampere was designed by Arvid von Cederwald in 1838, [37] [38] [39] while the current coat of arms of 1960 in use was designed by Olof Eriksson. [37] Changing the coat of arms was a controversial act and the restoration of the old coat of arms has from time to time been demanded even after the change. [40] The new coat of arms has also been called Soviet-style in letters to the editor because of its colors. [41]

The blazon of the old coat of arms has either not survived or it has never been done, [42] but the description of the current coat of arms is explained as follows: "In the red field, a corrugated counter-bar, above which is accompanied by a piled hammer, and below, a Caduceus; all gold". The colors of the coat of arms are the same as in the coat of arms of Pirkanmaa. The hammer, which looks like the first letter of the city's name T, symbolizes Tampere's early industry, [40] Caduceus its trading activities [40] and the corrugated counter-bar represents the Tammerkoski rapids, which divides Tampere's industrial and commercial areas. [43]

The city received its first seal in 1803, and the seal depicted the city's buildings of that time and Tammerkoski. [44]

History

Early history

Messukyla Old Church, built between 1510 and 1530. Messukyla Old Church.jpg
Messukylä Old Church, built between 1510 and 1530.

The earliest known permanent settlements around Tammerkoski were established in 7th century, when settlers from the west of the region started farming land in Takahuhti. [45] The area was largely inhabited by the Tavastian tribes. [46] For many centuries, the population remained low. By the 16th century, the villages of Messukylä and Takahuhti had grown to be the largest settlements in the region. Other villages nearby were Laiskola, Pyynikkälä and Hatanpää. [45] At that time, there had been a market place in the Pispala area for centuries, where the bourgeoisies from Turku in particular traded. [47] In 1638, Governor-General Per Brahe the Younger ordered that two markets be held in Tammerkoski each year, the autumn market on every Peter's Day in August and the winter market on Mati Day in February. In 1708 the market was moved from the edge of Tammerkoski to Harju and from there in 1758 to Pispala. [48] The early industries in the Pirkanmaa region in the 17th century were mainly watermills and sawmills, while in the 18th century other production began to emerge, as several small-scale ironworks, Tammerkoski distillery and Otavala spinning school were founded. [49]

The birth and industrialization of the city

Tampere seen from the Messukyla side of Tammerkoski in the 1837 artwork by Pehr Adolf Kruskopf. Tampere 1837.jpg
Tampere seen from the Messukylä side of Tammerkoski in the 1837 artwork by Pehr Adolf Kruskopf.

Before the birth of the city of Tampere, its neighboring municipality of Pirkkala (according to which the current Pirkanmaa region got its name) was the most administratively significant parish in the area throughout the Middle Ages. [50] This all changed in the 18th century when Erik Edner, a Finnish pastor, [51] proposed the establishment of a city of Tampere on the banks of the Tammerkoski channel in 1771–1772; [52] it was officially founded as a market place in 1775 by Gustav III of Sweden and four years later, 1 October 1779, [53] Tampere was granted full city rights. At this time, it was a rather small town, founded on the lands belonging to Tammerkoski manor, while its inhabitants were still mainly farmers. As farming on the city's premises was forbidden, the inhabitants began to rely on other methods of securing a livelihood, primarily trade and handicraft. [45] When Finland became part of the Russian Empire as the Grand Duchy of Finland in 1809, Tampere still had less than a thousand inhabitants. [54]

The Renaissance Revival Raatihuone (City Hall), 1890; the "red manifesto" was read from its balcony in 1905. Tampereen kaupungintalo.JPG
The Renaissance Revival Raatihuone (City Hall), 1890; the "red manifesto" was read from its balcony in 1905.
The old Tampella factory in Tampere. Tampella2.jpg
The old Tampella factory in Tampere.

Tampere grew as a major market town and industrial centre in the 19th century; [55] the industrialization of Tampere was greatly influenced by the Finlayson textile factory, founded in 1820 by the Scottish industrialist James Finlayson. By the year 1850, the factory employed around 2000 people, while the population of the city had increased to 4000 inhabitants. Other notable industries that followed Finlayson's success in the 1800s were Tampella blast furnace, machine factory and flax mill, Frenckell paper mill, and Tampere broadcloth factory. [45] Tampere's population grew rapidly at the end of the 19th century, from about 7,000 in 1870 to 36,000 in 1900. At the beginning of the 20th century, Tampere was a city of workers and women, with a third of the population being factory workers and more than half women. [54] At the same time, the city's area almost increased sevenfold and impressive apartment buildings were built in the center of Tampere among modest wooden houses. The stone houses shaped Tampere in a modern direction. The construction of the sewerage and water supply network and the lighting of electric lights also showed renewal. [54]

Geopolitical significance

The city after the Battle of Tampere during the 1918 Civil War Tampere destroyed in Civil War.jpg
The city after the Battle of Tampere during the 1918 Civil War

Tampere was the centre of many important political events of Finland in the early 20th century; for example, the 1905 conference of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP), led by Vladimir Lenin, was held at the Tampere Workers' Hall, where it was decided, among other things, to launch an armed uprising, which eventually led to the October 1917 revolution in the Russian Empire. [56] [57] Also, on 1 November 1905, during the general strike, the famous Red Declaration was proclaimed on Keskustori. [58] In 1918, after Finland had gained independence, Tampere played a major role, being one of the strategically important sites for the Finnish Socialist Workers' Republic (FSWR) during the Civil War in Finland (28 January – 15 May 1918). Tampere was a red stronghold during the war, with Hugo Salmela in command. White forces, led by General Mannerheim, captured the town after the Battle of Tampere, seizing about 10,000 Red prisoners on 6 April 1918. [59] [60]

During the Winter War, Tampere was bombed by the Soviet Union several times. [61] The reason for the bombing of Tampere was that the city was an important railway junction, and also housed the State Aircraft Factory and the Tampella factory, which manufactured munitions and weapons, including grenade launchers. The most devastating bombings were on March 2, 1940, killing nine and wounding 30 city residents. In addition, ten buildings were destroyed and 30 were damaged that day. [62]

Post-war period and modern day

The Social University moves to Tampere in 1960. Yhteiskunnallinen korkeakoulu muuttaa.jpg
The Social University moves to Tampere in 1960.

