Homeschooling

Last updated
A person educating children at home Representation, Punch Denmark, 1889.jpg
A person educating children at home

Homeschooling or home schooling, also known as home education or elective home education (EHE), is the education of school-aged children at home or a variety of places other than school. [1] Usually conducted by a parent, tutor, or an online teacher, many homeschool families use less formal, more personalized and individualized methods of learning that are not always found in schools. The actual practice of homeschooling can look very different. The spectrum ranges from highly structured forms based on traditional school lessons to more open, free forms such as unschooling, which is a lesson- and curriculum-free implementation of homeschooling. Some families who initially attended a school go through a deschool phase to break away from school habits and prepare for homeschooling. While "homeschooling" is the term commonly used in North America, "home education" is primarily used in Europe and many Commonwealth countries. Homeschooling shouldn't be confused with distance education, which generally refers to the arrangement where the student is educated by and conforms to the requirements of an online school, rather than being educated independently and unrestrictedly by their parents or by themselves.

Contents

Before the introduction of compulsory school attendance laws, most childhood education was done by families and local communities. By the early 19th century, attending a school became the most common means of education in the developed world. In the mid to late 20th century, more people began questioning the efficiency and sustainability of school learning, which again led to an increase in the number of homeschoolers, especially in the Americas and some European countries. Today, homeschooling is a relatively widespread form of education and a legal alternative to public and private schools in many countries, which many people believe is due to the rise of the Internet, which enables people to obtain information very quickly. There are also nations in which homeschooling is regulated or illegal, as recorded in the article Homeschooling international status and statistics . During the COVID-19 pandemic, many students from all over the world had to study from home due to the danger posed by the virus. However, this was mostly implemented in the form of distance education rather than traditional homeschooling.

There are many different reasons for homeschooling, ranging from personal interests to dissatisfaction with the public school system. Some parents see better educational opportunities for their child in homeschooling, for example because they know their child more accurately than a teacher and can concentrate fully on educating usually one to a few persons and therefore can respond more precisely to their individual strengths and weaknesses, or because they think that they can better prepare their children for the life outside of school. Some children can also learn better at home, for example, because they are not held back, disturbed or distracted from school matters, do not feel underchallenged or overwhelmed with certain topics, find that certain temperaments are encouraged in school, while others are inhibited, do not cope well with the very predetermined structure in school or are bullied there. Homeschooling is also an option for families living in remote rural areas, those temporarily abroad, those who travel frequently and therefore face the physical impossibility or difficulty of getting their children into school and families who want to spend more and better time with their children. Health reasons and special needs can also play a role in why children cannot attend a school regularly and are at least partially homeschooled.

Critics of homeschooling argue that children may lack social contact at home, possibly resulting in children having poorer social skills. Some are also concerned that some parents may not have the skills required to guide and advise their children in life skills. Critics also say that a child might not encounter people of other cultures, worldviews, and socioeconomic groups if they are not enrolled in a school. Therefore, these critics believe that homeschooling cannot guarantee a comprehensive and neutral education and children can be indoctrinated and manipulated when there is no external influence and surveillance by controlling authorities. There are many studies that show that homeschooled children score better on standardized tests and have equal or higher developed social skills and participate more in cultural and family activities on average than public school students. [2] [3] In addition, studies suggest that homeschoolers are generally more likely to have higher self-esteem, deeper friendships, and better relationships with adults, and are less susceptible to peer pressure. [4] [3]

History

Frontispiece to Fireside Education, Samuel Griswold (Goodrich) Fireside Education frontispiece.jpg
Frontispiece to Fireside Education, Samuel Griswold (Goodrich)

For most of history and in different cultures, homeschooling was a common practice by family members and local communities. [5] Enlisting professional tutors was an option available only to the wealthy. Homeschooling declined in the 19th and 20th centuries with the enactment of compulsory school attendance laws. However, it continued to be practised in isolated communities. Homeschooling began a resurgence in the 1960s and 1970s with educational reformists dissatisfied with industrialized education. [5]

The earliest public schools in modern Western culture were established during the reformation with the encouragement of Martin Luther in the German states of Gotha and Thuringia in 1524 and 1527. [6] From the 1500s to 1800s the literacy rate increased until a majority of adults were literate, but development of the literacy rate occurred before the implementation of compulsory attendance and universal education. [7]

Home education and apprenticeship continued to remain the main form of education until the 1830s. [8] However, in the 18th century, the majority of people in Europe lacked formal education. [9] [ failed verification ] Since the early 19th century, formal classroom schooling became the most common means of schooling throughout the developed countries. [10]

In 1647, New England provided compulsory elementary education. Regional differences in schooling existed in colonial America. In the south, farms and plantations were so widely dispersed that community schools such as those in the more compact settlements of the north were impossible. In the middle colonies, the educational situation varied when comparing New York with New England. [11]

Most Native American tribal cultures traditionally used homeschooling and apprenticeship to pass knowledge to children. Parents were supported by extended relatives and tribal leaders in the education of their children. The Native Americans vigorously resisted compulsory education in the United States. [12]

In the 1960s, Rousas John Rushdoony began to advocate homeschooling, which he saw as a way to combat the secular nature of the public school system in the United States. He vigorously attacked progressive school reformers such as Horace Mann and John Dewey, and argued for the dismantling of the state's influence in education in three works: Intellectual Schizophrenia, The Messianic Character of American Education, and The Philosophy of the Christian Curriculum. Rushdoony was frequently called as an expert witness by the Home School Legal Defense Association (HSLDA) in court cases. He frequently advocated the use of private schools. [13]

During this time, American educational professionals Raymond and Dorothy Moore began to research the academic validity of the rapidly growing Early Childhood Education movement. This research included independent studies by other researchers and a review of over 8,000 studies bearing on early childhood education and the physical and mental development of children.[ citation needed ]

They asserted that formal schooling before ages 8–12 not only lacked the anticipated effectiveness but also harmed children. The Moores published their view that formal schooling was damaging young children academically, socially, mentally, and even physiologically. The Moores presented evidence that childhood problems such as juvenile delinquency, nearsightedness, increased enrollment of students in special education classes and behavioral problems were the results of increasingly earlier enrollment of students. [14] The Moores cited studies demonstrating that orphans who were given surrogate mothers were measurably more intelligent, with superior long-term effects – even though the mothers were "mentally retarded teenagers" – and that illiterate tribal mothers in Africa produced children who were socially and emotionally more advanced than typical western children, "by western standards of measurement". [14]

Their primary assertion was that the bonds and emotional development made at home with parents during these years produced critical long-term results that were cut short by enrollment in schools, and could neither be replaced nor corrected in an institutional setting afterwards. [14] Recognizing a necessity for early out-of-home care for some children, particularly special needs and impoverished children and children from exceptionally inferior homes, [15] [ clarification needed ] they maintained that the vast majority of children were far better situated at home, even with mediocre parents, than with the most gifted and motivated teachers in a school setting. They described the difference as follows: "This is like saying, if you can help a child by taking him off the cold street and housing him in a warm tent, then warm tents should be provided for all children – when obviously most children already have even more secure housing." [14]

The Moores embraced homeschooling after the publication of their first work, Better Late Than Early, in 1975, and became important homeschool advocates and consultants with the publication of books such as Home Grown Kids (1981), and Homeschool Burnout. [16]

Simultaneously, other authors published books questioning the premises and efficacy of compulsory schooling, including Deschooling Society by Ivan Illich in 1970 and No More Public School by Harold Bennet in 1972.

In 1976, educator John Holt published Instead of Education; Ways to Help People Do Things Better. In its conclusion, he called for a "Children's Underground Railroad" to help children escape compulsory schooling. [17] In response, Holt was contacted by families from around the U.S. to tell him that they were educating their children at home. In 1977, after corresponding with a number of these families, Holt began producing the magazine Growing Without Schooling (GSW), a newsletter dedicated to home education. [18] Holt was nicknamed the "father of homeschooling." [5] Holt later wrote a book about homeschooling, Teach Your Own, in 1981.

