Education in Africa

Last updated

History

Education in Precolonial Africa

Precolonial Africa was mostly made up of tribes who often migrated depending on seasons, availability of fertile soil, and political circumstances. Therefore, power was decentralized in precolonial Africa ( many people held some form of authority as such power was not concentrated in a particular person or an institution). [1] Usually, a person's entitlement to land ( which were mostly patriarchal) gives the person some form of power within the person's household and or within the person's tribe. [1] Households were also economically independent such that members of a household produced their own food, shelter and security. [2] There was therefore no need for a formally organized education in precolonial Africa, as members of each household learned their skills, values, responsibilities, socialization and norms of their tribe/community/household by observing and assisting older household members or community members. [2]

History of Africa aspect of history

The history of Africa begins with the emergence of hominids, archaic humans and—at least 200,000 years ago—anatomically modern humans, in East Africa, and continues unbroken into the present as a patchwork of diverse and politically developing nation states. The earliest known recorded history arose in the Kingdom of Kush, and later in Ancient Egypt, the Sahel, the Maghreb and the Horn of Africa.

Tribe Social group existing before the development of, or outside of, states

In anthropology, a tribe is a human social group. Exact definitions of what constitutes a tribe vary among anthropologists. The concept is often contrasted with other social groups concepts, such as nations, states, and forms of kinship.

Emigration from Africa

During the period of 2000–2005, an estimated 440,000 people per year emigrated from Africa; a total number of 17 million migrants within Africa was estimated for 2005. The figure of 0.44 million African emigrants per year pales in comparison to the annual population growth of about 2.6%, indicating that only about 2% of Africa's population growth is compensated for by emigration.

Contents

Education in precolonial Africa was therefore in the form of apprenticeship, a form of informal education, where children and or younger members of each household mostly learned from older members of their tribe/household/community. [3] In most cases, each household member learned more than one skills in addition to learning the values, socialization, and norms of the community/tribe/household. [3] Some of the common skills that people in precolonial Africa had to learn include; dancing, farming, wine making, cooking (mostly the females), in some cases selected people learn how to practice herbal medicine, how to carve stools, how to carve masks and other furniture. [4]

Education Learning in which knowledge and skills is transferred through teaching

Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits. Educational methods include storytelling, discussion, teaching, training, and directed research. Education frequently takes place under the guidance of educators, however learners may also educate themselves. Education can take place in formal or informal settings and any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts may be considered educational. The methodology of teaching is called pedagogy.

Apprenticeship System of employment

An apprenticeship is a system of training a new generation of practitioners of a trade or profession with on-the-job training and often some accompanying study. Apprenticeships can also enable practitioners to gain a license to practice in a regulated profession. Most of their training is done while working for an employer who helps the apprentices learn their trade or profession, in exchange for their continued labor for an agreed period after they have achieved measurable competencies. Apprenticeship lengths vary significantly across sectors, professions, roles and cultures. People who successfully complete an apprenticeship in some cases can reach the "journeyman" or professional certification level of competence. In others can be offered a permanent job at the company that provided the placement. Although the formal boundaries and terminology of the apprentice/journeyman/master system often do not extend outside guilds and trade unions, the concept of on-the-job training leading to competence over a period of years is found in any field of skilled labor.

Informal Education is a general term for education that can occur outside of a structured curriculum. Informal Education encompasses student interests within a curriculum in a regular classroom, but is not limited to that setting. It works through conversation, and the exploration and enlargement of experience. Sometimes there is a clear objective link to some broader plan, but not always. The goal is to provide learners with the tools he or she needs to eventually reach more complex material. It can refer to various forms of alternative education, such as: Unschooling or homeschooling, Autodidacticism (Self-teaching), Youth work, and Informal learning

Story telling also played significant role in education during precolonial Africa. [5] Parents, other older members of households and Griots used oral story telling to teach children about the history, norms and values of their household/tribe/community. [5] Children usually gathered around the storyteller who then narrates stories, usually, using personifications to tell stories that encourages conformity, obedience and values such as endurance, integrity, and other ethical values that are important for co-operations in the community. [5]

Griot storyteller of oral tradition in West Africa

A griot, jali, or jeli is a West African historian, storyteller, praise singer, poet, or musician. The griot is a repository of oral tradition and is often seen as a leader due to his or her position as an advisor to royal personages. As a result of the former of these two functions, they are sometimes called a bard.

Oral storytelling tradition between the storyteller and their audience

Oral storytelling is an ancient and intimate tradition between the storyteller and their audience. The storyteller and the listeners are physically close, often seated together in a circular fashion. Through the telling of the story people become psychically close, developing a connection to one another through the communal experience. The storyteller reveals, and thus shares, him/her self through his/her telling and the listeners reveal and share themselves through their reception of the story. The intimacy and connection is deepened by the flexibility of oral storytelling which allows the tale to be moulded according to the needs of the audience and/or the location or environment of the telling. Listeners also experience the urgency of a creative process taking place in their presence and they experience the empowerment of being a part of that creative process. Storytelling creates a personal bond with the teller and the audience.