Prevalent in Tampere's post-World War II municipal politics was the Brothers-in-Arms Axis (aseveliakseli), which mostly constituted of the National Coalition Party and the Social Democrats. While the Centre Party was the largest political force in the Finnish countryside, it had no practical relevance in Tampere. [63]

Tamvisio's camera operators film a television program at Frenckell's studio on January 2, 1965 in Tampere. Filming a television program at Frenckell's studio in Tampere, 1.2.1965 (19746637354).jpg
Tamvisio’s camera operators film a television program at Frenckell’s studio on January 2, 1965 in Tampere.

After World War II, Tampere was enlarged by joining some neighbouring areas. Messukylä was incorporated in 1947, Lielahti in 1950, Aitolahti in 1966 and finally Teisko in 1972. The limit of 100,000 inhabitants was crossed in Tampere in 1950. [64] Tampere was long known for its textile and metal industries, but these have been largely replaced by information technology and telecommunications during the 1990s. The technology centre Hermia in Hervanta is home to many companies in these fields. [65] Yleisradio started broadcasting its second television channel, Yle TV2, in Ristimäki, Tampere in 1965, [66] [67] as a result of which Finland was the first of the Nordic countries to receive a second television channel, after Sweden's SVT2 started broadcasting only four years later. Tampere became a university city when the Social University moved from Helsinki to Tampere in 1960 and became the University of Tampere in 1966. [68] In 1979, Tampere-Pirkkala Airport was opened 13 kilometres (8.1 mi) from the center of Tampere on the side of the Pirkkala municipality. [69] [70]

At the turn of the 1990s, Tampere's industry underwent a major structural change, as the production of Tampella's and Tampere's textile industry in particular was heavily focused on bilateral trade with the Soviet Union, but when it collapsed in 1991 the companies lost their main customers. [16] As a result of the sudden change and the depression of the early 1990s, Finlayson and the Suomen trikoo had to reduce their operations sharply. Tampella went bankrupt. [16] But although the change left a huge amount of vacant industrial space in the city center, in the early 2000s it was gradually put to other uses, with the current Tampere cityscape being characterized above all by strong IT companies, most notably Nokia's Tampere R&D units. [71]

Geography

Islands of Pyynikki at the Lake Pyhajarvi Pyynikinsaaret.jpg
Islands of Pyynikki at the Lake Pyhäjärvi

Tampere is part of the Pirkanmaa region and is surrounded by the municipalities of Kangasala, Lempäälä, Nokia, Orivesi, Pirkkala, Ruovesi, and Ylöjärvi. [72] There are 180 lakes that are larger than 10,000 m2 (1 ha) in Tampere, and fresh water bodies make up 24% of the city's total area. The lakes have formed as separate basins from Ancylus lake approximately 7500–8000 years ago. [73] The northernmost point of Tampere is located in Lake Vankavesi of Teisko, the southernmost at the eastern end of Lake Hervanta, the easternmost at the northeast corner of Lake Paalijärvi of Teisko and the westernmost at the southeast corner of Lake Haukijärvi near the borders of Ylöjärvi and Nokia. [74] The city center itself is surrounded by three lakes, Näsijärvi, Pyhäjärvi and much smaller Iidesjärvi. Tampere region is situated in the Kokemäki River drainage basin, which discharges into the Bothnian Sea through river which flows through Pori, the capital of Satakunta region. [73] The bedrock of Tampere consists of mica shale and migmatite, [75] and its building stone deposits are diverse: in addition to traditional granite, there is an abundance of quartz diorite, tonalite, mica shale and mica gneiss. [76] One of the most notable geographical features in Tampere is Pyynikinharju, a large esker formed from moraine during the Weichselian glaciation. [77] It rises 160 meters above sea level and is said to be one of the largest gravel eskers in the world. [77] It is also part of Salpausselkä, a 200 km long ridge system left by the ice age. [77]

Aerial view of the city center of Tampere (Keskusta) and the Tammerkoski rapids passing through it Tammerkoski from air.jpg
Aerial view of the city center of Tampere (Keskusta) and the Tammerkoski rapids passing through it

The center of Tampere (Keskusta), as well as the Pyynikki, Ylä-Pispala and Ala-Pispala districts, are located on the isthmus between Lake Pyhäjärvi and Lake Näsijärvi. The location of the city on the edge of the Tammerkoski rapids between two long waterways was one of the most important stimuli for its establishment in the 1770s. [78] The streets of central Tampere form a typical grid pattern. On the western edge of the city center, there is a north–south park street, Hämeenpuisto ("Häme Park" or "Tavastia Park"), which leads from the shore of Lake Pyhäjärvi near Lake Näsijärvi. The wide Hämeenkatu street leads east–west from the Tampere Central Station to Hämeenpuisto and crosses Tammerkoski along the Hämeensilta bridge. Also along Hämeenkatu is the longest street in the city center, Satakunnankatu, which extends from Rautatienkatu to Pyynikki, which crosses Tammerkoski along the Satakunnansilta bridge. The Tampere Central Square is located on the western shore of Tammerkoski, close to Hämeensilta. [79] The traffic center of Tampere is the intersection of Itsenäisyydenkatu, [lower-alpha 2] Teiskontie, Sammonkatu, Kalevanpuisto park street, and Kaleva and Liisankallio districts. [80]

Neighbourhoods and other subdivisions

The city of Tampere is divided into seven subdivisions, each of which includes the many districts and their suburbs. There are a total of 111 statistical areas in Tampere. However, the statistical areas made for Tampere's statistics do not fully correspond to the Tampere district division or the residents' perception of the districts, as the Amuri, Kyttälä and Tammela districts, for example, are divided into two parts corresponding to the official district division, and in addition to this, Liisankallio and Kalevanrinne are often considered to belong to the Kaleva district. [81]

Climate

Tampere has a warm-summer humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb). Winters are cold and the average temperature from December to March is below 0 °C (32 °F). Summers are cool to warm. On average, snow cover lasts 4–5 months from late November to early April. Considering it being close to the subarctic threshold and inland, winters are, on average, quite mild for the classification, as is the annual mean temperature.[ citation needed ]