In 1980, Holt said,

"I want to make it clear that I don't see homeschooling as some kind of answer to badness of schools. I think that the home is the proper base for the exploration of the world which we call learning or education. The home would be the best base no matter how good the schools were." [19]

One common theme in the homeschool philosophies of both Holt and that of the Moores is that home education should not attempt to bring the school to construct into the home, or a view of education as an academic preliminary to life. They viewed home education as a natural, experiential aspect of life that occurs as the members of the family are involved with one another in daily living. [20] [21]

Homeschooling can be used as a form of supplemental education and as a way of helping children learn under specific circumstances. The term may also refer to instruction in the home under the supervision of correspondence schools or umbrella schools. Some jurisdictions require adherence to an approved curriculum. [22] In the 1970s, a modern homeschooling movement began when American educator and author John Holt questioned the efficiency of schools and the sustainability of school learning, arguing that schools focus on strictly doing "skill drill" instead of other methods of learning. [23] [24] The influence of Raymond Moore is sometimes also held responsible for this movement on the religious right. [24] A curriculum-free philosophy of homeschooling called "unschooling" also emerged around this time, although it would take a few more decades for this form of education to become popular. The term was coined in 1977 by Holt's GWS. The term emphasizes the more spontaneous, less structured learning environment in which a child's interests drive his pursuit of knowledge. [25] Some parents provide a liberal arts education using the trivium and quadrivium as the main models. [26] [27]

While "homeschooling" is the term commonly used in the United States and other nations in North America, "home education" is primarily used in the United Kingdom, elsewhere in Europe and many Commonwealth countries. [1] [28] [29] Some believe that homeschooling has become more attractive and popular than ever before since the days of quick information retrieval on the Internet. [30] [31] [32] [33]

The COVID-19 pandemic led to school closures around the world, [34] [35] which is why many students had to study from home. Since the material to be learned was mainly outsourced to home and specified and checked by virtual schools, it can be said that this was mostly implemented in the form of distance education rather than traditional homeschooling in which parents educate their child independent from school. Because the transition to homeschooling often happened overnight without any possibilities of preparation for parents, teachers and children, this caused economic, [36] [37] educational, [34] [38] [39] political [40] [41] [42] and psychological distress. [43]

Motivations

When homeschooling is a choice, families have different reasons for choosing it. This cake diagram shows the motivations regarded as most important for homeschooling in the United States as of 2007. Motivations regarded most important for homeschooling.png
When homeschooling is a choice, families have different reasons for choosing it. This cake diagram shows the motivations regarded as most important for homeschooling in the United States as of 2007.

There are a multitude of sometimes complex reasons why parents and children choose to homeschool, some of which overlap with those for unschooling and may be very different depending on the country and (current) situation of parents and children.

Parents commonly cite two main motivations for homeschooling their children: dissatisfaction with the local schools and the interest in increased involvement with their children's learning and development. Parental dissatisfaction with available schools typically includes concerns about the school environment, the quality of academic instruction, the curriculum, bullying, racism and lack of faith in the school's ability to cater to their children's special needs. [45] Some parents homeschool in order to have greater control over what and how their children are taught, to cater more adequately to an individual child's aptitudes and abilities, to provide instruction from a specific religious or moral position, and to take advantage of the efficiency of one-to-one instruction and thus allow the child to spend more time on childhood activities, socializing, and non-academic learning. [46]

Some African-American families choose to homeschool as a way of increasing their children's understanding of African-American history – such as the Jim Crow laws that resulted in African Americans being prevented from reading and writing – and to limit the harm caused by the unintentional and sometimes subtle systemic racism that affects most American schools. [47]

Some parents have objections to the secular nature of public schools and homeschool in order to give their children a religious education. Use of a religious curriculum is common among these families.

Some parents are of the opinion that certain temperaments are promoted in school, while others are inhibited which may also be a reason to homeschool their children. [48]

Another argument for homeschooling children may be the protection against physical and emotional violence, bullying, exclusion, drugs, stress, sexualization, social pressures, excessive performance thoughts, socialization groups or role models with negative impact and degrading treatment in school. [49] [50] [51] [52] [53] [54] [55]

Some children may also prefer to or can learn more efficiently at home, for example, because they are not distracted or slowed down by school matters and can, for example, spend several hours dealing with the same topic undisturbed. There are studies that show that homeschooled children are more likely to graduate and perform better at university. [56]

Homeschooling may also be a factor in the choice of parenting style. Homeschooling can be a matter of consistency for families living in isolated rural locations, for those temporarily abroad, and for those who travel frequently. [57] Many young athletes, actors, and musicians are taught at home to accommodate their training and practice schedules more conveniently. Homeschooling can be about mentorship and apprenticeship, in which a tutor or teacher is with the child for many years and becomes more intimately acquainted with the child. [58] Many parents also homeschool their children and return their child into the school system later on, for example because they think that their child is too young or not yet ready to start school. [46]

Some children also have health issues and therefore cannot attend a school regularly and are at least partially homeschooled or take distance education instead. [55] [59]

Another commonly cited reason for choosing homeschooling is the flexibility and freedom which parents and children have. [54]

According to Elizabeth Bartholet, surveys of homeschoolers show that a majority of homeschoolers in the USA are motivated by "conservative Christian beliefs, and seek to remove their children from mainstream culture". [60]

Teaching methods, forms and philosophies

Homeschooling is usually conducted by a parent, tutor, or an online teacher, [61] but the concrete practice can be very different. The spectrum ranges from highly structured forms based on traditional school lessons to more open, free forms like unschooling. [62] This is a curriculum-free implementation of homeschooling that involves teaching children based on their interests. [63] [64] [65]

Many homeschool families use a wide variety of methods and materials and less formal educational methods, which represent a variety of educational philosophies and paradigms. [66] Some of the methods or learning environments used include classical education (including Trivium, Quadrivium), Charlotte Mason education, Montessori method, theory of multiple intelligences, unschooling, Waldorf education, school-at-home (curriculum choices from both secular and religious publishers), A Thomas Jefferson Education, unit studies, curriculum made up from private or small publishers, apprenticeship, hands-on-learning, distance learning (both online and correspondence), dual enrollment in local schools or colleges, and curriculum provided by local schools and many others. Some of these approaches are used in private and public schools.[ citation needed ] Educational research and studies support the use of some of these methods. Unschooling, natural learning, Charlotte Mason Education, Montessori, Waldorf, apprenticeship, hands-on-learning, unit studies are supported to varying degrees by research by constructivist learning theories and situated cognition theories.[ clarification needed ] Elements of these theories may be found in the other methods as well.

A student's education may be customized to support his or her learning level, style, and interests. [67] It is not uncommon for a student to experience more than one approach as the family discovers what works best for their student. Many families use an eclectic approach, picking and choosing from various suppliers. For sources of curricula and books, a study found that 78 per cent utilized "a public library"; 77 per cent used "a homeschooling catalogue, publisher, or individual specialist"; 68 per cent used "retail bookstore or another store"; 60 per cent used "an education publisher that was not affiliated with homeschooling." "Approximately half" used curriculum from "a homeschooling organization", 37 per cent from a "church, synagogue or other religious institution" and 23 per cent from "their local public school or district." In 2003, 41 per cent utilized some sort of distance learning, approximately 20 per cent by "television, video or radio"; 19 per cent via "The Internet, e-mail, or the World Wide Web"; and 15 per cent taking a "correspondence course by mail designed specifically for homeschoolers." [68] [ clarification needed ]

Individual governmental units, e.g. states and local districts, vary in official curriculum and attendance requirements. [69]

Informal learning

As a subset of homeschooling, informal learning happens outside of the classroom but has no traditional boundaries of education. Informal learning is an everyday form of learning through participation and creation, in contrast with the traditional view of teacher-centered learning. The term is often combined with non-formal learning and self-directed learning. Informal learning differs from traditional learning since there are no expected objectives or outcomes. From the learner's standpoint, the knowledge that they receive is not intentional. Anything from planting a garden to baking a cake or even talking to a technician at work about the installation of new software can be considered informal learning. The individual is completing a task with different intentions but ends up learning skills in the process. [70] Children watching their tomato plants grow will not generate questions about photosynthesis but they will learn that their plants are growing with water and sunlight. This leads them to have a base understanding of complex scientific concepts without any background studying. [71] The recent trend of homeschooling becoming less stigmatized has been in connection with the traditional waning of the idea that the state needs to be in primary and ultimate control over the education and upbringing of all children to create future adult citizens. This breeds an ever-growing importance on the ideas and concepts that children learn outside of the traditional classroom setting, including Informal learning.

