Primary school

Last updated

A primary school class in Japan Head, Shoulders, Knees and Toes.jpg
A primary school class in Japan
Elementary school in Visnove (Slovakia). ZS Visnove.JPG
Elementary school in Višňové (Slovakia).
Classroom with chairs on desks in the Netherlands Empty classroom.jpg
Classroom with chairs on desks in the Netherlands

A primary school (in Ireland, the UK [1] & Australia [2] ), junior school (in Australia [3] [4] ), elementary school or grade school (in the US & Canada) is a school for primary education of children who are four to eleven years of age (and sometimes up to thirteen years of age). It typically comes after preschool and before secondary school.

Contents

The International Standard Classification of Education considers primary education as a single phase where programmes are typically designed to provide fundamental skills in reading, writing and mathematics and to establish a solid foundation for learning. This is ISCED Level 1: Primary education or first stage of basic education. [5]

History of elementary education

During Greek and Roman times, boys were educated by their mothers until the age of seven, then according to the culture of their location and times, would start a formal education. In Sparta until twelve, it would be at a military academy building up physical fitness and combat skills, but also reading, writing and arithmetic [6] :25 while in Athens the emphasis would be on understanding the laws of the polis, reading, writing, arithmetic and music with gymnastics and athletics, [6] :29,30 and learning the moral stories of Homer. Girls received all their education at home. In Rome the primary school was called the ludus; the curriculum developed over the centuries featuring the learning of both Latin and Greek. In AD 94, Quintilian published the systematic educational work, Institutio oratoria. [6] :68 He distinguished between teaching and learning, and that a child aged between 7 and 14 learned by sense experience, learns to form ideas, develops language and memory. He recommended that teachers should motivate their pupils by making the teaching interesting, rather than by corporal punishment. [6] :70 The trivium (grammar, rhetoric and logic) and quadrivium (arithmetic, geometry, astronomy and music) were legacies of the Roman curriculum. [6] :88

The medieval church and education in Europe

The Catechism Lesson by Jules-Alexis Meunier Jules-Alexis Muenier - La Lecon de catechisme.jpg
The Catechism Lesson by Jules-Alexis Meunier

As the Roman influence waned, the great cathedral schools were established to provide a source of choristers and clergy. Kings School, Canterbury dates from 597. The Council of Rome in 853 specified that each parish should provide elementary education: religious ritual but also reading and writing Latin. [6] :81 The purpose of education was to explain salvation, not social change. The church had a monopoly on education; the feudal lords concurred and allowed their sons to be educated at the few church schools. The economy in most of Europe was agrarian and the children of serfs started work as soon as they were able. It was accepted as a truth by Christians that man was created by God in the image of Adam with his share of original sin and that a boy was born sinful. Therefore, only the teachings of the church and the sacraments could redeem him. [6] :77,85 The parishes provided elementary education- but had no requirement to provide it to every child. The need was to produce priests, and in a stable kingdom such as that of Charlemagne, administrators with elementary writing skills in Latin and the arithmetic needed to collect taxes and administer them. Alcuin (735–804) developed teaching material that were based on the catechetical method- repeating and memorizing questions and answers, although often understanding the information was not important. These skills were also needed in the great abbeys such as Cluny. There was a divergence between the needs of town and monasteries and we see the development of parish, chantry, monastic and cathedral schools. With the entry of women into church life, convents were established and with them convent schools. Girls entered at the age of eight and were taught Latin grammar, religious doctrine and music, and the women's arts of spinning, weaving, tapestry, painting and embroidery. [6] :84 Bede entered the monastic school at Jarrow at the age of seven and became a writer and historian. Chantry schools were the result of charitable donations and educated the poor. Beginning in 804, parishes were obliged to have a school from 804, and cathedrals had to establish schools after the Lateran Council of 1179. Elementary education was mainly to teach sufficient Latin for the trivium and the quadrivium that formed the basis of the secondary curriculum. [7]