Festivals and rituals in most cases were also used as means to teach younger members of a household/tribe/community about the history of their household, community and or tribe. [5] [4] Rituals were mainly used to teach young adults about the responsibilities and expectations of adulthood such as teaching females how to cock and care for a household and teaching the men how to hunt, farm, make masks, etc. [4] An example of a ritual which was used to teach young girls about womanhood is Dipo [6] .Dipo was used to teach young girls, usually, adolescents about cocking, motherhood, and other necessary womanhood skills and values before they marry (engage in sexually related activities). [6]

Festival Organised series of acts and performances

A festival is an event ordinarily celebrated by a community and centering on some characteristic aspect of that community and its religion or cultures. It is often marked as a local or national holiday, mela, or eid. Next to religion and folklore, a significant origin is agricultural. Food is such a vital resource that many festivals are associated with harvest time. Religious commemoration and thanksgiving for good harvests are blended in events that take place in autumn, such as Halloween in the northern hemisphere and Easter in the southern.

Ritual set of actions, performed mainly for their symbolic value

A ritual is a sequence of activities involving gestures, words, and objects, performed in a sequestered place, and performed according to set sequence. Rituals may be prescribed by the traditions of a community, including a religious community. Rituals are characterized but not defined by formalism, traditionalism, invariance, rule-governance, sacral symbolism, and performance.

Dipo is a Ghanaian traditional festival celebrated by the people of Odumase in the Eastern region of Ghana. The festival is celebrated in the month of April every year. The festival is used to usher into puberty, girls who are virgins and it signifies that a lady, who partakes in it, is of age to be married. Parents upon hearing announcement of the rites send their qualified girls to the chief priest. However these girls would have to go through rituals and tests to prove their chastity before they qualify to partake in the festival.

The origins of African education may be found in Egypt in Northern Africa. One of the first convenient mediums for retaining information, papyrus, was used to develop systems for learning and developing new ideas. [7] [8] In fact, one of the first forms of higher education in Africa were the School of Holy Scriptures built in Ethiopia and Al-Azhar which was in Egypt. These schools became cultural and academic centers as many people traveled from all over the globe for knowledge and instruction. Well before contact with external cultures, Africans had developed pools of understanding and educational tools. In fact, the world’s first university was located in Timbuktu. [9]

Egypt Country spanning North Africa and Southwest Asia

Egypt, officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a country in the northeast corner of Africa, whose territory in the Sinai Peninsula extends beyond the continental boundary with Asia, as traditionally defined. Egypt is bordered by the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south, Libya to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north. Across the Gulf of Aqaba lies Jordan, across the Red Sea lies Saudi Arabia, and across the Mediterranean lie Greece, Turkey and Cyprus, although none share a land border with Egypt.

Timbuktu City in Tombouctou Region, Mali

Timbuktu is an ancient city in Mali, situated 20 km (12 mi) north of the Niger River. The town is the capital of the Timbuktu Region, one of the eight administrative regions of Mali. It had a population of 54,453 in the 2009 census.

Education in Colonial Africa

The onset of the colonial period in the 19th century marked the beginning of the end for traditional African education. European forces, missionaries, and colonists all came ready and willing to change existing traditions to meet their own needs and ambitions. Colonial powers such as Spain, Portugal, Belgium and France colonized the continent without putting in a system of education. Because the primary focus of colonization was reaping benefits from commercial colonial economies, cash crop production, extraction of raw materials, other physically laborious tasks were prioritized. These economies did not expand to require jobs of a higher skill set or more labor, therefore intensive labor that required little skill was high in demand. Because of such circumstances there was little demand to educate or train the colonized populations. Furthermore, colonial powers were unwilling to offer education to those they colonized unless it benefited them. Either colonial powers did not view investing in African education as a practical use of their revenue or they refrained from educating Africans in order to avoid any uprisings. Those in positions of authority were in fear of access to widespread access to higher education specifically. Colonial powers often found themselves in a debate whether or not to educate their colonized populations and if so, to what extent. Specifically, the British Education Committee of the Privy Council advocated for vocational education and training rather than one focused on academia. This vocational training however neglected professions such as engineering, technology, or similar subjects. Instead the vocational training had a dominant racial overtone which stressed African training for skills fitting with their assumed social and mental inadequacy. Notably, the Belgians under King Leopold prohibited access to higher education in their colonies whereas other colonial powers put in barriers in infrastructure or access such as limiting language of instruction to the language of the colonizer, limits on teaching curriculums, and ensuring the curriculum did not reflect any Afro-ethnicity. By demanding that communities create physical schools with strict curriculum, the foreign powers were able to dictate what the people learned, adjusting it to further their agenda. This not only forced new form and content to education, but abandoned the knowledge gained from the largely informal education. With less community awareness, efficiency in learning skills, and especially understanding of the past, African communities began to dwindle in education and prosperity. Aspects of colonialism are still prevalent in African countries that struggled to escape effects of colonization today.

