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As of March 2017, the share of Kazakhstan's urban population is 53%. Kazakhstan's modernization program and innovative development path are expected to accelerate the country's urbanization processes resulting in increased share of urban population from 53% to 70% by 2030.
The following is a list of cities with more than 50,000 inhabitants in Kazakhstan. The names of many places have been changed during the last century, sometimes more than once. Wherever possible, the old names have been included and linked to the new ones.
|Insignia||Name English||Name Kazakh||Previous name||City since||1979||1989||1999||2008||Status||Province|
|Verniy, Верный, Alma-Ata, Алма́-Ата́||1867||909,644||1,127,884||1,129,356||1,328,362||1||Capital 1929–1997|
|1955||62991||63784||58100||60799||4||South Kazakhstan Province|
|Akmola, Akmolinsk, Tselinograd, Astana||1831||233638||277365||312965||389189||1||Capital|
|Noviy Uzen'||1968||34000||48300||51100||60796||3||Mangystau Province|
|Petropavlovsk||1807||206559||239606||216300||208547||2||North Kazakhstan Province|
|1934||68135||68730||56269||54252||3||East Kazakhstan Region|
|Alash-kala, Semipalatinsk||1782||282574||317112||292500||312136||3||East Kazakhstan Region|
|Talas, Zhambyl, Aulie-Ata||ancient||263793||303961||330125||398233||2||Jambyl Province|
|ancient||66741||77692||87600||109673||3||South Kazakhstan Province|
|Uralsk||1613||167352||199522||212900||255489||2||West Kazakhstan Region|
|Ust'-Kamenogorsk||1868||274287||322221||310950||344421||2||East Kazakhstan Region|
|Chimkent||middle ages||321535||380091||390200||454583||2||South Kazakhstan Region|
Central Asia is a region in Asia which stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China and Mongolia in the east, and from Afghanistan and Iran in the south to Russia in the north, including the former Soviet republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. It is also colloquially referred to as "the stans" as the countries all have names ending with the Persian suffix "-stan", meaning "land of".
India is the second most populated country in the world with nearly a fifth of the world's population. According to the 2019 revision of the World Population Prospects the population stood at 1,352,642,280.
Kazakhstan, officially the Republic of Kazakhstan, is a transcontinental country mainly located in Central Asia with a smaller portion west of the Ural River in Eastern Europe. It covers a land area of 2,724,900 square kilometres (1,052,100 sq mi), and shares land borders with Russia in the north, China in the east, and Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan in the south while also adjoining a large part of the Caspian Sea in the southwest. Kazakhstan does not border Mongolia, although they are only 37 kilometers apart, separated by a short portion of the border between Russia and China.
The demographics of Kazakhstan enumerate the demographic features of the population of Kazakhstan, including population growth, population density, ethnicity, education level, health, economic status, religious affiliations, and other aspects of the population. Some use the word Kazakh to refer to the Kazakh ethnic group and language and Kazakhstani to refer to Kazakhstan and its citizens regardless of ethnicity, but it is common to use Kazakh in both senses.
A megacity is a very large city, typically with a population of more than 10 million people. Precise definitions vary: the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs in its 2018 "World Urbanization Prospects" report counted urban agglomerations having over 10 million inhabitants. A University of Bonn report held that they are "usually defined as metropolitan areas with a total population of 10 million or more people". Others list cities satisfying criteria of either 5 or 8 million and also have a population density of 2,000 per square kilometre. The terms conurbation, metropolis, and metroplex are also applied to the latter.
Nūr-Sūltan is the capital city of Kazakhstan. It was known between 1998 and 2019 as Astana and before that as Akmola. On 23 March 2019, following a unanimous vote in Kazakhstan's parliament, the city was renamed to Nur-Sultan, after former Kazakh president Nursultan Nazarbayev.