Depending on the part of the world, informal learning can take on many different identities and has differing cultural importances. Many ways of organizing homeschooling draw on apprenticeship qualities and on non-western cultures. In some South American indigenous cultures, such as the Chillihuani community in Peru, children learn irrigation and farming technique through play, advancing them not only in their own village and society but also in their knowledge of realistic techniques that they will need to survive. [72] In Western culture, children use informal learning in two main ways. The first as talked about is through hands-on experience with new material. The second is asking questions to someone who has more experience than they have (i.e. parents, elders). Children's inquisitive nature is their way of cementing the ideas they have learned through exposure to informal learning. It is a more casual way of learning than traditional learning and serves the purpose of taking in information any which way they can. [73]

Structured versus unstructured

All other approaches to homeschooling are subsumed under two basic categories: structured and unstructured homeschooling. Structured homeschooling includes any method or style of home education that follows a basic curriculum with articulated goals and outcomes. This style attempts to imitate the structure of the traditional school setting while personalizing the curriculum. Unstructured homeschooling is any form of home education where parents do not construct a curriculum at all. Unschooling, as it is known, attempts to teach through the child's daily experiences and focuses more on self-directed learning by the child, free of textbooks, teachers, and any formal assessment of success or failure. [74]

Unit studies

In a unit study approach, multiple subjects such as math, science, history, art, and geography, are studied in relation to a single topic. Unit studies are useful for teaching multiple grades simultaneously as the difficulty level can be adjusted for each student. An extended form of unit studies, Integrated Thematic Instruction utilizes one central theme integrated throughout the curriculum so that students finish a school year with a deep understanding of a certain broad subject or idea. [75]

All-in-one curricula

All-in-one homeschooling curricula (variously known as school-at-home, the traditional approach, or school-in-a-box) are instructional methods of teaching in which the curriculum and homework of the student are similar or identical to those used in a public or private school. Purchased as a grade-level package or separately by subject, the package may contain all of the needed books, materials, tests, answer keys, and extensive teacher guides. [76] These materials cover the same subject areas as public schools, allowing for an easy transition into the school system. These are among the most expensive options for homeschooling, but they require minimal preparation and are easy to use. There is, however, complete curriculum available for free, such as that available at allinonehomeschool.com. Some localities provide the same materials used at local schools to homeschoolers. The purchase of a complete curriculum and their teaching/grading service from an accredited distance learning curriculum provider may allow students to obtain an accredited high school diploma.[ citation needed ]

Unschooling and natural learning

Natural learning refers to a type of learning-on-demand where children pursue knowledge based on their interests and parents take an active part in facilitating activities and experiences conducive to learning but do not rely heavily on textbooks or spend much time "teaching", looking instead for "learning moments" throughout their daily activities. Parents see their role as that of affirming through positive feedback and modeling the necessary skills, and the child's role as being responsible for asking and learning. [77]

The term unschooling as coined by John Holt describes an approach in which parents do not authoritatively direct the child's education, but interact with the child following the child's own interests, leaving them free to explore and learn as their interests lead. [19] [68] "Unschooling" does not indicate that the child is not being educated, but that the child is not being "schooled", or educated in a rigid school-type manner. Holt asserted that children learn through the experiences of life, and he encouraged parents to live their lives with their child. Also known as interest-led or child-led learning, unschooling attempts to follow opportunities as they arise in real life, through which a child will learn without coercion. Children at school learn from 1 teacher and 2 auxiliary teachers in a classroom of approximately 30. Kids have the opportunity of dedicated education at home with a ratio of 1 to 1. An unschooled child may utilize texts or classroom instruction, but these are not considered central to education. Holt asserted that there is no specific body of knowledge that is, or should be, required of a child. [78]

Both unschooling and natural learning advocates believe that children learn best by doing; a child may learn reading to further an interest about history or other cultures, or math skills by operating a small business or sharing in family finances. They may learn animal husbandry keeping dairy goats or meat rabbits, botany tending a kitchen garden, chemistry to understand the operation of firearms or the internal combustion engine, or politics and local history by following a zoning or historical-status dispute. While any type of homeschoolers may also use these methods, the unschooled child initiates these learning activities. The natural learner participates with parents and others in learning together. [65]

Another prominent proponent of unschooling is John Taylor Gatto, author of Dumbing Us Down, The Exhausted School, A Different Kind of Teacher, and Weapons of Mass Instruction. Gatto argues that public education is the primary tool of "state-controlled consciousness" and serves as a prime illustration of the total institution — a social system which impels obedience to the state and quells free-thinking or dissent. [79]

Autonomous learning

Autonomous learning is a school of education which sees learners as individuals who can and should be autonomous i.e. be responsible for their own learning climate.

Autonomous education helps students develop their self-consciousness, vision, practicality, and freedom of discussion. These attributes serve to aid the student in his/her independent learning. However, a student must not start their autonomous learning completely on their own. It is said, that by first having interaction with someone who has more knowledge in a subject, will speed up the student's learning, and hence allow them to learn more independently. [80]

Some degree of autonomous learning is popular with those who home educate their children. In true autonomous learning, the child usually gets to decide what projects they wish to tackle or what interests to pursue. In-home education, this can be instead of or in addition to regular subjects like doing math or English.

According to Home Education UK, the autonomous education philosophy emerged from the epistemology of Karl Popper in The Myth of the Framework: In Defence of Science and Rationality, which is developed in the debates, which seek to rebut the neo-Marxist social philosophy of convergence proposed by the Frankfurt School (e.g. Theodor W. Adorno, Jürgen Habermas, Max Horkheimer).[ citation needed ]

Hybrid homeschooling

Hybrid homeschooling or flex-school [46] is a form of homeschooling in which children split their time between homeschool and a more traditional schooling environment like a school. [81] It is a comparatively unpopular education model that can mainly be found in the United States. [82] [83] During the COVID-19 pandemic, this was sometimes enforced by schools. [84]

A commonly cited reason for choosing this model is that parents are not sure whether they can provide their children a comprehensive and neutral education at home or cannot devote themselves to homeschooling full-time due to time constraints or excessive stress. [81] [85] Some families also want their children to socialize with other children and find that schools are better suited for this purpose because social exchange does not only take place occasionally, but is an everyday experience there. [81] [85]

Homeschool cooperatives

A homeschool cooperative is a cooperative of families who homeschool their children. It provides an opportunity for children to learn from other parents who are more specialized in certain areas or subjects. Co-ops also provide social interaction. They may take lessons together or go on field trips. Some co-ops also offer events such as prom and graduation for homeschoolers. [86]

Homeschoolers are beginning to utilize Web 2.0 as a way to simulate homeschool cooperatives online. With social networks, homeschoolers can chat, discuss threads in forums, share information and tips, and even participate in online classes via blackboard systems similar to those used by colleges. [87]