Curriculum Educational plan

In education, a curriculum is broadly defined as the totality of student experiences that occur in the educational process. The term often refers specifically to a planned sequence of instruction, or to a view of the student's experiences in terms of the educator's or school's instructional goals. In a 2003 study, Reys, Reys, Lapan, Holliday, and Wasman refer to curriculum as a set of learning goals articulated across grades that outline the intended mathematics content and process goals at particular points in time throughout the K–12 school program. Curriculum may incorporate the planned interaction of pupils with instructional content, materials, resources, and processes for evaluating the attainment of educational objectives. Curriculum is split into several categories: the explicit, the implicit, the excluded, and the extracurricular.

Between the 1950s and 1990s, African countries finally regained their independence. With this recovered freedom, they began to rebuild their traditional forms of education. What had inevitably evolved, however, was a hybrid of the two models. With the collaboration of donor agencies and Western demand, pushes for development of African education and the building of human capital dominated global conversation. Namely, the 1960s were known as the First Development Decade by the UN. Policymakers prioritized secondary and tertiary education before also setting their sights for universal primary education around 1980. This set the precedent for educational planning. Although children and adults may learn from their families and community, a sense of individuality has also developed that today both drives ingenuity and creates separation between groups and cultural tradition. African education programs have developed that involve both groups; an HIV/AIDS awareness program, for example, may involve members coming into communities and sharing their knowledge. Although this is a direct, cognitive approach, they also try to involve all members of the community, allowing for the creation of ownership and cultural acceptance.

Education in Postcolonial Africa

In 2012, the United Nations adopted the Millennium Development Goals, a set of development goals for the year 2015, more specifically, “to ensure that by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling.” [10] That same year, the World Education Forum met in Dakar, Senegal, and adopted the Dakar Framework for Action reaffirming the commitment to achieving Education for All by the year 2015. [11]

At the time, according to UNESCO, only 57% of African children were enrolled in primary schools, the lowest enrollment rate of any region surveyed. [12] The report also showed marked gender inequalities: in almost all countries enrollment of boys far outpaced that of girls. However in some countries, education is relatively strong. In Zimbabwe, literacy has reached 92%. [13]

Steps such as the abolition of school fees, investments in teaching infrastructure and resources, and school meals from the World Food Programme helped drive enrollment up by millions. Yet despite the significant progress of many countries, the world fell short of meeting its goal of Universal Primary Education (UPE). In sub-Saharan Africa as of 2013, only about 79% of primary school-age children were enrolled in school. [14] 59 million children of primary-school age were out of school, [15] and enrollment of girls continued to lag behind that of boys. Disparity between genders is partially due to females being excluded from school for being pregnant. [16]

Following the expiration of the MDGs in 2015, the UN adopted a set of Sustainable Development Goals for the year 2030. The fourth goal addressed education, with the stated aim to “ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all.” [15] The World Education Forum also convened in Incheon, Korea to discuss the implementation of this goal, and adopted the Incheon Declaration for Education 2030. It remains to be seen what effect the late12st measures have on the state of education participation in African countries.

Regarding issues of quality in education and equity, there are underlying causes that deter progress such as high drop-out rates, grade repetition, poor quality of education and educational resources, teacher shortages, poor infrastructure and supplies, access to education for rural and remote areas, and stigmas for marginalized groups.

Language

Due to high linguistic diversity, the legacy of colonialism and the need for knowledge of international languages such as English and French in employment and higher education, most schooling in Africa takes places in languages that teachers and pupils do not speak natively, and in some cases simply do not understand. There is considerable evidence that pupils schooled in a second language achieve poorer results than those schooled in their mother tongue, as lack of proficiency in the second language impairs understanding and encourages ineffective rote learning. [17] [18] Although UNESCO have recommended since the 1950s that children be taught early literacy in their mother tongue, progressing later to other languages, not all African countries implement this effectively. Even where the earliest grades are taught in the mother tongue, pupils are typically forced to switch to languages such as English and French before acquiring proficiency in these languages. [19]

Lack of proper facilities and educators

Another reason for the low education rates in Africa is the lack of proper schooling facilities and unequal opportunity for education across countries. Many schools across Africa find it hard to employ teachers due to the low pay and lack of suitable people. This is particularly true for schools in remote areas. Most people who manage to receive education would prefer to move to big cities or even overseas where more opportunities and higher pay await. Thus, there will be an overly large class sizes and high average number of students per teacher in a school. Moreover, the teachers are usually those unqualified with few teaching aids and/or textbook provision. Due to this, children attending schools in rural areas usually attain poorer results in standardised tests compared to their urban counterparts. This can be seen in the reports given by the Northern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality (SACMEQ). [20] Those taking the tests in rural areas score much lower than those in small towns and big cities. This shows a lack of equal education opportunity given to children from different parts of the same country.