Renaissance

Priscian Priscianus della Robbia OPA Florence.jpg
Priscian

While Humanism had a great change on the secondary curriculum, the primary curriculum was unaffected. [7] It was believed that by studying the works of the greats, ancients who had governed empires, one became fit to succeed in any field. Renaissance boys from the age of five learned Latin grammar using the same books as the Roman child. There were the grammars of Donatus and Priscian followed by Caesar's Commentaries and then St Jerome's Latin Vulgate. [8]

Wealthy boys were educated by tutors. Others were educated in schools attached to the parishes, cathedrals or abbeys. From the 13th century, wealthy merchants endowed money for priests to "establish as school to teach grammar". These early grammar schools were to teach basic, or elementary grammar, to boys. No age limit was specified. Early examples in England included Lancaster Royal Grammar School, Royal Latin School, Buckingham, and Stockport Grammar School. The Reformation and the Dissolution of the Monasteries (1548) disrupted the funding of many schools. The schools petitioned the King, Edward VI, for an endowment. Examples of schools receiving endowments are King Edward VI Grammar School, Louth, King Edward VI Grammar School, Norwich and King Edward VI School, Stratford-upon-Avon, where William Shakespeare was thought to be pupil from the age of 7 to 14.

Paupers and the poor

Though the Grammar schools which were set up to deliver elementary education, they did require their entrants to already have certain skills. In particular, they expected them to be able to read and write in the vernacular. There was a need for something more basic. [9]

This was addressed by Dame schools, then charity schools, often set up by the churches (C of E schools), Bell's British Schools and Joseph Lancaster's National Schools. [9]

Educational philosophies

Classroom from 1910 in a late 19 century elementary school, Het Hoogeland Openluchtmuseum. Het Hoogeland openluchtmuseum in Warffum, oud klaslokaal.jpg
Classroom from 1910 in a late 19 century elementary school, Het Hoogeland Openluchtmuseum.

Certain movements in education had a relevance in all of Europe and its diverging colonies. The Americans were interested in the thoughts of Pestalozzi, Joseph Lancaster, Owen [6] :208 and the Prussian schools. [6] :4

Levels of education

First "Early levels" of the ISCED 2011 levels of education and comparison with ISCED 1997 [10]
LevelISCED 2011DescriptionCorresponding ISCED 1997 level
0Early childhood Education (01 Early childhood educational development)Education designed to support early development in preparation for participation in school and society. Programmes designed for children below the age of 3.None
0Early childhood Education (02 Pre-primary education)Education designed to support early development in preparation for participation in school and society. Programmes designed for children from age 3 to the start of primary education.Level 0: Pre-primary education.
1Primary educationProgrammes typically designed to provide students with fundamental skills in reading, writing and mathematics and to establish a solid foundation for learning.Level 1: Primary education or first stage of basic education.
2Lower secondary educationFirst stage of secondary education building on primary education, typically with a more subject-oriented curriculum.Level 2: Lower secondary education or second stage of basic education
3Upper secondary educationSecond/final stage of secondary education preparing for tertiary education or providing skills relevant to employment. Usually with an increased range of subject options and streams.Level 3: Upper secondary education
4Post-secondary non-tertiary educationProgrammes providing learning experiences that build on secondary education and prepare for labour market entry or tertiary education. The content is broader than secondary but not as complex as tertiary education.Level 4: Post-secondary non-tertiary education
5Short-cycle tertiary educationShort first tertiary programmes that are typically practically based, occupationally specific and prepare for labour market entry. These programmes may also provide a pathway to other tertiary programmes.Level 5B: First stage of tertiary education: typically shorter, more practical/technical/occupationally specific programmes leading to professional qualifications.

Terminology: descriptions of cohorts

Within the English speaking world, there are three widely used systems to describe the age of the child. The first is the "equivalent ages", then countries that base their education systems on the "English model" use one of two methods to identify the year group, while countries that base their systems on the "American K–12 model" refer to their year groups as "grades". Canada also follows the American model, although its names for year groups are put the number after the grade: For instance, "Grade 1" in Canada, rather than "First Grade" in the United States. This terminology extends into research literature. [11]

In Canada, education is a Provincial, not a Federal responsibility. For example, the province of Ontario also had a "Grade 13," designed to help students enter the workforce or post-secondary education, but this was phased out in the year 2003.