Research

Test results

According to the Home School Legal Defense Association (HSLDA) in 2004, "Many studies over the last few years have established the academic excellence of homeschooled children." [88] Home Schooling Achievement, a compilation of studies published by the HSLDA, supported the academic integrity of homeschooling. This booklet summarized a 1997 study by Ray and the 1999 Rudner study. [89] The Rudner study noted two limitations of its own research: it is not necessarily representative of all homeschoolers and it is not a comparison with other schooling methods. [90] Among the homeschooled students who took the tests, the average homeschooled student outperformed his public school peers by 30 to 37 percentile points across all subjects. The study also indicates that public school performance gaps between minorities and genders were virtually non-existent among the homeschooled students who took the tests. [91]

A survey of 11,739 homeschooled students conducted in 2008 found that, on average, the homeschooled students scored 37 percentile points above public school students on standardized achievement tests. [92] This is consistent with the 1999 Rudner study. However, Rudner said that these same students in public school may have scored just as well because of the dedicated parents they had. [93] The Ray study also found that homeschooled students who had a certified teacher as a parent scored one percentile lower than homeschooled students who did not have a certified teacher as a parent. [92] Another nationwide descriptive study conducted by Ray contained students ranging from ages 5–18 and he found that homeschoolers scored in at least the 80th percentile on their tests. [94]

In 2011, a quasi-experimental study was conducted that included homeschooled and traditional public students between the ages of 5 and 10. It was discovered that the majority of the homeschooled children achieved higher standardized scores compared to their counterparts. [95] However, Martin-Chang also found that unschooling children ages 5–10 scored significantly below traditionally educated children, while academically-oriented homeschooled children scored from one half grade level above to 4.5 grade levels above traditionally schooled children on standardized tests (n=37 homeschooled children matched with children from the same socioeconomic and educational background). [96]

There are also studys according to which homeschooled children are less likely to be sexually abused than children in public schools. [97]

Studies have also examined the impact of homeschooling on students' GPAs. Cogan (2010) found that homeschooled students had higher high school GPAs (3.74) and transfer GPAs (3.65) than conventional students. [98] Snyder (2013) provided corroborating evidence that homeschoolers were outperforming their peers in the areas of standardized tests and overall GPAs. [99] Looking beyond high school, a study by the 1990 National Home Education Research Institute (as cited by Wichers, 2001) found that at least 33% of homeschooled students attended a four-year college, and 17% attended a two-year college. This same study examined the students after one year, finding that 17% pursued higher education. [100]

On average, studies suggest homeschoolers score at or above the national average on standardized tests. Homeschool students have been accepted into many Ivy League universities. [5] However, The Coalition for Responsible Homeschooling notes that "Our knowledge of homeschooling’s effect on academic achievement is limited by the fact that many of the studies that have been conducted on homeschoolers suffer from methodological problems which make their findings inconclusive." [101]

Outcomes

Homeschooled children may receive more individualized attention than students enrolled in traditional public schools. A 2011 study suggests that a structured environment could play a key role in homeschooler academic achievement. [102] This means that parents were highly involved in their child's education and they were creating clear educational goals. In addition, these students were being offered organized lesson plans which are either self-made or purchased. [102]

A study conducted by Ray in 2010, indicates that the higher the level of parents' income, the more likely the homeschooled child is able to achieve academic success. [103]

In the 1970s, Raymond and Dorothy Moore conducted four federally funded analyses of more than 8,000 early childhood studies, from which they published their original findings in Better Late Than Early, 1975. This was followed by School Can Wait, a repackaging of these same findings designed specifically for educational professionals. [104] They concluded that "where possible, children should be withheld from formal schooling until at least ages eight to ten." Their reason was that children "are not mature enough for formal school programs until their senses, coordination, neurological development and cognition are ready". They concluded that the outcome of forcing children into formal schooling is a sequence of "1) uncertainty as the child leaves the family nest early for a less secure environment, 2) puzzlement at the new pressures and restrictions of the classroom, 3) frustration because unready learning tools – senses, cognition, brain hemispheres, coordination – cannot handle the regimentation of formal lessons and the pressures they bring, 4) hyperactivity growing out of nerves and jitter, from frustration, 5) failure which quite naturally flows from the four experiences above, and 6) delinquency which is failure's twin and apparently for the same reason." [105] According to the Moores, "early formal schooling is burning out our children. Teachers who attempt to cope with these youngsters also are burning out." Aside from academic performance, they think early formal schooling also destroys "positive sociability", encourages peer dependence, and discourages self-worth, optimism, respect for parents, and trust in peers. They believe this situation is particularly acute for boys because of their delay in maturity. The Moores cited a Smithsonian Report on the development of genius, indicating a requirement for "1) much time spent with warm, responsive parents and other adults, 2) very little time spent with peers, and 3) a great deal of free exploration under parental guidance." Their analysis suggested that children need "more of home and less of formal school", "more free exploration with... parents, and fewer limits of classroom and books", and "more old fashioned chores – children working with parents – and less attention to rivalry sports and amusements." [105]

Homeschooled youth are less likely to use and abuse illicit substances and are more likely to disapprove of using alcohol and marijuana. [106]

Debate about outcomes

There are claims that studies showing that homeschooled students do better on standardized tests [88] [92] do not compare with public-school testing.[ citation needed ]

By contrast, SAT and ACT tests are self-selected by homeschooled and formally schooled students alike. Some homeschoolers averaged higher scores on these college entrance tests in South Carolina. [107] Other scores (1999 data) showed mixed results, for example showing higher levels for homeschoolers in English (homeschooled 23.4 vs national average 20.5) and reading (homeschooled 24.4 vs national average 21.4) on the ACT, but mixed scores in math (homeschooled 20.4 vs national average 20.7 on the ACT as opposed homeschooled 535 vs national average 511 on the 1999 SAT math). [108]

Some advocates of homeschooling and educational choice counter with an input-output theory, pointing out that home educators expend only an average of $500–$600 a year on each student (not counting the cost of the parents' time), in comparison to $9,000–$10,000 (including the cost of staff time) for each public school student in the United States, which suggests home-educated students would be especially dominant on tests if afforded access to an equal commitment of tax-funded educational resources. [109]

Many teachers and school districts oppose the idea of homeschooling. However, research has shown that homeschooled children often excel in many areas of academic endeavour. According to a study done on the homeschool movement, [110] homeschoolers often achieve academic success and admission into elite universities. According to the National Home Education Research Institute president, Brian Ray, socialization is not a problem for homeschooling children, many of whom are involved in community sports, volunteer activities, book groups, or homeschool co-ops. [111]

Socialization

Using the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale, John Taylor later found that, "while half of the conventionally schooled children scored at or below the 50th percentile (in self-concept), only 10.3% of the home-schooling children did so." [112] He further stated that "the self-concept of home-schooling children is significantly higher statistically than that of children attending conventional school. This has implications in the areas of academic achievement and socialization which have been found to parallel self-concept. Regarding socialization, Taylor's results would mean that very few home-schooling children are socially deprived. He states that critics who speak out against homeschooling on the basis of social deprivation are actually addressing an area which favours homeschoolers. [112]

In 2003, the National Home Education Research Institute conducted a survey of 7,300 U.S. adults who had been homeschooled (5,000 for more than seven years). Their findings included:

  • Homeschool graduates are active and involved in their communities. 71% participate in an ongoing community service activity, like coaching a sports team, volunteering at a school, or working with a church or neighbourhood association, compared with 37% of U.S. adults of similar ages from a traditional education background.
  • Homeschool graduates are more involved in civic affairs and vote in much higher percentages than their peers. 76% of those surveyed between the ages of 18 and 24 voted within the last five years, compared with only 29% of the corresponding U.S. populace. The numbers are even greater in older age groups, with voting levels not falling below 95%, compared with a high of 53% for the corresponding U.S. populace.
  • 58.9% report that they are "very happy" with life, compared with 27.6% for the general U.S. population. 73.2% find life "exciting", compared with 47.3% [113]