With teachers being less qualified than others in urban areas the teaching to learning environment takes an effect amongst the students. In one instance teachers took the same test as their students and three fourths of them had failed. [21] In addition, those that do not receive the same education to those in the bigger cities have trouble even after graduation with reading, writing, and doing math. [22] Students who do not attain the same equal education to those in urban environments do not achieve the same outcome in establishing success with a career. With education being a major concern towards achieving a career and establishing a future, Africa needs to be aware that equal education needs to be established within all schools throughout the countries.

Emigration

Next, emigration leads to a loss of highly educated people and financial loss. The loss of skilled people can only be replaced with another huge cost which imply the loss of money spent educating people who leave and new people to replace them. Even though an almost 5.5% of GDP investment in education, [23] the loss makes it difficult for the government to budget another amount in education as they will need to prioritize other needs such as military budget and debt servicing. [24]

Culture

Western models and standards still continue to dominate African education. Because of colonization African institutions, particularly universities, still instruct using Euro-centric curriculums with almost no connection to life in Africa. This is further perpetuated by the use of European and American imported textbooks. Many view this lack of self sufficiency as an ongoing effect of colonization upheld by the modern, corrupt African elite. This attitude rests on the basis that during colonization the African ruling elite exploited their own people for their own benefit rather than advocate for the interests of their own people.

Global water crisis

The global water crisis has severe effects on education in rural countries in Africa. Limited access to education and health issues can be further compounded by inadequate water systems or disease that may follow. Malaria, cited to be a main cause of death in Africa, is a mosquito-borne disease that can commonly be found in unmanaged pools of still water. The mosquitos breed in such pools and consequently children who drink from these pools can die or fall severely ill. Furthermore, such an intense illness can later affect the cognitive abilities of children who fall ill at a young age. This is not only applicable biologically but also as an effect of falling ill: children who miss a significant amount of school are unable to optimize their education due to missing lessons.

Military and conflict

Military spending is causing education spending to decrease immensely. According to a March 2011 report by UNESCO, armed conflict is the biggest threat to education in Africa. While the number of dropouts across the continent has been increasing dramatically, one of the influences of war and conflict on education is the diversion of public funds from education to military spending. An already underfunded system is losing more money. Twenty-one African countries have been identified as the highest spenders of gross domestic product on military globally compared with the amount directed toward education. Military and conflict also leads to the displacement of children. It often forces them to remain in camps or flee to their neighboring countries where education is not availa the world is going to explode able to them. [25]

Influential initiatives

Initiatives to improve education in Africa include:

Intracontinental

  • NEPAD's E-school programme is an ambitious plan to provide internet and computer facilities to all schools on the continent.
  • SACMEQ is a consortium of 15 Ministries of Education in Southern and Eastern Africa which undertakes integrated research and training activities to monitor and evaluate the quality of basic education, and generates information that can be used by decision-makers to plan and improve the quality of education.
  • For 10 years, the Benin Education Fund (BEF) has provided scholarships and education support to students from the Atakora province in northeastern Benin. Over 450 students have been able to stay in school because of their programmes.

International

  • She's the First is a New York City, New York-based non-profit organization. The organization seeks to empower girls in Asia, Africa, and Latin America by facilitating the sponsorship of their education through creative and innovative means. [26]
  • Working through local organizations, The African Children's Educational Trust is supporting thousands of youngsters with long-term scholarships and a community rural elementary schools building programme. It has built seven schools to date and is raising funds for more.
  • British Airways' "" project which, in collaboration with UNICEF, opened the model school Kuje Science Primary School in Nigeria in 2002.
  • The Elias Fund provides scholarships to children in Zimbabwe to get a better education.
  • The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community in association with Humanity First, an international charity organisation, has built over 500 schools in the African continent and is running a 'learn a skill' initiative for young men and women.
  • Fast Track Initiative
  • The Volkswagen Foundation has been running a funding initiative called "Knowledge for Tomorrow – Cooperative Research Projects in Sub-Saharan Africa" since 2003. It provides scholarships for young African researchers and helps to establish a scientific community in African universities. [27]

Corruption in education

A 2010 Transparency International report, with research gathered from 8,500 educators and parents in Ghana, Madagascar, Morocco, Niger, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Uganda, found that education is being denied to African children in incredibly large numbers. [28]