Climate data for Tampere–Pirkkala Airport (TMP), elevation: 119 metres (390 ft), [lower-alpha 3] 1991–2010 normals, precipitation 1981-2010, extremes 1900–present
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)8.0
(46.4)
9.4
(48.9)
14.9
(58.8)
24.2
(75.6)
28.4
(83.1)
31.7
(89.1)
33.1
(91.6)
32.1
(89.8)
24.8
(76.6)
18.4
(65.1)
11.1
(52.0)
9.6
(49.3)
33.1
(91.6)
Average high °C (°F)−3.6
(25.5)
−3.2
(26.2)
1.5
(34.7)
8.3
(46.9)
15.2
(59.4)
19.0
(66.2)
22.0
(71.6)
20.0
(68.0)
14.5
(58.1)
7.3
(45.1)
2.0
(35.6)
−1.2
(29.8)
8.5
(47.3)
Daily mean °C (°F)−5.1
(22.8)
−6.4
(20.5)
−2.8
(27.0)
4.0
(39.2)
9.4
(48.9)
13.5
(56.3)
17.4
(63.3)
15.7
(60.3)
10.5
(50.9)
4.7
(40.5)
0.3
(32.5)
−2.9
(26.8)
4.9
(40.8)
Average low °C (°F)−7.8
(18.0)
−8.7
(16.3)
−5.9
(21.4)
−0.9
(30.4)
4.3
(39.7)
8.9
(48.0)
12.2
(54.0)
10.7
(51.3)
6.5
(43.7)
2.1
(35.8)
−1.3
(29.7)
−4.7
(23.5)
0.3
(32.5)
Record low °C (°F)−37.0
(−34.6)
−36.8
(−34.2)
−29.6
(−21.3)
−19.6
(−3.3)
−7.3
(18.9)
−2.8
(27.0)
1.8
(35.2)
−0.4
(31.3)
−6.7
(19.9)
−14.8
(5.4)
−22.5
(−8.5)
−34.2
(−29.6)
−37.0
(−34.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches)41
(1.6)
29
(1.1)
31
(1.2)
32
(1.3)
41
(1.6)
66
(2.6)
75
(3.0)
72
(2.8)
58
(2.3)
60
(2.4)
51
(2.0)
42
(1.7)
598
(23.5)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)221816121213151514172122197
Average relative humidity (%)90878270636669768287919280
Source 1: weatheronline.co.uk [82]
Source 2: FMI (precipitation, record highs and lows) [83]

Temperature records of Tampere

Temperature records of Tampere and the near-by Tampere–Pirkkala Airport: [84]

Temperature Records of Tampere
Highest temperatures by month
Month°CDateLocation
June32.3°18 June 1939 Mouhijärvi
July33.1°9 July 1914 Härmälä
August32.1°10 August 1912 Härmälä

Highest temperatures at the Tampere–Pirkkala Airport by month since 1980: [84]

Pirkkala Airport highest temperatures by month since 1980
Month°CYear
January8.0°2007
February9.4°1990
March14.9°2007
April24.2°1998
May29.3°2014
June31.7°1999
July32.5°2010
August31.1°1992
September24.8°1999
October17.5°1984
November12.4°2015
December10.3°2015

Lowest temperatures in Tampere: [84]

Lowest temperatures by month
Month°CDateLocation
January−38.5°9 January 1987 Aitoneva, Kihniö
February−40.9°3 February 1966 Mouhijärvi

Lowest temperatures at the Tampere–Pirkkala Airport by month since 1980: [84]

Pirkkala Airport lowest temperatures by month since 1980
Month°CYear
January−35.8°1987
February−31.8°2007
March−29.1°1981
April−14.8°1988
May−7.2°1999
June−3.0°1984
July1.5°1987
August−0.4°1984
September−7.0°1986
October−16.4°1992
November−22.0°1990
December−33.0°1995

Economy

Tampere's Hotel Torni, the tallest hotel building in Finland Hotelli Torni Tampere.jpg
Tampere's Hotel Torni, the tallest hotel building in Finland
Sarkanniemi amusement park is the most popular tourist destination of Tampere Sarkanniemi - Trombi5.jpg
Särkänniemi amusement park is the most popular tourist destination of Tampere

The Tampere region, Pirkanmaa, which includes outlying municipalities, has around 509,000 residents, [86] 244,000 employed people, [87] and a turnover of 28 billion euros as of 2014. [88]

According to the Tampere International Business Office, the area is strong in mechanical engineering and automation, information and communication technologies, and health and biotechnology, as well as pulp and paper industry education. Unemployment rate was 15.7% in August 2020. [89] 70% of the areas jobs are in the service sector. Less than 20% are in the manufacturing sector. 34.5% of employed people live outside the Tampere municipality and commute to Tampere for work. Meanwhile, 15.6% of Tampere's residents work outside Tampere. [90] In 2014 the largest employers were Kesko, Pirkanmaan Osuuskauppa, Alma Media and Posti Group. [91]

According to a study carried out by the Synergos Research and Training Center of the University of Tampere, the total impact of tourism in the Tampere region in 2012 was more than 909 million euros. Tourism also brought 4,805 person-years to the region. [92] The biggest single attraction in Tampere is the Särkänniemi amusement park, which had about 630,000 visitors in 2016. [93] In addition, in 2015, 1,021,151 overnight stays were made in Tampere hotels. The number exceeded the previous record year with more than 20,000 overnight stays. All that makes Tampere the second most popular city in Finland after Helsinki in terms of hotel stays. Leisure tourism accounted for 55,4% of overnight stays and occupational tourism for 43,2%. The occupancy rate of all accommodation establishments with more than 20 rooms was 57,0%, while that of accommodation establishments in the whole country was 48,3%. [94]

Tampere's economic profit in 2015 was the worst of big Finnish cities. [95] In 2016 the loss of the fiscal year was 18,8 million euros. [96] In the city's economy, the largest revenues come from taxes and government contributions. In 2015, the city received 761 million euros in municipal tax revenue. In addition, 61,4 million euros came from corporate taxes and 64 million euros from property taxes. [97] Tax revenues have not increased as expected in the 2010s, although the city's population has increased. This has been affected by high unemployment. [98]

Energy

Lielahti Power Plant Lielahti power station.jpg
Lielahti Power Plant

In 2013, Tampereen Energiantuotanto, which is part of the Tampereen Sähkölaitos Group, generated 1,254 GWh of electricity and 2,184 GWh of district heating. The two units of the Naistenlahti's power plant generated a total of about 65% and the Lielahti's power plant about 30% of the electricity production. In district heating production, the Naistenlahti power plant units accounted for 57% and the Lielahti power plant for 23%. Tampere's ten heating centers accounted for 21%. [99]

In 2013, the share of natural gas in energy production was about 65%. Wood and peat accounted for about 17%. In addition, hydropower and oil were used. [99] Emissions from energy production have decreased in the 21st century due to the growth of renewable forms of production and the modernization of the Naistenlahti plant. In 2013, approximately 669,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions and 297 tonnes of sulfur dioxide emissions were generated. [100]