Richard G. Medlin, Ph.D.'s research found that homeschooled children have better social skills than children attending traditional schools. [114]

General criticism

Resistance to homeschooling comes from some organizations of teachers and school districts. The National Education Association, a United States teachers' union and professional association, has asserted that teachers should be licensed and that state-approved curricula should be used. [115] [116]

Critics argue that homeschooled children can be indoctrinated and manipulated. [117]

Political scientist Rob Reich (not to be confused with the former Labor Secretary Robert Reich) [118] speculated in The Civic Perils of Homeschooling (2002) that homeschooling could threaten to "insulate students from exposure to diverse ideas and people." [119] [120] A 2014 study showed that greater exposure to homeschooling was associated with more political tolerance. [121]

Gallup polls of American voters have shown a significant change in attitude in the last 20 years, from 73% opposed to homeschooling in 1985 to 54% opposed in 2001. [122] [123] In 1988, when asked whether parents should have a right to choose homeschooling, 53 percent thought that they should, as revealed by another poll. [124]

See also

Related Research Articles

The philosophy of education examines the goals, forms, methods, and meaning of education. The term is used to describe both fundamental philosophical analysis of these themes and the description or analysis of particular pedagogical approaches. Considerations of how the profession relates to broader philosophical or sociocultural contexts may be included. The philosophy of education thus overlaps with the field of education and applied philosophy.

Unschooling Educational method and philosophy; form of homeschooling

Unschooling is an informal learning that advocates learner-chosen activities as a primary means for learning. Unschoolers learn through their natural life experiences including play, household responsibilities, personal interests and curiosity, internships and work experience, travel, books, elective classes, family, mentors, and social interaction. Often considered a lesson- and curriculum-free implementation of homeschooling, unschooling encourages exploration of activities initiated by the children themselves, believing that the more personal learning is, the more meaningful, well-understood and therefore useful it is to the child. While courses may occasionally be taken, unschooling questions the usefulness of standard curricula, fixed times at which learning should take place, conventional grading methods in standardized tests, forced contact with children in their own age group, the compulsion to do homework, regardless of whether it helps the learner in their individual situation, the effectiveness of listening to and obeying the orders of one authority figure for several hours each day, and other features of traditional schooling in the education of each unique child.

Home education in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is often termed "elective home education" ("EHE") to signify the independent nature of practice from state provisions such as education for children with ill-health provided by the local authority in the family home. EHE is a collective term used in the UK to describe education provided other than through the schooling system. Parents have a duty to ensure their children are educated but the education legislation in England and Wales does not differentiate between school attendance or education otherwise than at school. Scots education legislation on the other hand differentiates between public (state) school provision and education "by other means", which includes both private schooling and home education. The numbers of families retaining direct responsibility for the education of their children has steadily increased since the late 1970s. This increase has coincided with the formation of support groups such as Education Otherwise. Home education may involve an informal style of education described as unschooling, informal learning, natural or autonomous learning. Others prefer to retain a structured school at home approach sometimes referred to as homeschooling although the terms are often interchanged.

John Holt (educator) American writer and educator

John Caldwell Holt was an American author and educator, a proponent of homeschooling and, specifically, the unschooling approach, and a pioneer in youth rights theory.

An alternative school is an educational establishment with a curriculum and methods that are nontraditional. Such schools offer a wide range of philosophies and teaching methods; some have strong political, scholarly, or philosophical orientations, while others are more ad hoc assemblies of teachers and students dissatisfied with some aspect of mainstream or traditional education.

Alternative education encompasses many pedagogical approaches differing from mainstream pedagogy. Such alternative learning environments may be found within state, charter, and independent schools as well as home-based learning environments. Many educational alternatives emphasize small class sizes, close relationships between students and teachers and a sense of community.

Growing Without Schooling (GWS) was a homeschooling newsletter focused primarily on unschooling and deschooling. It was founded in 1977 by educator John Holt, and was published in Boston, Massachusetts. Reportedly the first such publication in the United States, it was read worldwide, and helped to catalyze the early growth and development of the homeschooling movement. Publication ceased in 2001 after 143 issues.

The education system in Tasmania comprises the education of children from their early years, through kindergarten, primary and high school, and tertiary education in universities and vocational education and training organisations. The system is delivered by the government-run K-12 schooling system, and numerous independent schools and colleges, most of which are controlled or sponsored by religious organisations. Public education in Tasmania is managed primarily by the Tasmanian Department of Education. The Department is responsible for all aspects of education in Tasmania including schooling, adult education, the State Library and TasTAFE, a vocational tertiary institution with many campuses around the state.

Deschooling is a term invented by Austrian philosopher Ivan Illich. Today, the word is mainly used by homeschoolers, especially unschoolers, to refer to the transition process that children and parents go through when they leave the school system in order to start homeschooling. It is a crucial process that is the basis for homeschooling to work, in which children should slowly break out of their school routine and mentality, develop the ability to learn via self-determination again, and find interests to decide what they want to learn in their first homeschool days. Depending on the type of person and time the child spent in the school system, this phase can last different lengths of time and may have different effects on the behavior of children. Especially in the first days of deschooling, it is often the case that children mainly want to recover from the school surroundings and therefore will generally sleep very long and refuse any kind of intentional learning and instead search for substitute satisfactions like watching TV or playing video games, very similar to the behavior during early school holidays. Moving on in this transition process, children may feel bored or cannot cope well with the missing daily structure, until they eventually find out how to make use of their time and freedom to find interests, which in the best case results in them voluntarily informing themselves about certain things they're interested in, whereupon homeschooling can start.

Home School Legal Defense Association United States organization

The Home School Legal Defense Association (HSLDA) is a United States-based organization that seeks to aid homeschooling families through legal representation. HSLDA describes itself as a "Christian organization."

Homeschooling in the United States Overview of the situation of homeschooling in the United States of America

Homeschooling in the United States of America constitutes the education of about 3.4% of U.S. students as of 2012. The number of homeschoolers in the United States has increased steadily over the past few decades since the end of the 20th century. In the United States, the Supreme Court has ruled that parents have a fundamental right to direct the education of their children. The right to homeschool is not frequently questioned in court, but the amount of state regulation and help that can or should be expected continues to be subject to legal debate.

Peter Kowalke is an American unschooling advocate best known for his work on grown homeschoolers and the lasting influence of homeschooling. He was one of the first authors to explore the lasting influence that homeschooling has on a person in terms of identity, and produced a large body of work on the topic from 1994 until 2013, after which he stepped back from the homeschooling community to focus on contextualizing the Indian Advaita Vedanta philosophy for American culture.

Single-parent homeschooling is the practice of conducting homeschool by a parent who may be the sole breadwinner for the family. According to the peer-review journal Education Policy Analysis, based on the findings of the National Household Education Survey, of the National Center of Educational Statistics, between 1994 and 1999 the number of single-parent homeschools almost doubled. No further statistics are currently available. It is the general perception, by most homeschooling advocates, that most single-parent homeschools are led by a self-employed single parent, one that is receiving public assistance, or someone that has received a life insurance settlement. In some single-parent homeschool circles it is thought that most-single parent homeschools are run by parents who work full-time jobs outside the home. No statistics have been compiled to confirm or invalidate either supposition.

Micro-schooling is the reinvention of the one-room school house, where class size is typically smaller than that in most schools and there are mixed-age level groupings. Generally, micro-schools do not meet all 5 days of the school week, and their schedules look different than a traditional public or private school. Classes can be taught using a flipped classroom approach, a form of blended learning, though not all micro-schools focus on technology in the same ways. Classes tend to be more impactful due to meeting fewer times in the week. Classes may use instructional methods, ranging from traditional lecture-based approaches to hands-on and activity-based approaches. Micro-schooling is viewed as a replacement for various school paradigms that are standard worldwide.