A lack of parent involvement, especially as an overseer of government activities also leads to enormous corruption. This was most often found to be because parents and communities feel as though they lack any kind of power in regard to their child's education. In Uganda only 50% of parents believe that they have the power to influence decisions regarding the education of their child. In Morocco, just 20% of parents believed they held any sort of power. [28]

The unavailability and incompleteness of records in schools and districts prevents the documentation and prevention of corrupt practices. The African Education Watch conducted surveys all over the continent and identified the three most common practices of corruption:

Without this basic education, the report found it was nearly impossible to go on to high school or college. African children are missing this link that allows them to have a chance in trade or to go beyond their villages. [29]

NGO involvement

A report by USAID and the Bureau for Africa, Office of Sustainable Development, found that NGOs are increasingly participating in contribute to the delivery of education services, education policy decisions and are included by donors and government officials in many parts of the education system. Of course, this varies country to country and region to region.

NGOs working in education in Africa often encountered tension and competition when working. Schools, parents and, most often government officials, feel threatened by third-party involvement and feel that they are "crashing the party." The report continues that for NGOs to be effective, they must understand that they do not have the same perspective as government officials as to who is in control. If they do not recognize the government of the country they are working in, they will compromise their objectives. [30]

The report goes into more detail about NGO relations with governments in education. The relationship is viewed from completely separate points. African governments see NGOs and their work as "an affair of government" or, in other words, working as a part and in collaboration with the country's government. NGOs on the other hand view themselves as very separate entities in African education. They see themselves fulfilling moral responsibility. They believe that they are identifying needs or areas of development in situations under which the government has ultimately been unaccountable and separately mobilizing resources toward those needs or development areas. Government and NGOs are hold contrasting beliefs about each other's abilities. Governments often think NGOs are unqualified to make important policy decision and that they could undermine their legitimacy if seen as superior. In some cases, NGOs have found government incompetent themselves, if not their own fault, as the fault of a lack of resources. In the best cases, NGOs and government officials find each other's mutual strengths in education policy and find ways to practically collaborate and reach both of their objectives. [30]

To be effective in education in Africa NGOs must effect policy and create policy changes that support their projects. NGOs also found that, to see this policy change that they are striving for, they must create and foster relationships with many different stakeholders. The most important stakeholders are usually donors and government officials. The biggest challenge for NGOs has been linking these networks together. NGO interventions to change policy have revealed that NGO programmes have failed to create a successful way to change the policy process while making sure that the public understands and is a part of education policy. This problem will prove more influential in the future if it is not solved. [30]

Adult education

Open air school for adults, Guinea-Bissau, 1974. ASC Leiden - Coutinho Collection - 6 19 - School for adults in Guinea-Bissau - 1974.tiff
Open air school for adults, Guinea-Bissau, 1974.

Adult education in Africa, having experienced a comeback following the independence and increasing prosperity of many African nations, poses specific requirements on policymakers and planners to take into consideration indigenous cultural traits and characteristics. With a moderate backlash against Western ideals and educational traditions, many universities and other institutes of higher education take it upon themselves to develop a new approach to higher education and adult education.

Most contemporary analysts regard illiteracy as a development issue because of the link between poverty and illiteracy. [31] Funding is inadequate and inconsistent and is needed for priority areas such as educator training, monitoring, and evaluation. [32] There is a clear need for investment in capacity development, having a full, sufficiently paid and well qualified professionalized staff, and increasing the demands for adult education professionals. The majority of adult educators are untrained, especially in basic literacy. Governments often employ schoolteachers and others in adult education posts rather than experienced adult educators. [32] Many of the difficulties experienced could be solved by allocation of resources to meet the needs (adequate funds, more staff, appropriate training for staff and suitable material). Underfunding is a huge threat to the sustainability of these programs, and in some cases, to their continued existence. [33] The best-reported data on funding is about adult literacy and non-formal education programs. Funding for continuing education, either academic or vocational is provided and reported on, but little data is given on its financing. Funding may come from public or private sector sources. International and foreign aid is also likely to be important. The costs of much adult education seem to be kept artificially low by the use of state facilities and by the extremely low salaries paid to many adult education specialists. [34]

Public universities have not been successful in attracting older students onto mainstream degree programs and so the post-apartheid ideal of opening access to public higher education for growing numbers of non-traditional students is not yet a reality. [35] However, certain countries have reported some success rates in Adult Education programs. Between 1990 and 2007 Uganda enrolled over 2million participants in the functional adult literacy program. The Family Basic Education program was active in 18 schools by 2005, reaching over 3,300 children and 1,400 parents. This is a successful family literacy mediation whose impact at household, school and community level has been evaluated. [36]

Unfortunately, the national reports typically do not provide sufficient information on the content of the adult education programs that run in their countries. In the majority of cases the name of the program is as much detail as is given. Curriculum content does not seem to be a major issue. [37]

Cultural considerations

African communities are very close knit; activities, lifestyles, particularities of individuals are nearly always common knowledge. Because of this, it is difficult for any one member or group within an area to take a significantly different approach to any facet of life within the community. For this reason, program planners for adult learners in Africa find higher rates of success when they employ a participatory approach. Through open and honest dialogue about the fears, motivations, beliefs and ambitions of the community as a whole, there is less social strain concerning individual divergent behavior.

