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The following is a list of cities in Finland. In the year 1977, the legal difference between towns and municipalities was removed. Today[ when? ] they are all classified as municipalities, some of which are commonly referred to as cities (kaupunki in Finnish, stad in Swedish). A municipality can decide whether it calls itself a municipality or a city. [ citation needed ]
[ citation needed ] but suurkaupunki (~ large town) is used for a few cities in Finland. This fits the EU's definition of a city, which has the criteria of a minimum population of 50,000 and a minimum population density of 500 inhabitants per square kilometer. A simple, independent decision in the municipal council is sufficient to call a municipality (kunta) a city (kaupunki). For cities founded before the 1960s, the list includes the year the city was chartered.
Many municipal mergers have been carried out in Finland (and more are yet to come, due to a countrywide municipal reform). Mergers also make it difficult to define what towns are cities because mergers make the population increase a bit but make the population density decrease. For example, according to the EU definition, Tampere is no longer a city, due to the municipal mergers with Messukylä, Aitolahti, and Teisko, which decreased its official population density to 410.5 inhabitants per square kilometer, as of 1 July 2012. In Finland, the whole area inside a municipality's borders is officially considered the city or town area.
The names used in this encyclopedia are usually the Finnish or Swedish forms, depending on the majority language of the municipality, except when there is a commonly used English name.
|Finnish name||Swedish name||District||Founded||Population|
|Ulvila||Ulvsby||1365 to 1558, later 2000||13,074|
Administrative division, administrative unit, country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are generic names for geographical areas into which a particular, independent sovereign state (country) is divided. Such a unit usually has an administrative authority with the power to take administrative or policy decisions for its area.
Vantaa is a city and municipality in Finland. It is part of the inner core of the Finnish Capital Region along with Helsinki, Espoo, and Kauniainen. With a population of 238,033, Vantaa is the fourth most populated city in Finland after Helsinki, Espoo and Tampere. Its administrative center is the Tikkurila district. Vantaa is bordered by Helsinki, the Finnish capital, to the south; Espoo to the southwest; Nurmijärvi to the northwest; Kerava and Tuusula to the north; and Sipoo to the east. The city encompasses 240.35 square kilometres (92.80 sq mi), of which 1.97 km2 (0.76 sq mi) is water.
A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts of the world.
In general, a rural area or a countryside is a geographic area that is located outside towns and cities. The Health Resources and Services Administration of the United States Department of Health and Human Services defines the word rural as encompassing "...all population, housing, and territory not included within an urban area. Whatever is not urban is considered rural."
The municipalities represent the local level of administration in Finland and act as the fundamental, self-governing administrative units of the country. The entire country is incorporated into municipalities and legally, all municipalities are equal, although certain municipalities are called cities or towns. Municipalities have the right to levy a flat percentual income tax, which is between 16 and 22 percent, and they provide two thirds of public services. Municipalities control many community services, such as schools, health care and the water supply, and local streets. They do not maintain highways, set laws or keep police forces, which are responsibilities of the central government.
Hamina is a town and a municipality of Finland. It is located approximately 145 km (90 mi) east of the country's capital Helsinki, in the Kymenlaakso region, and formerly the province of Southern Finland. The municipality's population is 19,844 and covers an area of 1,155.14 square kilometres (446.00 sq mi), of which 545.66 km2 (210.68 sq mi) is water. The population density is 32.56 inhabitants per square kilometre (84.3/sq mi). The population of the central town is approximately 10,000. The municipal language of Hamina is Finnish.
Kemi is a town and municipality of Finland. It is located very near the city of Tornio and the Swedish border. The distance to Oulu is 105 kilometres (65 mi) to the south and to Rovaniemi is 117 kilometres (73 mi) to the northeast. It was founded in 1869 by a decree of the Emperor Alexander II of Russia because of its proximity to a deepwater port.
Kouvola is a city and municipality in southeastern Finland. It is located on the Kymijoki River in the region of Kymenlaakso and 134 kilometres (83 mi) northeast of the capital, Helsinki. With Kotka, Kouvola is one of the capital centers and is the largest city in the Kymenlaakso region.