The legality of homeschooling in India and a plethora of alternative education schools spread over different states has been debated by educators, lawmakers, and parents since the passing of the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act (RTE) which makes formal education a fundamental right of every child between the ages of 6 to 14 and specifies minimum norms for schools. While the legality of homeschooling still remains a grey area, there have been petitions by parents and alternate schools in the past for granting relief. As per the Universal Declaration of Human Rights to which India is a signatory, quote: "Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children."

Homeschooling international status and statistics Overview of the legal situation and prevalence of homeschooling around the world

Homeschooling is legal in many countries. Countries with the most prevalent homeschooling movements include Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Some countries have highly regulated homeschooling programs as an extension of the compulsory school system; few others, such as Germany, have outlawed it entirely. In some other countries, while not restricted by law, homeschooling is not socially acceptable, or considered undesirable and is virtually non-existent.

Homeschooling in New Zealand is legal. The Ministry of Education reports annually on the population, age, ethnicity, and turnover of students being educated at home. The most recent statistics show:

"As at 1 July 2017, there were 6,008 home schooled students recorded in the Ministry of Education's Homeschooling database. These students belong to 3,022 families and represent 0.8% of total school enrolments as at 1 July 2017. Out of the 6,008 homeschoolers 67.3% were the aged 12 or under, 68.3% had been home-schooled for less than 5 years, and only 4.2% had been home-schooled for 10 years or more. European/Pākehā students are more likely to be homeschooled than any other ethnic group with 80.2% of all homeschoolers identifying as European/Pākehā compared to 50.1% of the total school population. Only 8.7% of homeschoolers identify as Māori compared to 24.0% of the total school population, 2.6% of homeschoolers identify as Pasifika compared to 9.8% of the total school population, and 2.2% of homeschoolers identify as Asian compared to 11.8% of the total school population. The ethnicity of 2.0% of homeschoolers is unknown."

Homeschooling in South Africa Overview of the situation of homeschooling in South Africa

Homeschooling in South Africa had been illegal, until it was recognized in 1996 under the South African School Legislation, since then it has grown significantly.

In Canada, homeschooling has increased in popularity since the advent of the 21st century. It is legal in every province, with each province having its own regulations around the practice. In some provinces, funding is available. In 2016, the number of homeschooled children in Canada was approximately 60,000 ; this corresponds to approximately one in every 127 school-aged children. In 2020, the average growth rate of the practice amounted to more than 5 per cent per year. Canada has a large proportion of non-religiously motivated homeschoolers compared to some other countries. It is also one of three countries worldwide, along with the United States and South Africa, that hosts an organization with lawyers on staff which serves the legal needs of home educators.

In Australia, homeschooling is becoming increasingly popular. It is legal in all Australian states and territories, with each having its own regulations around the practice. Distance education is also very prevalent there, as many Australians live in remote, rural areas. There are more than a dozen universities in Australia that support distance education. Many Australians switch between distance education and classroom teaching. The number of homeschooled children and students who take distance education in Australia is approximately 30,000. The number of registered homeschoolers alone was 21,437 in 2019; this corresponds to 0.5 per cent of the total school population of Australia. In the 2010s, the average growth rate of the practice amounted to 9.4 per cent per year. The largest Christian school of distance education in Australia is the Australian Christian College, which has over 1,700 families with 4,000 students enrolled. Homeschooling generally enjoys a very good reputation in the Australian media and is widely seen as a flexible alternative form of education with good socialization opportunities in the community.