Water and waste management

66,5% of Tampere's domestic water is surface water and 33,5% groundwater. 58% of the water was diverted to economic use and 13% to industrial use. In addition to Tampere, Tampereen Vesi manages water in Pirkkala. Almost all surface water comes from Lake Roine. In addition, Tampereen Vesi has four surface water plants in Lake Näsijärvi and five groundwater intakes. [101] Tampereen Vesi is 96% responsible for the wastewater of Tampere, Kangasala, Pirkkala and Ylöjärvi. In 2012, a total of 31,9 million cubic meters of wastewater was treated in Tampere. The Viinikanlahti treatment plant treats more than 75% of wastewater. [102]

Pirkanmaan Jätehuolto handles waste management in Tampere. It has waste treatment facilities in Nokia's Lake Koukkujärvi and Tampere's Lake Tarastenjärvi. [103]

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1815793    
18503,207+304.4%
190036,344+1033.3%
193978,012+114.6%
1972163,609+109.7%
1980166,228+1.6%
1990172,560+3.8%
2000195,468+13.3%
2010213,217+9.1%
2020238,671+11.9%
2030262,777+10.1%
2040272,611+3.7%
Source: Statistics Finland

Tampere has 238,671 inhabitants, making it the third most populous municipality in Finland and the tenth in the Nordics. The Tampere region, which has 410,689 inhabitants, is the second largest urban area after Helsinki. [104] 8% of the population has a foreign background, which is lower than Helsinki and Turku but higher than Oulu. [105]

People with a foreign background [106]
Country of originPopulation (2019)
Flag of Russia.svg Russia3,305
Flag of Iraq.svg Iraq1,691
Flag of Afghanistan.svg Afghanistan1,405
Flag of Sweden.svg Sweden1,142
Flag of Estonia.svg Estonia1,088
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg China757
Flag of Iran.svg Iran754
Flag of Yugoslavia (1946-1992).svg Yugoslavia692
Flag of India.svg India665
Flag of Somalia.svg Somalia589

The demographic structure of Tampere shows the city's position as a very popular place to study, as the number of young adults is clearly higher than in other municipalities in the region. At the end of 2012, the population dependency ratio was 45. About 17,3% of the population was over 65 years of age. [107] Just over half of the population is women, as in the whole country. The population is fairly educated, with two-thirds of those over 15 having completed post-primary education. [108]

Tampere is Finland's largest monolingual Finnish-speaking municipality. In 2013, 1,172 Swedish-speakers lived in Tampere, ie their share of the Tampere population was about half a per cent. This is the second largest number of Swedish-speakers in monolingual Finnish-speaking municipalities after Kaarina. Kaarina and Tampere are also the only monolingual Finnish-speaking municipalities with a separate Swedish-speaking congregation. In 1900, Swedes accounted for more than six per cent of Tampere's population and in 1950 for less than two per cent. [109]

At the end of 2018, there were a total of 140,039 dwellings in Tampere, of which 127,639 were permanently inhabited and 12,400 were not permanently inhabited. [110] Of these, 74% were apartment buildings, 14 detached houses, 10 terraced houses and 2% other residential buildings. Between 2002 and 2020, more than 40,000 new apartments have been completed in Tampere. [111] Living space has been growing for a long time, although growth virtually came to a halt after 2008. The average living space at the end of 2012 was about 36,8 km² per inhabitant, compared to about 19,2 km² in 1970 and about 31,8 km² in 1990. The average population of a dwelling in 2012 was about 1,8 inhabitants. [107]

Tampere's population growth in 1980–2020
YearPopulation
1980
166 228
1985
169 026
1990
172 560
1995
182 742
2000
195 468
2005
204 337
2010
213 217
2015
225 118
2020
238 420
Source: Statistics Finland. [112]

Urban areas

Vuores, a statistical area close to the border of Tampere and Lempaala Vuores.jpg
Vuores, a statistical area close to the border of Tampere and Lempäälä

In 2019, out of the total population of 238,140, 231,648 people lived in urban areas and 3,132 in sparsely populated areas, while the coordinates of 3,360 people were unknown. This made Tampere's degree of urbanization 98.7%. [113] The urban population in the municipality was divided between three statistical urban areas as follows: [114]

#Urban areaPopulation
1 Tampere urban area 225,440
2 Vuores 5,316
3 Kämmenniemi 892

Education

Tampere University, Festia building TUT Festia.JPG
Tampere University, Festia building

The comprehensive education is given mainly in Finnish but the city has special bilingual groups where students study in Finnish and a second language (English, French or German). [115] Furthermore, there is a private Swedish-speaking school (Swedish Svenska samskolan i Tammerfors) that covers all levels of education from preschool to high school. [116]

There are three institutions of higher education in the Tampere area totaling 40,000 students: the university and two polytechnic institutions (Finnish : ammattikorkeakoulu). Tampere University (TUNI) has over 20,000 students and is located in two campuses, one in the Kalevanharju district, close to the city centre, and one in Hervanta, in the southern part of the city. The institution was formed in 2019 as a result of the merge of University of Tampere (UTA) and Tampere University of Technology (TUT). TUNI is also the major shareholder of the Tampere University of Applied Sciences (Tampereen ammattikorkeakoulu, TAMK), a polytechnic counting about 10,000 students. [117] The Police University College, the polytechnic institution serving all of Finland in its field of specialization, is also located in Tampere. [118] [119]

Tampere University Hospital (Tampereen yliopistollinen sairaala, TAYS) in the Kauppi district, one of the main hospitals in Finland, is affiliated with Tampere University. It is a teaching hospital with 34 medical specializations.

Arts and culture

The Tammerkoski rapids in Tampere at night in 2015. The Festival of Light has just opened and an old, large factory chimney is lit in red on the right side of the rapids and contrasts with the blue lighting of the trees beneath it. The array of colours is reflected by the water of the rapids. Tammerkoski (22286032958).jpg
The Tammerkoski rapids in Tampere at night in 2015. The Festival of Light has just opened and an old, large factory chimney is lit in red on the right side of the rapids and contrasts with the blue lighting of the trees beneath it. The array of colours is reflected by the water of the rapids.