Equivalent ages4–55–66–77–88–99–1010–11
U.S. (grades)Pre-KK12345
IrelandJunior InfantsSenior Infants1st Class2nd Class3rd Class4th Class5th Class
England (forms)ReceptionInfantsTop infantsJunior 1Junior 2Junior 3Junior 4
England (year)R123456
England (keystage)EYFS/FSKS1KS1KS2KS2KS2KS2
ISCED level0111111 [11]
Equivalent ages11–1212–1313–1414–1515–1616–1717–18
U.S. (grades)6789101112
Ireland6th Class1st Year2nd Year3rd Year4th Year5th Year6th Year
England (forms)FirstSecondThirdFourthFifthLower SixthUpper Sixth
England (year)78910111213
England (keystage)KS3KS3KS3KS4KS4KS5KS5
ISCED level2223333 [11]

Primary schools

A current classroom for 6-7-year olds in Switzerland Orbe - Chantemerle - salle de classe 1.jpg
A current classroom for 6–7-year olds in Switzerland

In most parts of the world, primary education is the first stage of compulsory education, and is normally available without charge, but may also be offered by fee-paying independent schools. The term grade school is sometimes used in the US, although this term may refer to both primary education and secondary education.[ citation needed ]

The term primary school is derived from the French école primaire, which was first used in an English text in 1802. [12] In the United Kingdom, "elementary education" was taught in "elementary schools" until 1944, when free elementary education was proposed for students over 11: there were to be primary elementary schools and secondary elementary schools; [lower-alpha 1] these became known as primary schools and secondary schools.

In some parts of the United States, "primary school" refers to a school covering kindergarten through to second grade or third grade (K through 2 or 3); the "elementary school" includes grade three through five or grades four to six.[ citation needed ] In Canada, "elementary school" almost everywhere refers to Grades 1 through 6; with Kindergarten being referred to as "preschool."[ citation needed ]

Elementary schools

Though often used as a synonym, "elementary school" has specific meanings in different locations.

Theoretical framework of primary school design

School building design does not happen in isolation. The building (or school campus) needs to accommodate:

Each country will have a different education system and priorities. [21] Schools need to accommodate students, staff, storage, mechanical and electrical systems, storage, support staff, ancillary staff and administration. The number of rooms required can be determined from the predicted roll of the school and the area needed.

According to standards used in the United Kingdom, a general classroom for 30 reception class or infant (Keystage 1) students needs to be 62 m2, or 55 m2 for juniors (Keystage 2). [22] Examples are given on how this can be configured for a 210 place primary with attached 26 place nursery [23] and two-storey 420 place (two form entry) primary school with attached 26 place nursery. [24]

Building design specifications

The first taxpayer-funded public school in the United States was in Dedham First school.jpg
The first taxpayer-funded public school in the United States was in Dedham
An old primary school in the rural village of Lepsama, Finland Lepsaman koulu 05.jpg
An old primary school in the rural village of Lepsämä, Finland
Teachers facilities in Switzerland Orbe - Chantemerle - salle des maitres.jpg
Teachers facilities in Switzerland
A classroom library in the US ClassroomLibrary.jpg
A classroom library in the US

The building providing the education has to fulfil the needs of: The students, the teachers, the non-teaching support staff, the administrators and the community. It has to meet general government building guidelines, health requirements, minimal functional requirements for classrooms, toilets and showers, electricity and services, preparation and storage of textbooks and basic teaching aids. [25] An optimum school will meet the minimum conditions and will have:

Government accountants having read the advice then publish minimum guidelines on schools. These enable environmental modelling and establishing building costs. Future design plans are audited to ensure that these standards are met but not exceeded. Government ministries continue to press for the 'minimum' space and cost standards to be reduced.