References

  1. 1 2 "Elective home education—Guidelines for local authorities" (PDF). gov.uk. Section 1.2. p. 3. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2018-05-22. Retrieved 2018-10-11.CS1 maint: location (link)
  2. Wise, Rachel (2020-10-15). "What Does the Research Say About the Impact of Homeschooling on Academics and Social Skills?". Education and Behavior. Retrieved 2020-12-26.
  3. 1 2 Slater, Dr Eileen; Burton, Kate. "Homeschooled children are far more socially engaged than you might think". The Conversation. Retrieved 2020-12-26.
  4. Potter, Haley. "Do home-schoolers do better in college than traditional students?". USA TODAY. Retrieved 2020-12-26.
  5. 1 2 3 4 A. Distefano, K. E. Rudestam, R. J. Silverman (2005) Encyclopedia of Distributed Learning Archived 2016-01-01 at the Wayback Machine (p221) ISBN   0-7619-2451-5
  6. "Education: Free and Compulsory". Mises Institute. 2014-08-18. Archived from the original on 7 November 2014. Retrieved 19 April 2016.
  7. Houston, Robert (2011-11-28). "Literacy". Archived from the original on 2017-09-14. Retrieved 2017-09-13.
  8. "History of Alternative Education in the United States". Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 19 April 2016.
  9. Encyclopædia Britannica 11 ed. Vol. 8 (Demijohn to Edward the Black Prince). 1911. pp.  959.
  10. Cvrcek, Tomas; Zajicek, Miroslav (2019-09-01). "The rise of public schooling in nineteenth-century Imperial Austria: Who gained and who paid?". Cliometrica. 13 (3): 367–403. doi: 10.1007/s11698-018-0180-6 . ISSN   1863-2513.
  11. "How they were schooled". Archived from the original on 29 April 2016. Retrieved 19 April 2016.
  12. "Removing Classrooms from the Battle | SUTHERLAND INSTITUTE" (PDF). SUTHERLAND INSTITUTE. 2008-07-29. p. 377,386 Note 30. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-08-08. Retrieved 2017-08-23.
  13. Edgar, William (January 2007). "The Passing of R. J. Rushdoony". First Things. Archived from the original on April 4, 2014. Retrieved 2014-04-23.
  14. 1 2 3 4 Better Late Than Early, Raymond S. Moore, Dorothy N. Moore, 1975
  15. Amall, Judy (2018). Unschooling To University: Relationships Matter Most in a World Crammed With Content (1 ed.). Professional Parenting, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. p. 24. ISBN   9780978050993 . Retrieved 12 February 2020.
  16. "Raymond & Dorothy Moore: Homeschool Pioneers". CCHE. 2018-09-18. Archived from the original on 2019-12-29. Retrieved 2019-04-10.
  17. Christine Field. The Old Schoolhouse Meets Up with Patrick Farenga About the Legacy of John Holt Archived August 16, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  18. "HSC - A Brief History of Homeschooling". 2007-12-15. Archived from the original on 2007-12-15. Retrieved 2017-08-23.
  19. 1 2 "A Conversation with John Holt - The Natural Child Project". Archived from the original on 20 September 2017. Retrieved 19 April 2016.
  20. "A Conversation with John Holt - The Natural Child Project". www.naturalchild.org. Archived from the original on 2017-09-20. Retrieved 2017-04-04.
  21. "Moore Home Schooling : Moore Formula". www.moorefoundation.com. Archived from the original on 2016-03-05. Retrieved 2017-04-04.
  22. HSLDA. "Homeschooling in New York: A legal analysis" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 April 2006. Retrieved 13 September 2013.
  23. "A Brief History of Homeschooling". Coalition for Responsible Home Education. 2014-03-08. Retrieved 2020-11-01.
  24. 1 2 Carter, Joe. "9 Things You Should Know About the History of the Homeschooling Movement". The Gospel Coalition. Retrieved 2020-11-01.
  25. "Unschooling and Homeschooling FAQ | Alternative Schooling | Self Directed Learning". John Holt GWS. Archived from the original on 2015-07-07. Retrieved 2015-07-16.
  26. "Build a Well-Rounded Liberal Arts Home School Curriculum". www.brighthubeducation.com. 2011-01-29. Retrieved 2020-10-10.
  27. chscurriculum (2019-04-26). "What Do We mean By Liberal Arts?". Classical Homeschool Curriculum. Retrieved 2020-10-10.
  28. Rothermel, Paula (20 March 2015). International perspectives on home education : do we still need schools?. ISBN   978-1137446848.
  29. Bhopal & Myers, Kalwant, Martin (2018-05-02). Home schooling and home education : race, class and inequality. ISBN   978-1138651340.
  30. "Here's Why Homeschooling Actually Makes More Sense in the Digital Age". Red Tricycle. 2019-02-25. Retrieved 2020-11-01.
  31. Team, Editorial (2020-09-20). "How Has Homeschooling Changed in the Digital Age?". Learning Links Academy. Retrieved 2020-11-01.
  32. "How the Internet Changed Homeschooling". Acellus Academy. 2019-11-13. Retrieved 2020-11-01.
  33. "The Role of Homeschooling in the Modern Era". ResearchGate. Retrieved 2020-11-01.
  34. 1 2 "Parents Are Sharing Their Homeschool Fails And We Can't Stop Laughing". IFLScience. Retrieved 2020-11-27.
  35. "What Past Education Emergencies Tell Us About Our Future". Edutopia. Retrieved 2020-11-27.
  36. Psacharopoulos, George; Patrinos, Harry; Collis, Victoria; Vegas, Emiliana (2020-04-29). "The COVID-19 cost of school closures". Brookings. Retrieved 2020-08-03.
  37. Lindzon, Jared (2020-03-20). "School closures are starting, and they'll have far-reaching economic impacts". Fast Company. Retrieved 2020-08-03.
  38. Goldstein, Dana (2020-06-05). "Research Shows Students Falling Months Behind During Virus Disruptions". The New York Times. Retrieved 2020-08-03.
  39. "Parents are sharing homeschooling fails as they attempt to teach children". The Independent. 2020-03-25. Retrieved 2020-11-27.
  40. Peek, Liz (2020-07-17). "Dems, Teacher Unions Playing Politics With School Closures". Real Clear Politics. Retrieved 2020-08-03.
  41. Perper, Rosie (2020-07-07). "Trump is pushing to reopen schools, which he claims are closed for political reasons and not to curb the coronavirus' spread". Business Insider. Retrieved 2020-08-03.
  42. "Growing number of districts decide to start the school year online". EdSource. 2020-07-14. Retrieved 2020-08-03.
  43. "Mental health effects of school closures during COVID-19". The Lancet. 2020-04-14. Retrieved 2020-08-03.
  44. 1.5 Million Home-schooled Students in the United States in 2007 Issue Brief from Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. December 2008. NCES 2009–030
  45. "Record numbers of children are now homeschooled, but who's keeping an eye on the parents?". Archived from the original on 2018-10-16. Retrieved 2018-09-28.
  46. 1 2 3 "10 good reasons to home school your child". the Guardian. 2016-09-10. Retrieved 2020-12-15.
  47. Anderson, Melinda D. (2018-05-17). "The Radical Self-Reliance of Black Homeschooling". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on 2018-07-02. Retrieved 2018-07-02.
  48. "Where Did This Kid Come From? Homeschooling by the Temperaments - Seton Magazine". 2020-02-11. Retrieved 2020-09-05.
  49. "Homeschooling & Co. als Alternative?". www.trendyone.de (in German). Retrieved 2020-08-07.
  50. Krummenacher, Jörg (2019-09-16). "Aus Misstrauen gegenüber dem Staat: Immer mehr Eltern unterrichten ihre Kinder privat". www.nzz.ch (in German).
  51. WELT (2016-11-13). "Unschooling: Lernen ohne Schule, ohne Noten, ohne Lehrer". DIE WELT (in German). Retrieved 2020-08-07.
  52. Weller, Chris (2018-01-21). "Homeschooling could be the smartest way to teach kids in the 21st century — here are 5 reasons why". Business Insider. Retrieved 2020-09-05.
  53. "Top 5 Reasons Why Parents Homeschool Their Kids". Calvert Education. 2016-08-09. Retrieved 2020-09-05.
  54. 1 2 America, High School Of (2019-11-26). "Does Homeschooling Benefit Mental Health?". Medium. Retrieved 2020-12-15.
  55. 1 2 "Reasons Parents Homeschool". Coalition for Responsible Home Education. 2013-09-11. Archived from the original on 2016-05-04. Retrieved 2016-05-15.
  56. News, U. S.; Report, World (2012-06-01). "Why Homeschooled Teens Are Ahead Of The Game For College". HuffPost. Retrieved 2020-12-15.
  57. "Why The Homeschool Movement Is Growing". Modern Homeschool Family. 2016-05-31. Retrieved 2020-11-01.
  58. Pickert, Lori (2012). Project-Based Homeschooling: Mentoring Self-Directed Learners. ebook. Retrieved 12 February 2020.[ permanent dead link ]
  59. "No Regrets: Homeschooling for Medical Reasons" . Retrieved 2020-12-15.
  60. "The Risks of Homeschooling". 10 April 2020. Archived from the original on 2020-05-01. Retrieved 2020-05-04.
  61. "Homeschool." Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com, 2015. Web. 3 June 2015. Dictionary.reference.com Archived 2016-03-02 at the Wayback Machine
  62. Miller, Tyler (2014-10-15). "How Is Unschooling Different From Homeschooling?". www.noodle.com. Retrieved 2020-10-10.
  63. "What Is Unschooling? A Parents Guide to Child-Led Home Education". Parents. Retrieved 2020-12-15.
  64. "Unschooling - letting children grow up without school or teachers". dpa International. Retrieved 2020-12-15.
  65. 1 2 "What is Unschooling?". www.educationcorner.com. Archived from the original on 2019-12-24. Retrieved 2019-03-18.
  66. "Informal learning, home education and homeschooling (home schooling)". YMCA George Williams College. 2013-05-08. Retrieved 2020-12-21.
  67. "12 Most Compelling Reasons to Homeschool Your Children". 12most.com. 2012-02-07. Archived from the original on 2012-02-09. Retrieved 2014-01-16.
  68. 1 2 "Homeschooling in the United States: 2003 - Executive Summary". Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 19 April 2016.
  69. "HSLDA - Home Schooling-State". Archived from the original on 22 April 2016. Retrieved 19 April 2016.