Tampere is known for its active cultural life. Some of the most popular writers in Finland, such as Väinö Linna, Kalle Päätalo, and Hannu Salama, hail from Tampere. These authors are known particularly as writers depicting the lives of working-class people, thanks to their respective backgrounds as members of the working class. Also from such a background was the poet Lauri Viita of the Pispala district, which was also the original home of the aforementioned Hannu Salama.[ citation needed ] On October 1, Tampere celebrates the annual Tampere Day (Finnish : Tampereen päivä), which hosts a variety of public events. [120] [121]

Media

An office building of Aamulehti newspaper in the Nalkala district Aamulehden talo, Hallituskatu 14, Tampere.jpg
An office building of Aamulehti newspaper in the Nalkala district

Tampere has a strong media city, as the television center in Tohloppi and Ristimäki districts has had a nationwide Yle TV2 television channel since the 1970s, [122] and Finnish radio, for example, began in Tampere when Arvi Hauvonen founded the first broadcasting station in 1923. [122] Yle TV2 has its roots in Tamvisio, which was transferred to Yleisradio in 1964. Kakkoskanava ("Channel 2") has been a major influence in Tampere, and several well-known television programs and series have been shot in the city, [122] such as TV comedies Tankki täyteen , Reinikainen and Kummeli . The Tampere Film Festival, an annual international short film event, is held every March. [123]

In 2014, Aamulehti , which was published in Tampere, was the third largest newspaper in Finland in terms of circulation, after Helsingin Sanomat and Ilta-Sanomat . The circulation of the magazine was 106,842 (2014). [124] In addition, a free city newspaper Tamperelainen (literally translated "Tamperean", meaning person who live in Tampere) will be published in the city. [122]

The city is also known as the home of the popular Hydraulic Press Channel on YouTube, which originates from a machine shop owned by Lauri Vuohensilta. [125]

Food

Mustamakkara ("black sausage"), a speciality food from Tampere, is typically consumed with lingonberry jam Mustamakkara2019.jpg
Mustamakkara ("black sausage"), a speciality food from Tampere, is typically consumed with lingonberry jam
Tampere claims to be the "wings capital of Finland", consuming almost half of the hot wings in Finland. The restaurant chain Siipiweikot originates from Tampere. Almost half of the chicken wings sold in Finland are eaten exclusively in Pirkanmaa. Chicken wings meal at Siipiweikot.jpg
Tampere claims to be the "wings capital of Finland", consuming almost half of the hot wings in Finland. The restaurant chain Siipiweikot originates from Tampere. Almost half of the chicken wings sold in Finland are eaten exclusively in Pirkanmaa.

A local food speciality is mustamakkara , which resembles the black pudding of northern England. It is a black sausage made by mixing pork, pig's blood and crushed rye and flour and is stuffed into the intestines of an animal. It is commonly eaten with lingonberry sauce. Especially Tammelantori square in the district of Tammela is known for its mustamakkara kiosks. [127]

A newer Tampere tradition are munkki, fresh sugary doughnuts that are sold in several cafés around Tampere, but most traditionally in Pyynikki observation tower. [128]

One of the specialties of Tampere's local barbecue dishes include the peremech (Finnish : pärämätsi) based on traditional Tatar food. It is a pie reminiscent of Karelian pasty with seasoned ground meat inside. [129] [130]

In the 1980s, in addition to mustamakkara and barley bread, the old parish dish of Tampere was also called a potato soup, home-made small beer (kotikalja), a sweetened lingonberry porridge and a sweetened potato casserole (Imelletty perunalaatikko). [131]

Music

Judas Priest performing as one of the headliners at the 2011 Sauna Open Air Metal Festival. Judas Priest, paalava, Sauna Open Air 2011, Tampere, 11.6.2011 (30).JPG
Judas Priest performing as one of the headliners at the 2011 Sauna Open Air Metal Festival.

Tampere is home to the Tampere Philharmonic Orchestra (Tampere Filharmonia), which is one of only two full-sized symphony orchestras in Finland; the other one is located in Helsinki. The orchestra's home venue is the Tampere Hall, and their concerts include classical, popular, and film music. Tampere Music Festivals organises three international music events: The Tampere Jazz Happening each November, and in alternate years The Tampere Vocal Music Festival and the Tampere Biennale. Professional education in many fields of classical music, including performing arts, pedagogic arts, and composition, is provided by Tampere University of Applied Sciences and Tampere Conservatoire. Tammerfest, Tampere's urban rock festival, is held every July. [132] The Blockfest  [ fi ], which also takes place in Tampere during the summer months, [132] is the largest hip hop event in the Nordic countries. [133] The Tampere Floral Festival is an annual event, held each Summer.[ citation needed ]

Manserock became a general term for rock music from Tampere, which was essentially rock music with Finnish lyrics. Manserock was especially popular during the 1970s and 1980s, and its most popular artists included Juice Leskinen, Virtanen, Kaseva, Popeda, and Eppu Normaali. In 1977, Poko Records, the first record company in Tampere, was founded. [134]

In the 2010s, there has been a lot of popular musical activity in Tampere, particularly in the fields of rock and heavy/black metal; one of the most important metal music events in Tampere is the Sauna Open Air Metal Festival. [135] Some of the most popular bands based in Tampere include Negative, Uniklubi, and Lovex. Tampere also has an active electronic music scene. Tampere hosts an annual World of Tango Festival (Maailmantango), [136] which is one of the most significant tango events in Finland next to the Tangomarkkinat of Seinäjoki.

Theatre

The Tampere Theatre (Finnish: Tampereen Teatteri) Tampereen teatteri.jpg
The Tampere Theatre (Finnish: Tampereen Teatteri)

Tampere has a lengthy tradition of theater, with established institutions such as Tampereen Työväen Teatteri, Tampereen Teatteri, and Pyynikin Kesäteatteri, which is an open-air theatre with the oldest revolving auditorium in Europe. The longest-running directors of the Tampereen Teatteri include Eino Salmelainen and Rauli Lehtonen, and the Tampereen Työväen Teatteri has Kosti Elo, Eino Salmelainen and Lasse Pöysti. [137] The Tampere Theatre Festival (Tampereen teatterikesä) is an international theatre festival held in the city each August. Tampere also has the Tampere Opera, founded in 1946. [138]

Tampere's other professional theaters are Teatteri Siperia; restaurant theater Teatteripalatsi; Teatteri Telakka, known for its artistic experiments; Ahaa Teatteri, which specializes in children's and young people's plays; puppet theater Teatteri Mukamas, and Tanssiteatteri MD, specializes in contemporary dance performances. [139] In addition, there are also three cinemas in Tampere: two Finnkino's theaters, Cine Atlas and Plevna, [140] [141] and private Arthouse Cinema Niagara, [142] which serves as the main venue for the Cinemadrome Festival, which presents horror, action, sci-fi, trash, and other cult films. [143]

Religion

Cathedral of Tampere in the Jussinkyla district, designed by Finnish architect Lars Sonck Tampere, cattedrale, ext. 01.JPG
Cathedral of Tampere in the Jussinkylä district, designed by Finnish architect Lars Sonck
The Old Church (Vanha kirkko) on the edge of the Tampere Central Square. Tamperechristmas.jpg
The Old Church (Vanha kirkko) on the edge of the Tampere Central Square.

