Education in Lesotho has undergone reforms in recent years, [ when? ] meaning that primary education is now free, universal, and compulsory. [ citation needed ]
Lesotho, officially the Kingdom of Lesotho, is an enclaved country within the border of South Africa. It is one of only three independent states completely surrounded by the territory of another country, and the only one outside of the Italian peninsula. Lesotho is just over 30,000 km2 (11,583 sq mi) in size and has a population of around 2 million. Its capital and largest city is Maseru.
Lesotho spends a higher proportion of its GDP (13%) on education than any other country in the worldand an average child in Lesotho can expect to spend 10 years of their life in education. Education is compulsory only between the ages of 6 and 13. Secondary school education is non-compulsory, and as of 2005 was attended by 24.0% of 13- to 17-year-olds. There is a gender disparity present in secondary education, with more females attending than males. This disparity is greatest in wealthier areas, where males are 15.6% less likely than females to attend secondary school. Lesotho's educational system is organized in formal and informal domains. Lesotho contains a 3-7-3-2 formal education structure. Early childhood education is also known as pre-primary school in which students must pass 3 years before moving onto primary school. Primary school consists of seven grades (1-7) and upon completion receive the Primary School Leaving Examination (PSLE) certificate that allows students to move onto secondary schools. There are two divisions within the secondary school known as the lower and Upper secondary. Lower secondary runs for three years (8-10) and upon completion are given the Junior Certificate (JC) and move onto grades 11-12. Lesotho's formal system has about 2,204 pre-primary schools, 1,478 primary schools, roughly 341 post-primary schools and 14 higher education institutions. Lesotho's informal domains comprises 26 technical and vocational schools that offer individuals training in automotive mechanics, bricklaying and home sciences. The informal education is set in place to address the educational needs for those who are unable to attend education through formal means while also providing primary and secondary education. Secondary education covers five years, three year junior secondary and a two-year senior secondary. One must pass the nationally administered Junior Certificate Examination to continue, before culminating in the external examination of the Cambridge Overseas School Certificate (GCE "O" Level) that grants access to tertiary programs. Most university studies at the undergraduate level leading to a bachelor's degree takes four years to complete and masters programs typically take two years to complete.
Free primary education began to be introduced to Lesotho in the year 2000.Before that, many boys received no primary education at all and spent their time herding animals. The adult literacy rate is higher for women (95%) than for men (83%). When free primary education was introduced, the government of Lesotho decided to phase it in gradually, with fee elimination beginning for the youngest children in the year 2000. In 2010, with primary school enrollment rates standing at 82%, an Education Act was introduced to make primary education not only free but also compulsory. While Lesotho does allocate over 23.3% of its budget on education, study in 2015 determined there were many challenges facing the educational sector. One such challenge includes poor retention rates at both primary and secondary levels. Other challenges included in the report are low student learning outcomes, high inefficiency in the system, and poor school governance. Many educational sectors also lack acceptable facilities and find it difficult to retain teachers, especially in mountainous districts or other areas where it is difficult to reach. As a result, Lesotho implemented the Educational Sector Strategic Plan for 2016-2026 to address these challenges. Lesotho's education plan for 2016–2026 is split into 13 chapters that cover an array of topics within the Ministry of Education and training. The plan not only serves as a blueprint for the Ministry's budget allocation for the decade but wants to focus on low performance in STEM subjects.
While it is common for education to favor males, especially in low-income countries, the gender gap in education tends to favor women in Lesotho.The ratio in enrollment rates in secondary education are 1.6 females for every male, making it the highest in the world. Female education comes from the result of male out-migration to South Africa due to high unemployment and poverty. This caused women to outnumber men by four-to-one while most of the most who migrated stayed in South Africa. Despite the high enrollment rates of women, girls in lower education, drop out rates remain high attributed to cultural, economic and social factors.
While Lesotho's Ministry of Education and Training (MOET) introduced free primary education, many students with disabilities were excluded from education.In the 1990s, the ministry released their goals that would advocate for integrating people with disabilities. They include special education programs to help train teachers to particular set of students. With the passing of the Education Sector Strategic Plan in 2005, it targeted to significantly increase access for children with special educational needs (SEN) and promote more integration. There is still a shortage of qualified teachers in subjects such as science, math, business and technical topics.
Lesotho has two universities. Its main university is the National University of Lesotho, located in Roma, which has around 10000 registered students. The capital, Maseru, has been home to a campus of Limkokwing University since 2008.
The National University of Lesotho is in Roma, some 34 kilometers southeast of Maseru, the capital of Lesotho. The Roma valley is broad and is surrounded by a barrier of rugged mountains which provides magnificent scenery. The university enjoys a temperate climate with four distinct seasons. The governing body of the University is the Council and academic policy is in the hands of Senate, both Council and Senate being established by the Act.