  70. Livingstone, D. W. (2006). "Informal Learning: Conceptual Distinctions and Preliminary Findings". Counterpoints. 249: 203–227. JSTOR   42979596.
  71. Crawford, Elizabeth Outlaw; Heaton, Emily T.; Heslop, Karen; Kixmiller, Kassandra (2009). "Science Learning at Home Involving Families". Yc Young Children. 64 (6): 39–41. JSTOR   42731048.
  72. Bolin, Inge (November 2006). "Growing up in a Culture of Respect: Child Rearing in Highland Peru". Journal of Latin American Anthropology. 11 (2): 430–432. doi:10.1525/jlca.2006.11.2.430. ISSN   1085-7052.
  73. Legare, Cristine H.; Sobel, David M.; Callanan, Maureen (October 2017). "Causal learning is collaborative: Examining explanation and exploration in social contexts". Psychonomic Bulletin & Review. 24 (5): 1548–1554. doi: 10.3758/s13423-017-1351-3 . ISSN   1531-5320. PMID   28744768.
  74. Martin-Chang, S.; Gould, O. N.; & Meuse, R. E. (2011). "The impact of schooling on academic achievement: Evidence from homeschooled and traditionally schooled students". Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science . 43 (3): 195–202. doi:10.1037/a0022697. ProQuest   878227015.
  75. Randle, Inga (1997). "The measure of success: Integrated Thematic Instruction". The Clearing House. 71 (2): 85. doi:10.1080/00098659709599331.
  76. "Homeschooling Approaches - School-at-Home". www.homeschool.com. Archived from the original on 2017-07-07. Retrieved 2017-10-24.
  77. Gray, Peter (April 15, 2017). "Self-Directed Education—Unschooling and Democratic Schooling". Archived copy. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Education. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780190264093.013.80. ISBN   9780190264093. Archived from the original on September 19, 2018. Retrieved September 18, 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  78. "Why is education important, homeschooling and the Montessori method". Archived from the original on 5 February 2016. Retrieved 19 April 2016.
  79. John Taylor Gatto, Weapons of Mass Instruction (Odysseus Group, 2008).
  80. L. W. Chiu, Hazel (2012). "Supporting the development of autonomous learning skills in reading and writing in an independent language learning centre". Studies in Self-Access Learning Journal. 3: 271–272. Archived from the original on 2016-11-29. Retrieved 2016-11-28.
  81. 1 2 3 McShane, Mike. "Is Hybrid Homeschooling The Wave Of The Future?". Forbes. Retrieved 2020-12-14.
  82. "Can Hybrid Home Schooling "Cross the Chasm?"". EdChoice. 2019-12-10. Retrieved 2020-12-15.
  83. "Homeschooling – the Future of Schools or a Dying Breed?".
  84. McShane, Mike. "How To Hybrid Homeschool This Fall". Forbes. Retrieved 2020-12-15.
  85. 1 2 Lenz, Lyz (2020-08-18). "A Family Looks Back on Their Hybrid Home-School Experience". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved 2020-12-15.
  86. "CHN - Homeschool FAQ". californiahomeschool.net. Archived from the original on 2016-10-01. Retrieved 2016-10-05.
  87. "Homeschool Technology and Online Communication - National Home Education Research Institute". National Home Education Research Institute. Retrieved 2018-02-02.[ permanent dead link ]
  88. 1 2 "HSLDA - Academic Statistics on Homeschooling". Archived from the original on 21 April 2016. Retrieved 19 April 2016.
  89. "Academic Achievement". HSLDA. Archived from the original on 31 October 2012. Retrieved 12 October 2012.
  90. Rudner, Lawrence M. (1999-03-23). "Achievement and Demographics of Home School Students". Education Policy Analysis Archives. 7: 8. doi: 10.14507/epaa.v7n8.1999 .
  91. "HSLDA - Home Schooling Achievement". Archived from the original on 12 April 2016. Retrieved 19 April 2016.
  92. 1 2 3 Ray, Brian. "Progress Report 2009: Homeschool Academic Achievement and Demographics". Survey. National Home Education Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2013-01-05. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
  93. Welner, Kariane Mari; Kevin G. Welner (11 April 1999). "Contextualizing Homeschooling Data: A Response to Rudner". Education Policy Analysis Archives: Education Policy Analysis Archives - Arizona State University. 7 (13). Archived from the original on 12 January 2015. Retrieved 13 September 2013.
  94. Ray, Brian. (2010). Academic achievement and demographic traits of homeschooled students: a nationwide study. Academic Leadership Live: The Online Journal, 8(1)
  95. 1. Chang- Martin, S., Gould, O., & Meuse, R. (2011). The impact of schooling on academic achievement: evidence from homeschooled and traditionally schooled students. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 43(3): 195–202. DOI:10.1037/a0022697
  96. Martin-Chang, Sandra; Gould, O.N.; Meuse, R.E. (2011). "The impact of schooling on academic achievement: Evidence from home-schooled and traditionally-schooled students". Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science. 43 (3): 195–202. doi:10.1037/a0022697. Archived from the original on 12 February 2013. Retrieved 7 January 2013.
  97. "Child Abuse and Neglect Fatalities Not Correlated with Homeschooling". National Home Education Research Institute. Retrieved 2020-12-02.
  98. Cogan, F. (2010). Exploring academic outcomes of homeschooled students. Journal of College Admission, 208, 18–25
  99. Snyder, Marc. (2013). An evaluative study of the academic achievement of homeschooled students versus traditionally schooled students attending a Catholic university. Catholic Education: A Journal of Inquiry and Practice March, 16, 288–308
  100. Wichers, M. (2001). Homeschooling: adventitious or detrimental for proficiency in higher education. Education, 122, 145–150
  101. "Homeschool Demographics". 11 September 2013. Archived from the original on 2019-08-17. Retrieved 2019-08-16.
  102. 1 2 Chang- Martin, S., Gould, O., & Meuse, R. (2011). The impact of schooling on academic achievement: evidence from homeschooled and traditionally schooled students. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 43(3): 195–202. DOI:10.1037/a0022697
  103. Ray, Brian. (2010). Academic achievement and demographic traits of homeschool students: a nationwide study. Academic Leadership Live: The Online Journal, 8(1).
  104. Better Late Than Early, Raymond S. Moore, Dorothy N. Moore, Seventh Printing, 1993, addendum
  105. 1 2 "Moore Foundation : When Education Becomes Abuse". 2009-03-31. Archived from the original on 2009-03-31. Retrieved 2017-08-23.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  106. Vaughn, Michael G.; Salas-Wright, Christopher P.; Kremer, Kristen P.; Maynard, Brandy R.; Roberts, Greg; Vaughn, Sharon (2015). "Are homeschooled adolescents less likely to use alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs?". Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 155: 97–104. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.08.010. PMC   4652803 . PMID   26338482.
  107. Homeschool Legal Defense Association. "Academic Statistics on Homeschooling." Hslda.org Archived 2005-04-09 at the Wayback Machine
  108. Daniel Golden (11 February 2000). "Home-Schooled Kids Defy Stereotypes, Ace SAT Test". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on January 18, 2010.
  109. "Fostering Educational Innovation in Choice-Based Multi-Venue and Government Single-Venue Settings." (pp. 32 n.21; 35–36 n.27; 42 n.57; 44 n.66) [ dead link ]
  110. Stevens, Mitchell L. (2001). Kingdom of Children: Culture and Controversy in the Homeschooling Movement (PDF). Princeton University Press. ISBN   9780691114682. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-08-24. Retrieved 2014-04-28.
  111. Sizer, Bridget Bentz. "Socialization: Tackling Homeschooling's "S" word". Pbsparents.
  112. 1 2 Self-Concept in home-schooling children, John Wesley Taylor V, Ph.D., Andrews University, Berrien Springs, MI
  113. "HOMESCHOOLING GROWS UP - HSLDA's synopsis of a research study on adults who were homeschooled". Archived from the original on 2020-04-29.
  114. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2019-06-05. Retrieved 2020-04-03.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  115. Lines, Patricia M. "Homeschooling". Kidsource. Archived from the original on 1 January 2016. Retrieved 13 September 2013.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  116. Lips, Dan; Feinberg, Evan (2008-04-03). "Homeschooling: A Growing Option in American Education". Heritage Foundation. Archived from the original on 6 August 2013. Retrieved 13 September 2013.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  117. "The dark side of home schooling: America's Christian right tried to train up 'culture warriors' | Katherine Stewart". the Guardian. 2013-05-08. Retrieved 2020-12-02.
  118. "Rob Reich". Stanford.edu. Archived from the original on 10 September 2013. Retrieved 13 September 2013.
  119. Reich, Rob. (2002). The Civic Perils of Homeschooling. Educational Leadership. 59(7). p 56.
  120. "The Civic Perils of Homeschooling".
  121. Cheng, Albert. (2014). Does Homeschooling or Private Schooling Promote Political Intolerance? Evidence From a Christian University. Journal of School Choice International Research and Reform p 49-68.
  122. "ERIC/CEM - School Choice Discussion". Archived from the original on 14 November 2007. Retrieved 19 April 2016.
  123. Rose, Lowell C.; Alec M. Gallup; Stanley M. Elam (1997). "The 29th Annual Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes Toward the Public Schools". Phi Delta Kappan. 1. 79: 41–56.
  124. Gallup, Alec M.; Elam M. Stanley (1988). "The 20th Annual Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes Toward the Public Schools". Phi Delta Kappan. 70 (1): 33–46.

Further reading