In addition to strong traditional beliefs, years of slavery through colonization have led to a sense of unity and common struggle in African communities. Therefore, lesson plans in these areas should reflect this cultural sensibility; collaboration and cooperation are key components of successful programs. Teaching techniques that utilize these ideas may include story-telling, experiential simulation, and the practice of indigenous traditions with slight modifications. Every program and lesson must be tailored to the particular community because they almost always learn, live, and achieve as a group or not at all.

Informal education plays a strong role within indigenous learning in African communities. This poses a significant challenge to western-style program planners that emphasize formal learning within a designated time-frame and setting. These requirements must often be abandoned in order to achieve success in communities that have no strong affinity for time and formal education. Programs must be planned that become ingrained into the daily life of participants, that reflects their values and add positive functionality to their lives. Successful programs often involve more long-term learning arrangements consisting of regular visits and the free, unforced offer of information.

Philosophies

African philosophy of adult education recognizes the western ideas such as liberalism, progressivism, humanism and behaviorism, while complementing them with native African perspectives.

  • Ethnophilosophy is the idea that the main purpose of adult education is to enable social harmony at all levels of society, from immediate family to community and country. It is of primary importance to ensure the retention of knowledge passed down from one generation to another concerning values, cultural understanding and beliefs. This philosophy promotes active learning – learning by doing, following, practicing the work of the elders. Particular lessons may be taught through activities such as role-play, practical demonstrations, exhibitions, discussions or competitions. [38]
  • The nationalist-ideological philosophy separates itself from ethnophilosophy in that it less concerned with the methods of learning and more with its use. As a philosophy born of the revolutionary movements of the 1950s, it is unsurprising that its main focus is to be able to apply knowledge to active participation in politics and civil society. Although it is important in this philosophy to retain the communal nature of traditional African society, functionalism for social understanding and change takes prime importance in its implementation.
  • Professional philosophy represents the strongest bridge between western and traditional African educational systems. It promotes a hybrid approach to adult programs, allowing for a wide range of learning techniques, even purely cognitive lecture, so long as community values are accounted for within the lesson. Finally, philosophic sagacity suggests that the only true African philosophies are those that have developed with no contact with the West whatsoever. Rather than a specific approach, this idea simply notes the huge range of educational techniques which may exist through the continent by a wide variety of people. It essentially states that there is no one correct method, and that the subject and activities should always be set by the participants. [39] [40] [41] [42]

Women's education

In 2000, 93.4 million women in Sub-Saharan Africa were illiterate. Many reasons exist for why formal education for females is unavailable to so many, including cultural reasons. For example, some believe that a woman's education will get in the way of her duties as a wife and a mother. In some places in Africa where women marry at age 12 or 13, education is considered a hindrance to a young woman's development. [43]

A positive correlation exists between the enrollment of girls in primary school and the gross national product and increase of life expectancy.

Women's education is sometimes corrupted by sexual violence. Sexual violence against girls and female students affects many African education systems. In Sub-Saharan Africa, sexual violence is one of the most common and least known forms of corruption. [44]

Disparity in Education

While most of the Millennium Development Goals face a deadline of 2015, the gender parity target was set to be achieved a full ten years earlier - an acknowledgement that equal access to education is the foundation for all other development goals. [45] Gender disparity is defined as inequalities of some quantity attributed to the reason of gender type. In countries where resources and school facilities are lacking, and total enrollments are low, a choice must often be made in families between sending a girl or a boy to school. [46] Of an estimated 101 million children not in school, more than half are girls. [47] However, this statistic increased when examining secondary school education. [46] In high-income countries, 95% as many girls as boys attend primary and secondary schools. However, in sub-Saharan Africa the figure is just 60%. [48]

The foremost factor limiting female education is poverty. [49] Economic poverty plays a key role when it comes to coping with direct costs such as tuition fees, cost of textbooks, uniforms, transportation and other expenses. [49] Wherever, especially in families with many children, these costs exceed the income of the family, girls are the first to be denied schooling. This gender bias decision in sending females to school is also based on gender roles dictated by culture. Girls usually are required to complete household chores or take care of their younger siblings when they reach home. This limits their time to study and in many cases, may even have to miss school to complete their duties. [50] It is common for girls to be taken out of school at this point. Boys however, may be given more time to study if their parents believe that the education will allow them to earn more in the future. Expectations, attitudes and biases in communities and families, economic costs, social traditions, and religious and cultural beliefs limit girls’ educational opportunities. [49]