The UK government published this downwardly revised space formula for primary schools in 2014. It said the floor area should be 350 m2 + 4.1 m2/pupil place. The external finishes were to be downgraded to meet a build cost of £1113/m2. [26]

Governance and funding

There are three main ways of funding a school: it can funded by the state through general taxation, it can be funded by a pressure group such as the mosque or the church, it can be funded by a charity or it can be funded by contributions from the parents or a combination of these methods. Day to day oversight of the school can through a board of governors, the pressure group or by the owner.[ citation needed ]

The United Kingdom allowed most elementary education to be delivered in church schools whereas in France this was illegal as there is strict separation of church and state.

Accountability

This can be through informal assessment by the staff and governors such as in Finland, or by a state run testing regime such as Ofsted in the United Kingdom. [27]

See also

Notes

  1. Secondary elementary school: A term already used by London County Council from 1921 to describe some 11–14 schools, [13] and term still in use in Florida, Ohio and Brazil.

Related Research Articles

Education Learning in which knowledge and skills is transferred through teaching

Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, morals, beliefs, and habits. Educational methods include teaching, training, storytelling, discussion and directed research. Education frequently takes place under the guidance of educators, however learners can also educate themselves. Education can take place in formal or informal settings and any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts may be considered educational. The methodology of teaching is called pedagogy.

Secondary education Second and final phase of basic education

Secondary education covers two phases on the International Standard Classification of Education scale. Level 2 or lower secondary education is considered the second and final phase of basic education, and level 3 (upper) secondary education is the stage before tertiary education. Every country aims to provide basic education, but the systems and terminology remain unique to them. Secondary education typically takes place after six years of primary education and is followed by higher education, vocational education or employment. In most countries secondary education is compulsory, at least until the age of 16. Children typically enter the lower secondary phase around age 11. Compulsory education sometimes extends to age 19.

Grammar school Type of school in the United Kingdom and some other countries

A grammar school is one of several different types of school in the history of education in the United Kingdom and other English-speaking countries, originally a school teaching Latin, but more recently an academically oriented secondary school, differentiated in recent years from less academic secondary modern schools. The main difference is that a grammar school may select pupils based on academic achievement whereas a secondary modern may not.

Gymnasium (school) Type of school providing advanced secondary education in Europe

A gymnasium is a type of school with a strong emphasis on academic learning, and providing advanced secondary education in some parts of Europe comparable to British grammar schools, sixth form colleges and US preparatory high schools. In its current meaning, it usually refers to secondary schools focused on preparing students to enter a university for advanced academic study. Before the 20th century, the system of gymnasiums was a widespread feature of educational systems throughout many countries of central, north, eastern, and southern Europe.

Physical education Educational course related to the physique of the human body

Physical education, also known as Phys Ed., PE, gym, or gym class, and in some Commonwealth countries as physical training or PT, is a class that pupils are required to take at school. It is taken during primary and secondary education and encourages psychomotor learning in a play or movement exploration setting to promote health and physical fitness.

A middle school is an educational stage which exists in some countries, providing education between primary school and secondary school. The concept, regulation and classification of middle schools, as well as the ages covered, vary between, and sometimes within, countries.

Independent school (United Kingdom) Fee-paying school in the United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom, independent schools are fee-charging schools, typically governed by an elected board of governors and independent of many of the regulations and conditions that apply to state-funded schools. For example, pupils do not have to follow the National Curriculum. Historically, the term 'private school' referred to a school in private ownership, in contrast to an endowed school subject to a trust or of charitable status. Many of the older and more exclusive independent schools catering for the 13–18 age range in England and Wales are known as public schools, seven of which were the subject of the Public Schools Act 1868. The term 'public school' derived from the fact that they were then open to pupils regardless of where they lived or their religion. Prep (preparatory) schools educate younger children up to the age of 13 to 'prepare' them for entry to the public schools and other independent schools. Some former grammar schools converted to an independent fee-charging model following the 1965 Circular 10/65, which marked the end of their state funding; others converted into comprehensive schools.

Education in the United Kingdom is a devolved matter with each of the countries of the United Kingdom having separate systems under separate governments: the UK Government is responsible for England; whilst the Scottish Government, the Welsh Government and the Northern Ireland Executive are responsible for Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, respectively.