Roma is a settlement under the Manonyane Community Council in the Maseru District of Lesotho, some 34 kilometers southeast of Maseru, the capital of Lesotho. The Roma valley is broad and fertile, and is surrounded by sandstone cliffs topped to the East by basalt mountains which provide magnificent scenery.
Maseru is the capital and largest city of Lesotho. It is also the capital of the Maseru District. Located on the Caledon River, Maseru lies directly on the Lesotho-South Africa border. Maseru is Lesotho's capital city with a population of 330,760 in the 2016 census. The city was established as a police camp and assigned as the capital after the country became a British protectorate in 1869. When the country achieved independence in 1966, Maseru retained its status as capital. The name of the city is a Sesotho word meaning "red sandstones".
Education in India is provided by public schools and private schools. Under various articles of the Indian Constitution, free and compulsory education is provided as a fundamental right to children between the ages of 6 and 14. The approximate ratio of public schools to private schools in India is 7:5.
Education in Bangladesh is overseen by the Bangladesh's Ministry of Education. Ministry of Primary and Mass Education are responsible for implementing policy for primary education and state-funded schools at a local level. In Bangladesh, all citizens must undertake twelve years of compulsory education which consists of eight years at primary school level and six years at high school level. Primary and secondary education is financed by the state and free of charge in public schools.
Education in Botswana is provided by public schools and private schools. Education in Botswana is governed by Ministry of Education and Skills Development.
Education in Mauritius is managed by the Ministry of Education & Human Resources, which controls the development and administration of state schools funded by government, but also has an advisory and supervisory role in respect of private schools. The Tertiary education is maintained by the Ministry of Tertiary Education, Science, Research and Technology. The government of Mauritius provides free education to its citizens from pre-primary to tertiary levels. Since July 2005, the government also introduced free transport for all students. Schooling is compulsory up to the age of 16. Mauritian students consistently rank top in the world each year for the Cambridge International O Level, International A and AS level examinations.
Education in the State of Palestine refers to the educational system in Gaza and the West Bank administered by the Palestinian Ministry of Education and Higher Education. Enrollment rates amongst Palestinians are relatively high by regional and global standards. According to a youth survey in 2003, 60% between the ages 10–24 indicated that education was their first priority. Youth literacy rate is 98.2%, while the national literacy rate is 91.1% Enrollment ratios for higher education were 46.2% in 2007, among the highest in the world. In 2016 Hanan Al Hroub was awarded the Varkey Foundation Global Teacher Prize for her work in teaching children how to cope with violence.
Education in Ghana was mainly informal, and based on apprenticeship before the arrival of European settlers, who introduced a formal education system addressed to the elites. Pre-Independent Ghana was known as the Gold Coast. The economy of pre-colonial Gold Coast was mainly dependent on subsistence farming where farm produce was shared within households and members of each household specialized in providing their household with other necessities such as cooking utilities, shelter, home, clothing and furnitures. Trade with other households was therefore practised in a very small scale. This has made economic activities in pre-colonial Gold Coast a family institution/customs; family-owned and family-controlled. As such, there was no need for employment outside the household that would have otherwise called for discipline(s), value(s) and skill(s) through a formal education system. Pre-colonial Gold Cost therefore practised an informal education (apprenticeship) until it was colonized and its economy became a hybrid of subsistence and formal economy.
Education in Tanzania- is provided by both the public and private sectors, starting with pre-primary education, followed by primary, secondary ordinary, secondary advanced, and ideally, university level education. The Tanzanian government began to emphasize the importance of education shortly after its independence in 1961. Curriculum is standardized by level, and it is the basis for the national examinations. Achievement levels are important, yet there are various causes of children not receiving the education that they need, including the need to help families with work, poor accessibility, and a variety of learning disabilities. While there is a lack of resources for special needs education, Tanzania has committed to inclusive education and attention on disadvantaged learners, as pointed out in the 2006 Education Sector Review AIDE-MEMORE. The government's National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty in 2005 heavily emphasized education and
Education in Lebanon is regulated by the Ministry of Education and Higher Education (MEHE). In Lebanon, English or French with Arabic are taught from early years in schools. English or French are the mandatory medium of instruction for mathematics and science for all schools. Education is compulsory from age 6 to age 14.
Jordan prides itself on its advanced education system. Jordanians are well educated since education is considered a core value in Jordanian culture. Jordan has the highest ratio of researchers in Research and Development among all 57 Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) member states. In Jordan, there are 8060 researchers per million people, higher than the EU average of 6494, and much higher than the world average of 2532 per million.