As is the case with most of the rest of Finland, most Tampere citizens belong to the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland. One Lutheran church in Tampere is Finlayson Church in the district by the same name. Tampere also has a variety of other religious services spanning from traditional to charismatic. There are also some English speaking services, such as the Tampere English Service, an international community affiliated with the Tampere Pentecostal Church. English services of the International Congregation of Christ the King (ICCK) are organized by the Anglican Church in Finland and the Lutheran Parishes of Tampere. The Catholic parish of the Holy Cross [144] also offers services in Finnish, Polish and English. Other churches may also have English speaking ministries. Tampere is the center of a LDS stake (diocese). Other churches in Tampere are the Baptist Church, the Evangelical Free Church, the Evangelical Lutheran Mission Diocese of Finland, the Finnish Orthodox Church and the Nokia Revival.

The Jews had an organized community until 1981. Though a small number of Jews remain in Tampere, organized communal life ended at that time. [145]

There are three registered Muslim communities in Tampere. The biggest of them being Tampere Islam Society with over 1500 members. [146]

City rivalry with Turku

Tampere ostensibly has a long-standing mutual feud with the city of Turku, the first capital of Finland, and they tend to compete for the title of being the "second grand city of Finland" after Helsinki. [147] [148] This hostility is largely expressed in jokes in one city about the other; prominent targets are the traditional Tampere food, mustamakkara , the state of the Aura River in Turku, and the regional accents. Tampere is well known as a food destination because of its food culture. Since 1997, students at Tampere have made annual excursions to Turku to jump on the market square, doing their part to undo the post-glacial rebound and push the city back into the Baltic Sea. [149]

Sites of interest

Tammerkoski and Nasijarvi seen from Nasinneula. Nasinneula view 18.jpg
Tammerkoski and Näsijärvi seen from Näsinneula.
The Kaleva Church, designed by Reima and Raili Pietila, in Liisankallio. Kaleva Church 4.jpg
The Kaleva Church, designed by Reima and Raili Pietilä, in Liisankallio.
Interior of the Tampere Market Hall. Tampere market hall inside.jpg
Interior of the Tampere Market Hall.

One of the main tourist attractions is the Särkänniemi amusement park, which includes the landmark Näsinneula tower, topped by a revolving restaurant. In addition to these, it used to house a dolphinarium. Other sites of interest are Tampere Cathedral, Tampere City Hall, Tampere Central Library Metso ("Capercaillie"), Kaleva Church (both designed by Reima Pietilä), the Tampere Hall (along Hämeenkatu) for conferences and concerts, the Tampere Market Hall and historical Pyynikki observation tower.

Tampere has at least seven hotels, the most noteworthy of which are Hotel Tammer, Hotel Ilves, and Hotel Torni, the tallest hotel building in Finland. [85] There are also many significant shopping centers in the city center of Tampere and its suburbs; the most notable shopping centers are DUO, [150] Like [151] and Tullintori. [152]

Tampere is also home to one of the last museums in the world dedicated to Vladimir Lenin. The museum is housed in the Tampere Workers' Hall (along Hallituskatu) where during a subsequent Bolshevik conference in the city, Lenin met Joseph Stalin for the first time. [153] [154] Lenin moved to Tampere in August 1905, but eventually fled for Sweden in November 1907 when being pursued by the Russian Okhrana. Lenin would not return to any part of the Russian Empire until ten years later, when he heard of the start of the Russian Revolution of 1917.

There are many museums and galleries, including:

Pispala

Pispala is a ridge located between the two lakes. It is divided into Ylä-Pispala ("Upper Pispala") and Ala-Pispala ("Lower Pispala"). It's the highest gravel ridge in the world, raising 80 metres (260 ft) above Lake Pyhäjärvi and around 160 metres (520 ft) above sea level. It was used to house the majority of industrial labour in the late 19th and early 20th century, when it was part of Suur-Pirkkala and its successor Pohjois-Pirkkala. It was a free area to be built upon by the working-class people working in Tampere factories. It joined Tampere in 1937. Currently it is a residential area undergoing significant redevelopment and together with neighbouring Pyynikki it forms an important historical area of Tampere.

Events

Sports

Tampere Stadium (or Ratina Stadium) in February 2007 Ratina stadion.JPG
Tampere Stadium (or Ratina Stadium) in February 2007

Tampere's sporting scene is mainly driven by ice hockey. The first Finnish ice hockey match was played in Tampere, on the ice of Pyhäjärvi. Tampere is nicknamed the hometown of Finnish ice hockey. Three exceptional ice hockey teams come from Tampere: Tappara, Ilves and KOOVEE. Especially both Tappara and Ilves have had a great impact on Finnish ice hockey culture and are among the most successful teams in Finland. The Finnish ice hockey museum, and the first ice hockey arena to be built in Finland, the Hakametsä arena, are both located in Tampere. Construction of a new main ice hockey arena, Tampere Deck Arena, began in 2018, and is supposed to be finished by 2021. The name of the new arena will be UROS LIVE. [161]

Association football is also a popular sport in Tampere. Ilves alone has over 4,000 players in its football teams, while Tampere boasts over 100 (mostly junior) football teams. Basketball is another popular sport in Tampere. The city has three basketball teams with big junior activity and one of them, Tampereen Pyrintö, plays on the highest level (Korisliiga) and was the Finnish Champion in 2010, 2011, and 2014. Tampere Saints is the American football club in the city. The Saints won division 2 in 2015 and plays in the Maple League (division 1) in summer 2017.

Tampere has a baseball and softball club, the Tampere Tigers. The club's baseball team plays in the top division of Finnish baseball.

Tampere hosted some of the preliminaries for the 1952 Summer Olympics, the 1965 World Ice Hockey Championships and was co-host of the EuroBasket 1967. The city also hosted two canoe sprint world championships, in 1973 and 1983. In 1977, Tampere hosted the World Rowing Junior Championships and in 1995 the Senior World Rowing Championships. Recently, Tampere was the host of the 10th European Youth Olympic Festival from 17 to 25 July 2009 and the 2010 World Ringette Championships from 1 to 6 November at Hakametsä arena.

