Education in Benin

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Teacher with students in a classroom in Benin. Benin classroom.jpg
Teacher with students in a classroom in Benin.

Benin has abolished school fees and is carrying out the recommendations of its 2007 Educational Forum. [1] (Its education system used not to be free. [2] ) In 1996, the gross primary enrollment rate was 72.5 percent, and the net primary enrollment rate was 59.3 percent. [2] A far greater percentage of boys are enrolled in school than girls: In 1996, the gross primary enrollment rate for boys was 88.4 percent as opposed to 55.7 percent for girls. The net primary enrollment rates were 71.6 percent for boys and 46.2 percent for girls. [2] Primary school attendance rates were unavailable for Benin as of 2001. [2] (While enrollment rates indicate a level of commitment to education, they do not always reflect children's participation in school. [2] )

Benin country in Africa

Benin, officially the Republic of Benin and formerly Dahomey, is a country in West Africa. It is bordered by Togo to the west, Nigeria to the east, and Burkina Faso and Niger to the north. The majority of its population lives on the small southern coastline of the Bight of Benin, part of the Gulf of Guinea in the northernmost tropical portion of the Atlantic Ocean. The capital of Benin is Porto-Novo, but the seat of government is in Cotonou, the country's largest city and economic capital. Benin covers an area of 114,763 square kilometres (44,310 sq mi) and its population in 2016 was estimated to be approximately 10.87 million. Benin is a tropical nation, highly dependent on agriculture, and is a large exporter of cotton and palm oil. Substantial employment and income arise from subsistence farming.

Primary school School in which children receive primary or elementary education from the age of about five to twelve

A primary school is a school for children from about four to eleven years old, in which they receive primary or elementary education. It can refer to both the physical structure (buildings) and the organisation. Typically it comes after preschool, and before secondary school.

Contents

Because of a rapid increase in the enrollment rate, the student/teacher ratio rose from 36:1 in 1990 to 53:1 in 1997. [2] The overall adult literacy rate is nearly 40%. [3] Only 25% of women in Benin are literate. [3]

Literacy ability to read for knowledge, write coherently, and think critically about the written word; ability to read, write, and use arithmetic

Dictionaries traditionally define literacy as the ability to read and write. In the modern world, this is one way of interpreting literacy. One more broad interpretation sees literacy as knowledge and competence in a specific area. The concept of literacy has evolved in meaning. The modern term's meaning has been expanded to include the ability to use language, numbers, images, computers, and other basic means to understand, communicate, gain useful knowledge, solve mathematical problems and use the dominant symbol systems of a culture. The concept of literacy is expanding across OECD countries to include skills to access knowledge through technology and ability to assess complex contexts. A person who travels and resides in a foreign country but is unable to read or write in the language of the host country would be regarded by the locals as illiterate.

History

By the late 1980s, under Benin's Marxist government, the quality of education was seriously eroded. By 1989, the education system was in a state of collapse. [3] A key event in the reform of education in Benin was the national Conference on Education (Etats Généraux de l'Education, EGE) held in 1990 which adopted a national policy and strategy to improve education. [3] Beginning in 1991, the government of Benin introduced significant changes in the Beninese education system. [3]

Marxism economic and sociopolitical worldview based on the works of Karl Marx

Marxism is a theory and method of working-class self-emancipation. As a theory, it relies on a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation. It originates from the works of 19th-century German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.

Education Learning in which knowledge and skills is transferred through teaching

Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits. Educational methods include storytelling, discussion, teaching, training, and directed research. Education frequently takes place under the guidance of educators, however learners may also educate themselves. Education can take place in formal or informal settings and any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts may be considered educational. The methodology of teaching is called pedagogy.

Major advances have been made in education, especially in the areas of access and teaching/learning conditions. [3] The gross enrollment rate has increased from a base of 49.7% in 1990 to 96% in 2004 and girls' enrollment from 36% in 1990 to 84% in 2004. [3] Gender balance and geographic equity have shown significant improvements in gross numbers of girls and children from disadvantaged areas attending primary schools. [3] Nonetheless, major constraints and challenges remain. [3]

School system

The Republic of Benin operates on a 6-4-3-3-4 system: [4]

Education is compulsory for children between ages six and eleven. [4] After spending two to three years in kindergarten, it takes six years for them to complete and take the primary school certificate. [4] It requires seven years to complete junior and senior high school. [4] At the end of the four first years of junior high school, the students have to take the O-level (Brevet d’Etudes du Premier Cycle: BEPC). After three years the students have to take the A level (Baccalauréat: BAC) exam which is the equivalent of the U.S. high school diploma. [4]

Kindergarten preschool educational approach traditionally based on playing

Kindergarten is a preschool educational approach based on playing, singing, practical activities such as drawing, and social interaction as part of the transition from home to school. Such institutions were originally created in the late 18th century in Bavaria and Strasbourg to serve children whose parents both worked outside home. The term was coined by the German Friedrich Fröbel, whose approach globally influenced early-years education. Today, the term is used in many countries to describe a variety of educational institutions and learning spaces for children ranging from two to seven years of age, based on a variety of teaching methods.

There are vocational schools in the following provinces: Atlantique littoral (city of Cotonou), Oueme Plateau (city of Porto-Novo), Zou Colline (city of Bohicon) Borgou (city of Parakou), Mono Couffo, Atakora, Donga and Alibori. [4]

Grading system

The grading system is from 0 to 20, with 20 being the highest. [4]

Languages of instruction

French, the official language of Benin, is generally the language of instruction.

Leading public high schools

Cotonou: [4]

Porto-Novo: [4]

High School of Application: [4]

Higher education

The government has devoted more than 4% of GDP to education since 2009. In 2015, public expenditure amounted to 4.4% of GDP, according to the UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Within total education expenditure, Benin devotes quite a large share to higher education: 0.97% of GDP in 2015. [5]

Between 2009 and 2011, the share of young people enrolled at university rose from 10% to 12% of the 18-25 age cohort, one of the highest ratios in West Africa. Student enrollment in tertiary education doubled between 2006 and 2011 from 50,225 to 110,181. These statistics encompass not only bachelor's, master's and PhD programmes but also non-degree post-secondary education. [5]

The National University of Benin system maintains ten branches:

Each branch is headed by a university president. [4]

Some private higher institutions are accredited by the Ministry of National Education. Altogether 94 higher institutions are accredited. [4]

Grading system for thesis defense

Leading private universities

 African School of Economics (ASE)

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The Benin Premier League, also called Championnat National du Bénin in French, is the highest football division in Benin. The league was held in 1969 for the first time. Currently, it is composed of 14 clubs playing a double round-robin tournament. The winner of the Premier League earns a place in the CAF Champions League. The last two clubs are relegated to Second Division which is composed of 11 teams.

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Outline of Benin Overview of and topical guide to Benin

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The African School of Economics (ASE) is a private university headquartered in Abomey-Calavi, Republic of Benin.

References

  1. "Benin | Unesco" | United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "Benin" Archived 2008-09-06 at the Wayback Machine Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor (2001) Bureau of International Labor Affairs, U.S. Department of Labor (2002, This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.)
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Education: Programs Archived 2008-06-13 at the Wayback Machine . USAID Benin. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM OF BENIN REPUBLIC Archived 2008-07-27 at the Wayback Machine . Embassy of the United States, Cotonou, Benin. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  5. 1 2 Essegbey, George; Diaby, Nouhou; Konté, Almamy (2015). West Africa. In: UNESCO Science Report: towards 2030 (PDF). Paris: UNESCO. pp. 471–497. ISBN   978-92-3-100129-1.