Seinäjoki is a city located in South Ostrobothnia, Finland; 80 kilometres (50 mi) east of Vaasa, 178 kilometres (111 mi) north of Tampere, 193 kilometres (120 mi) west of Jyväskylä and 324 kilometres (201 mi) southwest of Oulu. Seinäjoki originated around the Östermyra bruk iron and gunpowder factories founded in 1798. Seinäjoki became a municipality in 1868, market town in 1931 and town in 1960. In 2005, the municipality of Peräseinäjoki was merged into Seinäjoki, and in the beginning of 2009, the neighbouring municipalities of Nurmo and Ylistaro were consolidated with Seinäjoki. Seinäjoki is one of the fastest growing regional centers in Finland.
Köping was a Swedish denomination for a market town since the Middle Ages. This term was abolished with the municipal reform of 1971, when Sweden was subdivided into the Municipalities of Sweden.
An urban area, or built-up area, is a human settlement with a high population density and infrastructure of built environment. Urban areas are created through urbanization and are categorized by urban morphology as cities, towns, conurbations or suburbs. In urbanism, the term contrasts to rural areas such as villages and hamlets; in urban sociology or urban anthropology it contrasts with natural environment. The creation of early predecessors of urban areas during the urban revolution led to the creation of human civilization with modern urban planning, which along with other human activities such as exploitation of natural resources led to a human impact on the environment. "Agglomeration effects" are in the list of the main consequences of increased rates of firm creation since. This is due to conditions created by a greater level of industrial activity in a given region. However, a favorable environment for human capital development would also be generated simultaneously.
Kokemäki is a town and municipality in the Satakunta Region of Finland. The town has a population of 6,990 and covers an area of 531.27 square kilometres (205.12 sq mi) of which 50.04 km2 (19.32 sq mi) is water. The population density is 14.53 inhabitants per square kilometre (37.6/sq mi).
Lohja is a city and municipality in the Uusimaa region of Finland. The city has a population of 47,518 (2017), and it covers an area of 1,109.73 square kilometres (428.47 sq mi) of which 91.78 km2 (35.44 sq mi), or 8.3 percent, is water. The population density of Lohja is 131.4 inhabitants per square kilometre (340/sq mi). The municipality is bilingual, with the majority being Finnish and minority Swedish speakers. Lohja has the fourth-most summer houses of any municipality in Finland, with 8,468 located within the city as of June 2018. Lohja is located near Greater Helsinki, and it benefits from a good road network. It takes less than an hour to drive from Helsinki to Lohja on the E18 motorway, which is one of the most significant main road connections in Lohja next to Hangonväylä.
Salo is a town and municipality of Finland. It is located in the Southwest Finland region. The municipality has a population of 51,563 and covers an area of 2,168.30 square kilometres (837.19 sq mi) of which 181.78 km2 (70.19 sq mi) is water. The population density is 25.96/km2 (67.2/sq mi).
Somero is a town and municipality of Finland, located in the province of Western Finland and part of the Southwest Finland region. The municipality has a population of 8,623 and covers an area of 697.67 square kilometres (269.37 sq mi) of which 29.9 km2 (11.5 sq mi) is water. The population density is 12.91 inhabitants per square kilometre (33.4/sq mi). Somero is unilingually Finnish.
An urban area or tätort in Sweden has a minimum of 200 inhabitants and may be a city, town or larger village. It is a purely statistical concept, not defined by any municipal or county boundaries. Larger urban areas synonymous with cities or towns for statistical purposes have a minimum of 10,000 inhabitants. The same statistical definition is also used for urban areas in the other Nordic countries.
A merger, consolidation or amalgamation, in a political or administrative sense, is the combination of two or more political or administrative entities, such as municipalities, counties, districts, etc., into a single entity. This term is used when the process occurs within a sovereign entity.
Maalaiskunta (Finnish), landskommun (Swedish), "rural municipality", abbreviated mlk was one of the four types of municipality in Finland in 1865–1976. Other types in 1865–1959 were city and market town, in 1960–1976 old city, new city and market town. Maalaiskunta was the most common type of municipality. In the 1977 reform, all municipalities were given fully equal legal standing. Previous maalaiskuntas associated with a city retained their name. For example, Rovaniemen maalaiskunta surrounded the city of Rovaniemi, but were independently governed. From 2009, no municipalities will carry this name any more, after the merger of Jyväskylä and Jyväskylän mlk.
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