Education in Scotland is overseen by the Scottish Government and its executive agency Education Scotland. Education in Scotland has a history of universal provision of public education, and the Scottish education system is distinctly different from those in the other countries of the United Kingdom. The Scotland Act 1998 gives the Scottish Parliament legislative control over all education matters, and the Education (Scotland) Act 1980 is the principal legislation governing education in Scotland. Traditionally, the Scottish system at secondary school level has emphasised breadth across a range of subjects, while the English, Welsh and Northern Irish systems have emphasised greater depth of education over a smaller range of subjects.

Education in Northern Ireland

Education in Northern Ireland differs from systems used elsewhere in the United Kingdom, although it is relatively similar to Wales. A child's age on 1 July determines the point of entry into the relevant stage of education, unlike England and Wales where it is 1 September. Northern Ireland's results at GCSE and A-Level are consistently top in the UK. At A-Level and BTEC level 3, one third of students in Northern Ireland achieved A and distinction grades in 2007, which is a higher proportion than in England and Wales.

Secondary education in the United States Last seven years of statutory formal education before higher level education

Secondary education in the United States is the last seven years of statutory formal education grade 6 through grade 12. It occurs in two phases. The first is the ISCED lower secondary phase, a junior high school or middle school for students grade 6 through grade 8. The second is the ISCED upper secondary phase, the high school for students grade 9 through grade 12. There is some debate over the optimum age of transfer, and variation in some states.

State schools or public schools are generally primary or secondary schools that educate all children without charge. They are funded in whole or in part by taxation. State funded schools exist in virtually every country of the world, there are significant variations in their structure and educational programmes. State education generally encompasses primary and secondary education.

A secondary school describes an institution that provides secondary education and also usually includes the building where this takes place. Some secondary schools provide both lower secondary education and upper secondary education i.e. levels 2 and 3 of the ISCED scale, but these can also be provided in separate schools, as in the American middle and high school system. In the UK, elite public schools typically admit pupils between the ages of 13 and 18. UK state schools accommodate pupils between the ages of 11 to 18.

A comprehensive school is a public school for elementary aged or secondary aged children that does not select its intake on the basis of academic achievement or aptitude, in contrast to the selective school system where admission is restricted on the basis of selection criteria. The term is commonly used in relation to England and Wales, where comprehensive schools were introduced as state schools on an experimental basis in the 1940s and became more widespread from 1965. With the Blair educational reforms from 2003, they may be part of a local education authority or be a self governing academy or part of a multi-academy trust.

A secondary modern school is a type of secondary school that existed throughout England, Wales and Northern Ireland from 1944 until the 1970s under the Tripartite System. Schools of this type continue in Northern Ireland, where they are usually referred to as secondary schools, and in areas of England, such as Buckinghamshire, Lincolnshire and Wirral,.

Educational stages are subdivisions of formal learning, typically covering early childhood education, primary education, secondary education and tertiary education. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) recognizes seven levels of education in its International Standard Classification of Education system. UNESCO's International Bureau of Education maintains a database of country-specific education systems and their stages.

Primary education First stage of formal education

Primary education is typically the first stage of formal education, coming after preschool and before secondary school. Primary education takes place in primary school, the elementary school or first and middle school depending on the location.

Education in Jersey

Education in Jersey is overseen by the Department for Children, Young People, Education and Skills. The Government is responsible for all Government-maintained schools on the island, including the Further Education College, Highlands College, as well as the fee-paying schools of Victoria College and Jersey College for Girls. There are also independent schools and religious schools, including De La Salle College, Beaulieu Convent School and St Michael's School.

Elementary schools in the United States School that provides primary education in the United States

An elementary school is a primary school which is the main point of delivery of primary education in the United States, for children between the ages of 5–11 and coming between pre-kindergarten and secondary education.