Additionally, in most African societies, women are seen as the collectors, managers, and guardians of water, especially within the domestic sphere that includes household chores, cooking, washing, and child rearing. [51] Because of these traditional gender labor roles, women are forced to spend around sixty percent of each day collecting water, which translates to approximately 200 million collective work hours by women globally per day [52] and a decrease in the amount of time available for education, shown by the correlation of decrease in access to water with a decrease in combined primary, secondary, and tertiary enrollment of women. [53]

Whatever the underlying reason(s) are, about having large numbers of girls outside the formal schooling system brings developmental challenges to both current and future generations . According to the UNESCO, the rates of female children out of primary school is higher than that of male children in all the African countries where data is available. [54] Until equal numbers of girls and boys are in school, it will be impossible to build the knowledge necessary to eradicate poverty and hunger, combat disease and ensure environmental sustainability. [45] Millions of children and women will continue to die needlessly, placing the rest of the development agenda at risk.

Significance

In Africa and the Arab world, promoting gender equality and empowering women is perhaps the most important of the eight Millennium Development Goals. [55] The target associated with achieving this goal is to eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary enrollment preferably by 2005, and at all levels by 2015. [56] Women deserve the instrumental effects of gender equality in education and the intrinsic dimension of female education; which in essence derives from the role of education in enhancing a woman’s set of capabilities. [57] Thus, in theory, there is a direct effect from female education to income (or growth). [57] Education, especially for girls, has social and economic benefits for society as a whole. [46] Women earn only one tenth of the world’s income and own less than one percent of property, so households without a male head are at special risk of impoverishment. [45] These women will also be less likely to immunize their children and know how to help them survive. [45] Women who are educated tend to have fewer and healthier children, and these children are more likely to attend school. [46] Higher female education makes women better-informed mothers and hence could contribute to lowering child mortality rates and malnutrition. [58] In Africa, limited education and employment opportunities for women reduce annual per capita growth by 0.8%. Had this growth taken place, Africa’s economies would have doubled over the past 30 years. [59] It is estimated that some low-income countries in Africa would need up to $23.8 billion annually to achieve the Millennium Development Goal focused on promoting gender equality and empowering women by 2015. This would translate from $7to $13 per capita per year from 2006 to 2015, according to OECD-DAC. [59] Education is also key to an effective response to HIV/AIDS. Studies show that educated women are more likely to know how to prevent HIV infection, to delay sexual activity and to take measures to protect themselves. [60] New analysis by the Global Campaign for Education suggests that if all children received a complete primary education, the economic impact of HIV/AIDS could be greatly reduced and around 700,000 cases of HIV in young adults could be prevented each year—seven million in a decade. [60] According to the Global Campaign for Education, "research shows that a primary education is the minimum threshold needed to benefit from health information programmes. Not only is a basic education essential to be able to process and evaluate information, it also gives the most marginalized groups in society—notably young women—the status and confidence needed to act on information and refuse unsafe sex." [60]

Current policies of Progression

The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), adopted in 1979 by the UN General Assembly and acceded to by 180 States, sets down rights for women, of freedom from discrimination and equality under the law. [45] CEDAW has realized the rights and equality of woman is also the key to the survival and development of children and to building healthy families, communities and nations. Article 10 pinpoints nine changes that must be changed in order to help African women and other women suffering from gender disparity. It first states, their must be the same conditions for careers, vocational guidance, and for the achievement of diplomas in educational establishments of all categories in rural as well as in urban areas. This equality shall be ensured in pre-school, general, technical, professional and higher technical education, as well as in all types of vocational training. [61] Second, is access to the same curricula, the same examinations, teaching staff with qualifications of the same standard and school premises and equipment of the same quality. [61] Third, is the elimination of any stereotyped concept of the roles of men and women at all levels and in all forms of education. This is encouraged by coeducation and other types of education which will help to achieve this aim and, in particular, by the revision of textbooks and school programmes and the adaptation of teaching methods. [61] Fourth, the same opportunities to benefit from scholarships and other study grants. [61] Similarly, fifth is the same opportunities of access to programmes of continuing education, including adult and functional literacy programmes, particularly those aimed at reducing, at the earliest possible time, any gap in education existing between men and women. [61] Sixth, is the reduction of female student drop-out rates and the organization of programmes for girls and women who have left school prematurely. [61] Seventh concern listed is the same opportunities to participate actively in sports and physical education. [61] Lastly, is access to specific educational information to help to ensure the health and well-being of families, including information and advice on family planning. [61]