Concerts

Ratina Stadium of Tampere has served as the venue for many of the most significant concerts, most notably in connection with the Endless Forms Most Beautiful World Tour in 2015 by the band Nightwish. [162] [163] Other noteworthy tours from other bands held at Ratina Stadium include Iron Maiden ( Somewhere Back in Time World Tour , 2008), Bruce Springsteen ( Working on a Dream Tour , 2009), AC/DC ( Black Ice World Tour , 2010), Red Hot Chili Peppers ( I'm with You World Tour , 2012), Bon Jovi ( Because We Can World Tour , 2013), Robbie Williams ( The Heavy Entertainment Show Tour , 2017) and Rammstein ( Rammstein Stadium Tour , 2019).

Transport

Bus terminals at the Tampere Central Square (Finnish: Keskustori) Keskustori bus terminals1.jpg
Bus terminals at the Tampere Central Square (Finnish: Keskustori)
Tampere-Pirkkala Airport Tampere-Pirkkala Airport.JPG
Tampere–Pirkkala Airport

Tampere is an important railroad hub in Finland and there are direct railroad connections to, for example, Helsinki, Turku and the Port of Turku, Oulu, Jyväskylä, and Pori. The Tampere Central Railway Station is located in the city center. There are also frequent bus connections to destinations around Finland. To the south of Tampere, there is the Tampere Ring Road, which is important for car traffic and which is part of Finnish highways number 3 (on the west side) and number 9 (on the east side). Teiskontie, which runs east of the city center, is part of Highway 12 in the direction of Lahti.

Tampere is served by Tampere–Pirkkala Airport, located in neighboring municipality Pirkkala some 13 km (8 mi) southwest of the city.

Train from Helsinki to Kolari stopping at Tampere Train from Helsinki to Kolari stopping at Tampere.jpg
Train from Helsinki to Kolari stopping at Tampere

The public transport network in Tampere currently consists solely of a bus network. Between 1948 and 1976 the city also had an extensive trolleybus network, which was also the largest trolleybus system in Finland. [164] As of 2017, construction is underway for a light rail system in the city to replace some of the more popular bus lines (see Tampere light rail ), as well as initiating commuter rail service on the railroad lines connecting Tampere to the neighbouring towns of Nokia and Lempäälä. [165] Light rail traffic is expected to begin in August 2021. [166]

In 2015, the Port of Tampere, [167] the charter port area carrying passengers on the shores of Lake Näsijärvi and Lake Pyhäjärvi, [168] was the busiest inland waterway in Finland in terms of the number of passengers (71,750). [169] A partial explanation for the high number of passengers can be found in the summer traffic to the Viikinsaari island in Lake Pyhäjärvi, where people travel for an excursion or various cultural events such as watching a summer theater. [170] Domestic passenger and connecting vessel traffic was only busier in the Finnish sea area in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area, between mainland Finland and the Åland Islands in the Archipelago Sea. [169]

In the 2010s, Tampere has made efforts to invest in the smooth running of cycling and walkability. [171] Thanks to it, the city was awarded the title of "Cycling Municipality of the Year" in 2013. [172] According to a survey conducted in 2015, the attractiveness of both cycling and walking had increased during 2014 and 2015. [173] In any case, during the 21st century, the growth of bicycle traffic has been clearly faster than the growth of the city's population, and the number of cycles has increased by an average of about 2% per year. [174]

Distances to other cities

Government

The Tampere City Central Office [fi] (Tampereen keskusvirastotalo), an administrative building of the City Council of Tampere along the Aleksis Kiven katu street. Tampere city central government office building.jpg
The Tampere City Central Office  [ fi ] (Tampereen keskusvirastotalo), an administrative building of the City Council of Tampere along the Aleksis Kiven katu street.

In 2007, Tampere switched to a new model of government. Since then, a mayor and four deputy mayors have been chosen for a period of four years by the city council. The mayor also becomes the seat of the city council for the duration of the tenure.

Mayors over time

Notable people

Born before 1900

James Finlayson, Scottish Quaker and industrialist best known for founding the Finlayson company James Finlayson (1771-1852).jpg
James Finlayson, Scottish Quaker and industrialist best known for founding the Finlayson company
J. K. Paasikivi, the Prime Minister of Finland and later the 7th President of Finland Juho Kusti Paasikivi.jpg
J. K. Paasikivi, the Prime Minister of Finland and later the 7th President of Finland

Born after 1900

Aleksander Barkov, ice hockey player Aleksander Barkov 2016.jpg
Aleksander Barkov, ice hockey player
Vaino Linna, author of The Unknown Soldier and Under the North Star trilogy Vaino-Linna-1976.jpg
Väinö Linna, author of The Unknown Soldier and Under the North Star trilogy
Sanna Marin, current Prime Minister of Finland Prime Minister of Finland Sanna Marin 2019 (cropped).jpg
Sanna Marin, current Prime Minister of Finland

International relations

Twin towns – sister cities

Tampere is twinned with:

Friendship cities

Tampere has two additional "friendship cities":

See also

Notes

  1. Pronounced in almost the same way as Nashville
  2. Formerly known as Puolimatkankatu
  3. Mean value of the airport and not the weather station

Further reading

Related Research Articles

Tourism in Finland Overview of tourism in Finland

Finland attracted over 6.8 million foreign tourists in 2018, with 53 percent coming from other European Union states. In 2017, the value added by tourism was about 4.6 billion euros, or 2.6% of the Finnish GDP, providing approximately 140,200 jobs.

Lempäälä Municipality in Pirkanmaa, Finland

Lempäälä is a municipality in the Pirkanmaa region of Finland with 23,877 inhabitants. Lempäälä is located south of the city of Tampere. The municipality covers an area of 307.06 square kilometres (118.56 sq mi) of which 37.51 km2 (14.48 sq mi) is water. The population density is 88.58 inhabitants per square kilometre (229.4/sq mi).

Pori City in Satakunta, Finland

Pori is a city and municipality on the west coast of Finland. The city is located some 10 kilometres (6 mi) from the Gulf of Bothnia, on the estuary of the Kokemäki River, 110 kilometres (68 mi) west of Tampere, 140 kilometres (87 mi) north of Turku and 241 kilometres (150 mi) north-west of Helsinki, the capital of Finland. Pori was established in 1558 by Duke John, who later became John III of Sweden.