Lilongwe is the capital and most populated city of the African country of Malawi. It has a population of 989,318 as of the 2018 Census, up from a population of 674,448 in 2008. In 2020 that figure was 1,122,000. The city is located in the central region of Malawi, in the district of the same name, near the borders with Mozambique and Zambia, and it is an important economic and transportation hub for central Malawi. It is named after the Lilongwe River.
Almaty, formerly known as Alma-Ata and Verny, is the largest city in Kazakhstan, with a population of about 2 million. It was the capital of Kazakhstan from 1929 to 1997, when the government relocated the capital to Akmola.
In general, a rural area or a countryside is a geographic area that is located outside towns and cities. The Health Resources and Services Administration of the United States Department of Health and Human Services defines the word rural as encompassing "...all population, housing, and territory not included within an urban area. Whatever is not urban is considered rural."
The water resources of China are affected by both severe water shortages and severe growing population and rapid economic development as well as lax environmental oversight have increased in a large scale the water demand and pollution. China has responded by measures such as rapidly building out the water infrastructure and increasing regulation as well as exploring a number of further technological solutions.
There has been a substantial population of Russian Kazakhstanis since the 19th century. Although their numbers have been reduced since the breakup of the Soviet Union, they remain prominent in Kazakh society today. Russians formed a plurality of the Kazakh SSR's population for several decades.
The Metropolitan Strategy Melbourne 2030 is a Victorian Government strategic planning policy framework for the metropolitan area of Greater Melbourne, intended to cover the period 2001–2030. During this period the population of the metropolitan area is expected to grow by a million people to over 5 million. Population projections now predict Melbourne's population could reach 7 million by that time and the State Government has since changed its strategy on the policy, abandoning the urban growth boundary in the north and west of Melbourne and compromising green wedges.
India's per capita net national income or NNI was around 135 thousand rupees in 2020. The per-capita income is a crude indicator of the prosperity of a country. In contrast, the gross national income at constant prices stood at over 128 trillion rupees. The same year, GNI growth rate at constant prices was around 6.6 percent. While GNI and NNI are both indicators for a country's economic performance and welfare, the GNI is related to the GDP or the gross domestic product plus the net receipts from abroad, including wages and salaries, property income, net taxes and subsidies receivable from abroad. On the other hand, the NNI of a country is equal to its GNI net of depreciation.
The Internet in Kazakhstan is growing rapidly. Between 2001 and 2005, the number of Internet users increased from 200,000 to 1 million. By 2007, Kazakhstan reported Internet penetration levels of 8.5 percent, rising to 12.4 percent in 2008 and 34.3% in 2010. By 2013, Kazakhstani officials reported Internet penetration levels of 62.2 percent, with about 10 million users. There are five first-tier ISPs with international Internet connections and approximately 100 second-tier ISPs that are purchasing Internet traffic from the first-tier ISPs. As of 2019, more than 75% of Kazakhstan's population have access to the internet, a figure well ahead of any other country in Central Asia.
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) or Global Goals are a collection of 17 interlinked global goals designed to be a "blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all". The SDGs were set up in 2015 by the United Nations General Assembly and are intended to be achieved by the year 2030. They are included in a UN Resolution called the 2030 Agenda or what is colloquially known as Agenda 2030. The SDGs were developed in the Post-2015 Development Agenda as the future global development framework to succeed the Millennium Development Goals which ended in 2015.
Science and technology in Kazakhstan outlines government policies to develop science, technology and innovation in Kazakhstan.
Science and technology in Uzbekistan examines government efforts to develop a national innovation system and the impact of these policies.
Science and technology in Kyrgyzstan examines government efforts to develop a national innovation system and the impact of these policies.
Sustainable Development Goal 11 is about "sustainable cities and communities" and is one of 17 Sustainable Development Goals established by the United Nations General Assembly in 2015. The SDG 11 is to "Make cities inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable". The 17 SDGs take into account that action in one area will affect outcomes in other areas as well, and that development must balance social, economic and Environmental Sustainability. The targets of SDG 11 include investment in public transport, creating green public spaces, and improving urban planning and management in participatory and inclusive ways.