References

  1. "Primary education (4 to 11 years)". Cambridgeshire County Council. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  2. Technology, Elcom. "Education system overview". www.studyinaustralia.gov.au. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  3. Barker. "Learning for today. Thinking for tomorrow". Barker. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  4. "Early Years: Prep to Year 3". Ormiston College. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  5. Annex III in the ISCED 2011 English.pdf Archived 25 December 2018 at the Wayback Machine Navigate to International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED)
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Gerald L. Gutek (14 December 1994). A History of the Western Educational Experience: Second Edition. Waveland Press. p. 203. ISBN   978-1-4786-3010-4. Archived from the original on 2 September 2019. Retrieved 16 April 2019.
  7. 1 2 Black, Robert (2001). "Humanism and Education in Medieval and Renaissance Italy: Tradition and Innovation in Latin Schools from the Twelfth to the Fifteenth Century": 489. ISSN   1530-9169.Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  8. Bertlett, Kenneth (15 December 2016). "The Italian Renaissance - The Education and Learning During the Renaissance". The Great Courses Daily. University of Toronto. Archived from the original on 19 April 2019. Retrieved 19 April 2019.
  9. 1 2 The Education of the Working Classes to 1870 | British History Online. London. 1969. p. 240. Archived from the original on 22 April 2019. Retrieved 22 April 2019.
  10. "International Standard Classification of Education 2011" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 December 2017. Retrieved 25 December 2017.
  11. 1 2 3 Ward, Ken. "British and American Systems (Grades)". trans4mind.com. Archived from the original on 31 March 2017. Retrieved 30 March 2017.
  12. "Online Etymology Dictionary". Archived from the original on 2 July 2017. Retrieved 9 November 2007.
  13. "Hadow Report (1926)". educationengland.org.uk. Archived from the original on 25 June 2019. Retrieved 17 April 2019.
  14. "Britannica Academic". academic.eb.com. Archived from the original on 14 March 2020. Retrieved 1 November 2019.
  15. "Historical Timeline of Public Education in the US". Race Forward. 13 April 2006. Archived from the original on 3 July 2018. Retrieved 8 February 2018.
  16. "Digest of Education Statistics, 2001" (PDF). National Center for Education Statistics. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 August 2017. Retrieved 12 August 2017.
  17. Snyder, Thomas D.; Hoffman, Charlene M. (2001). Digest of Education Statistics 2001 (PDF). Institute of Education Sciences, Washington: National Center for Education Statistics. p. 7, fig. 1. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 August 2017. Retrieved 19 August 2017.
  18. "Secretary Riley Reignites the Math Wars". hoover.org. Archived from the original on 29 March 2018. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
  19. ESEA. "No Child Left Behind Act". www.k12.wa.us. Archived from the original on 26 March 2018. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
  20. "The Establishment of Elementary Schools and Attendance". JAPAN'S MODERN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM. Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan. Archived from the original on 20 December 2017. Retrieved 12 August 2017.
  21. Liew Kok-Pun, Michael (1981). "Design of secondary schools:Singapore a case study" (PDF). Educational Building reports. Voume 17: UNESCO. p. 37. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 April 2017. Retrieved 3 April 2017.CS1 maint: location (link)
  22. "Mainstream schools: area guidelines". GOV.UK. Archived from the original on 18 April 2019. Retrieved 18 April 2019.
  23. "Baseline design: 210 place primary school with a 26 place nursery". GOV.UK. Archived from the original on 18 April 2019. Retrieved 18 April 2019.
  24. "Baseline design: 420 place primary school with 26 place nursery". GOV.UK. Archived from the original on 18 April 2019. Retrieved 18 April 2019.
  25. 1 2 "Guidelines relating to planning for public school infrastructure". Department of Basic Education, Republic of South Africa. 2012. Archived from the original on 7 September 2015. Retrieved 3 April 2017.
  26. "Baseline designs for schools: guidance - GOV.UK". www.gov.uk. Education Funding Agency. 11 March 2014. Archived from the original on 4 April 2017. Retrieved 3 April 2017.
  27. "Standards and Testing Agency". GOV.UK. Archived from the original on 18 March 2020. Retrieved 28 January 2020.