Näsijärvi

Näsijärvi is a lake 95 metres (312 ft) above sea level, in the Pirkanmaa region of southern Finland. Näsijärvi is the biggest lake in the Tampere area at 256 square kilometres (99 sq mi) in size. The city of Tampere was built along the Tammerkoski rapids, through which the lake drains into Pyhäjärvi. The water quality of the lake has improved as forest industry has decreased the amount of waste water.

Pirkkala Municipality in Pirkanmaa, Finland

Pirkkala is a municipality of Finland. It is located some 10 kilometres (6 mi) south-west from Tampere in the Pirkanmaa region. The municipality has a population of 19,904 and covers an area of 104.04 square kilometres (40.17 sq mi) of which 22.66 km2 (8.75 sq mi) is water. The population density is 244.58 inhabitants per square kilometre (633.5/sq mi), which make it the most densely populated municipality in Finland, which does not use the title of town or city. Also, Pirkkala is currently the fastest-growing municipality in the Pirkanmaa region. The municipality is unilingually Finnish.

Pirkanmaa Region of Finland

Pirkanmaa, is a region of Finland. It borders the regions of Satakunta, South Ostrobothnia, Central Finland, Päijät-Häme, Kanta-Häme and Southwest Finland. Most of the water area in the Kokemäki River watershed is located in the Pirkanmaa region, although Lake Vanajavesi is partly in the Kanta-Häme region. The region got its name from Pirkkala, which in the Middle Ages comprised most of present-day Pirkanmaa. Tampere is the regional center and capital of Pirkanmaa, and at the same time the largest city in the region.

Satakunta Region of Finland

Satakunta is a region of Finland, part of the former Western Finland Province. It borders the regions of Southwest Finland, Pirkanmaa, South Ostrobothnia and Ostrobothnia. The capital city of the region is Pori. The name of the region literally means Hundred. The historical province of the same name was a larger area within Finland, covering modern Satakunta as well as much of Pirkanmaa.

Kokemäki Town in Satakunta, Finland

Kokemäki is a town and municipality in the Satakunta Region of Finland. The town has a population of 6,990 and covers an area of 531.27 square kilometres (205.12 sq mi) of which 50.04 km2 (19.32 sq mi) is water. The population density is 14.53 inhabitants per square kilometre (37.6/sq mi).

Battle of Tampere Major battle of the Finnish Civil War

The Battle of Tampere was a 1918 Finnish Civil War battle, fought in Tampere, Finland from 15 March to 6 April between the Whites and the Reds. It is the most famous and the heaviest of all the Finnish Civil War battles. Today it is particularly remembered for its bloody aftermath as the Whites executed hundreds of capitulated Reds and took 11,000 prisoners placed in the Kalevankangas camp.

Tammerkoski

Tammerkoski is a channel of rapids in Tampere, Finland. The city of Tampere is located between two lakes, Näsijärvi and Pyhäjärvi. The difference in altitude between these two is 18 metres (59 ft) and the water flows from Näsijärvi to Pyhäjärvi through the Tammerkoski rapids. The banks of the Tammerkoski are among the oldest industrial areas in Finland. There was a busy marketplace in the 17th century. Tampere was founded on the banks of the rapids, as the rushing water provided a great deal of power for the needs of industry.

Pispala City area in Tampere, Finland

Pispala is a city area 2.5 km from the centre of Tampere, Finland. It is located on the northern slope of Pispalanharju, the highest esker in Finland.

Samuel Harjanne is a director originally from Finland. He is currently living in Denmark. Before his career as a director, he performed voice-dubbing roles in the Finnish language for foreign media, including major character roles, as well as in various musicals in the Finnish and Swedish speaking theatres in Finland. He has directed and/or acted in theaters in Finland, such as: Helsinki City Theatre, Åbo Svenska Teater, Turku City Theatre, Wasa Teater, Tampereen Työväen Teatteri and Tampereen teatteri. He has directed many musicals, ranging from Disney to Altar Boyz, and since the success of his production of Kinky Boots in Helsinki 2018, he is considered a notable musical theatre director of Finland.

Tiina Puumalainen is a Finnish theatre director and a playwright. She has directed drama, opera and musicals for the stage.

Teppo Järvinen is a Finnish scenographer. He has designed numerous world premieres of Finnish drama as well as classics, musical theatre and opera. Järvinen has made also around one hundred set designs for television. He is married to theatre director Tiina Puumalainen.

Sanna Marin Current Prime Minister of Finland and former minister of Transport and Communications

Sanna Mirella Marin is a Finnish politician who has been the Prime Minister of Finland since 10 December 2019. A member of the Social Democratic Party, she has been a member of the Parliament of Finland since 2015 and served as the Minister of Transport and Communications from 6 June to 10 December 2019. After Antti Rinne's resignation in the wake of the 2019 postal strike, Marin was selected as prime minister on 8 December 2019.

Nalkala City district in Tampere, Finland

Nalkala is a neighbourhood in the city of Tampere, Finland, covering the southern part of the city center from Hämeenkatu to the Laukontori market square. The district is bordered by the lower reaches of Tammerkoski, the Ratina estuary, Lake Pyhäjärvi and to the west by Hämeenpuisto. The original 19th-century street names in the area still include Hämeenkatu, Hallituskatu and Kuninkaankatu, the latter been named after the founder of the city of Tampere, King Gustav III of Sweden. The area is named after two houses called Nalka, which were mentioned in the 1540 land register.

Aleksis Kiven katu (Tampere)

Aleksis Kiven katu is a north–south street in the center of Tampere, Finland, in the districts of Tammerkoski and Nalkala. The street runs along the western edge of Tampere Central Square, and its southern end extends to Laukontori. At the north end of the street is Satakunnankatu. Other cross streets are Puutarhakatu, Kauppakatu, Hämeenkatu and Hallituskatu.

Public transport in Tampere

Public transport in Tampere consists of commuter rail and bus services linking Tampere, Finland to the surrounding Pirkanmaa region, with a light rail system scheduled to open in 2021. The system is managed by the Tampere Regional Transport Authority, branded as Nysse. The name is taken from the Tampere colloquialism nysse tulee, with nysse jokingly used as the name of any public transport vehicle.

Hatanpää Manor

Hatanpää Manor was a manor in the area of the current city of Tampere on the shores of Lake Pyhäjärvi in Pirkanmaa, Finland. It was founded in the 1690s, but the current main building of Hatanpää Manor, designed by architect Sebastian Gripenberg, was completed in 1885. The manor has preserved the manor park on the Hatanpää's peninsula, as well as the main building and villa building built in the late 19th century. The former land areas of the manor are now residential and industrial areas.

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