Education in Cambodia is controlled by the state through the Ministry of Education in a national level and by the Department of Education at the provincial level. The Constitution of Cambodia establishes that the state shall protect and upgrade citizen's rights to quality education at all levels, guaranteeing that all citizens have equal opportunity to earn a living. The state shall adopt an education program "according to the principle of modern pedagogy including technology and foreign languages," as well as the state controls public and private schools and classrooms at all levels. The Cambodian education system includes pre-school, primary, general secondary, higher education and non-formal education. The education system includes the development of sport, information technology education, research development and technical education. School enrollment has increased during the 2000s in Cambodia. USAID data shows that in 2011 primary enrollment reached 96% of the child population, lower secondary school 34% and upper secondary 21%.
Education in Zimbabwe is under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Primary and Secondary Education for primary and secondary education and the Ministry of Higher and Tertiary Education, Science and Technology Development for higher education. Both are regulated by the Cabinet of Zimbabwe. The education system in Zimbabwe encompasses 13 years of primary and secondary school and runs from January to December. The school year is a total of 40 weeks with three terms and a month break in-between each term.
The education system in Morocco comprises pre-school, primary, secondary and tertiary levels. School education is supervised by the Ministry of National Education, with considerable devolution to the regional level. Higher education falls under the Ministry of Higher Education and Executive Training.
Western-style education was introduced to Bhutan during the reign of Ugyen Wangchuck (1907–26). Until the 1950s, the only formal education available to Bhutanese students, except for private schools in Ha and Bumthang, was through Buddhist monasteries. In the 1950s, several private secular schools were established without government support, and several others were established in major district towns with government backing. By the late 1950s, there were twenty-nine government and thirty private primary schools, but only about 2,500 children were enrolled. Secondary education was available only in India. Eventually, the private schools were taken under government supervision to raise the quality of education provided. Although some primary schools in remote areas had to be closed because of low attendance, the most significant modern developments in education came during the period of the First Development Plan (1961–66), when some 108 schools were operating and 15,000 students were enrolled
The State of Kuwait, located at the head of the Persian Gulf, supports an educational policy that seeks to provide opportunity to all children, irrespective of their social class, including children with special needs. Kuwait was ranked 63rd on the Human Development Index report for 2011 by the United Nations Development Programme, placing Kuwait above the regional average. The education system in Kuwait has celebrated several achievements; in the year ending 2006, thirteen percent of all public expenditure was given to education, comparable to many OECD countries, although lower than other Arab nations. As a percentage of GDP, at 3.9 percent, it remains well below the OECD average.
Education in Trinidad and Tobago is free and compulsory between ages 5 and 16. Trinidad and Tobago is considered one of the most educated countries in the World with a literacy rate exceeding 98%. This exceptionally high literacy rate can be attributed, in part, to free tuition from Kindergarten (Pre-School) to University.
Education in Uruguay is compulsory for a total of nine years, beginning at the primary level, and is free from the pre-primary through the university level. In 1996, the gross primary enrollment rate was 111.7 percent, and the net primary enrollment rate was 92.9 percent. Primary school attendance rates were unavailable for Uruguay as of 2001.
The education system of Djibouti is strongly influenced by France.
Education in Namibia is compulsory for 10 years between the ages of 6 and 16. There are approximately 1500 schools in Namibia of which 100 are privately owned. The Constitution directs the government to provide free primary education; however, families must pay fees for uniforms, stationery, books, hostels, and school improvements.
Education in Eswatini includes pre-school, primary, secondary and high schools, for general education and training (GET), and universities and colleges at tertiary level.
Education in Malta is compulsory through age sixteen and is offered through three different providers: the state, the church, and the private sector. The state is responsible for promoting education and instruction and ensuring universal access to education for all Maltese citizens the existence of a system of schools and institutions accessible to all Maltese citizens. The objectives of education in Malta include intellectual and moral development and the preparation of every citizen to contribute productively to the national economy. Although Maltese citizens had access to education during the Arab administration of 870 to 1090, the arrival of a number of religious orders in the following four centuries brought religious-based education to the island for wealthy families. The arrival of the Knights Hospitaller saw the establishment of the University of Malta, around which a number of primary, secondary and post-secondary institutions were established. Education in Malta has been universally available at the primary level since the ejection of the Knights Hospitaller by the French in 1798, when state-funded elementary schooling was established. In 1878, English replaced Italian as the primary language of instruction, and education was made compulsory in 1946 in response to a number of children not attending school due to poverty between World Wars One and Two. The age at which education became compulsory was lowered to five years in 1988