Other global goals echoing these commitments include the World Education Forum’s Dakar platform, which stresses the rights of girls, ethnic minorities and children in difficult circumstances; and A World Fit for Children’s emphasis on ensuring girls’ equal access to and achievement in basic education of good quality. [47] In April 2000 more than 1,100 participants from 164 countries gathered in Dakar, Senegal, for the World Education Forum. [62] Ranging from teachers to prime ministers, academics to policymakers, non-governmental bodies to the heads of major international organizations, they adopted the Dakar Framework for Action, Education for All: Meeting Our Collective Commitments. The goal is education for all as laid out by the World Conference on Education for All [63] and other international conferences. Between 1990 and 1998 the net enrollment of boys increased by 9 per cent to 56 per cent, and of girls by 7 per cent to 48 per cent in sub-Saharan Africa. [62] However, these figures mask considerable regional variations. In countries of the Indian Ocean, both girls and boys attained over 70 per cent net enrollment. [62] The most outstanding progress in terms of percentage increase of boys' enrollment was in East Africa, where the net enrollment of boys increased by 27 per cent (to 60 per cent) and of girls by 18 per cent (to 50 per cent). [62] For girls in Southern Africa, the comparable figures for girls were 23 per cent (to 76 per cent) and for boys, 16 per cent (to 58 per cent). [62] This is the resurgence of a vibrant Africa, rich in its cultural diversity, history, languages and arts, standing united to end its marginalization in world progress and development. [62] A prosperous Africa, where the knowledge and the skills of its people are its first and most important resource.

The Forum for African Women Educationalists (FAWE) announces a call for the second round of research proposals from research institutions for its Strengthening Gender Research To Improve Girls’ And Women’s Education In Africa initiative. The initiative, which is supported by the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (NORAD), promotes girls and women’s education through the integration of gender into education policy and practice in sub-Saharan Africa. [64] FAWE believes it is vital to invest in research in Africa as way producing current information for advocacy in education policy. This three-year research initiative aims to work collaboratively with established research institutions to produce pertinent and robust research. [64] That can be used to constructively engage government, policy makers and other regional bodies on strategies to advance girls' education in Africa. [64] Findings from the research will be used to inform FAWE’s advocacy work and help redress gender inequities that hinder women's fulfillment of their right to education and meaningful participation in Africa’s social and economic advancement.

Major progress in access to education

A joint study by the World Bank and AFD [65] carried out by Alain Mingat, Blandine Ledoux and Ramahatra Rakotomalala sought to anticipate the pressures that would be brought to bear on post-primary teaching. The study puts it this way: “In the reference year(2005), our sample of 33 countries in sub-Saharan Africa had 14.9 million pupils enrolled in the first year of secondary school. If the rate of completion of the primary stage reaches 95% by 2020 with levels of transition from primary to the first year of secondary maintained at their current level in each country, the first year of secondary school would have 37.2 million pupils in 2020, or 2.5 times the current number. If all the pupils finishing primary school could continue with their education, the number of pupils in the first year of secondary school would reach 62.9 million by 2020, a multiplication by 4.2 over the period.” [65] [66] Behind the regional averages, there are still enormous disparities between the countries, and even between the different zones and regions within countries, which means that it is not possible to “[…] identify conditions that apply uniformly to education across the different countries of sub-Saharan Africa.” [66] [65] While some countries have lower demographic growth, others enjoy a more satisfactory level of school enrolment. Only a few countries are falling seriously behind in education at the same time as having to address a steady growth in their school-age population: Niger, Eritrea, Burundi, Guinea-Bissau, Uganda and to a lesser extent Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mozambique, Rwanda, Senegal and Malawi are particularly affected by this dual constraint. The EFA 2012 report highlights great disparities between the sub-Saharan African countries: the percentage of children excluded from primary school is only 7% in Gabon and 14% in Congo compared to over 55% in Burkina Faso and Niger. [67] The gap in terms of the proportion of those excluded from the first year of middle school is even wider, with 6% in Gabon compared to 68% in Burkina Faso and 73% in Niger. [66]

The majority of out-of-school populations are to be found in countries where there is conflict or very weak governance. At the Dakar Forum, the 181 signatory countries of the Dakar Framework for Action identified armed conflict as well as internal instability within a country as “a major barrier towards attaining Education for All” (EFA) – education being one of the sectors to suffer most from the effects of armed conflict and political instability. In the 2011 EFA Global Monitoring Report, UNESCO pointed out that the countries touched by conflict showed a gross rate of secondary school admissions almost 30% lower than countries of equivalent revenue that were at peace. [68] Conflicts also affect the rate of literacy of the population. At the global level, the rate of literacy among adults in countries touched by conflict was 69% in 2010 compared to 85% in peaceful countries. Twenty States in sub-Saharan Africa have been touched by conflict since 1999. [68] Those countries affected by armed conflict, such as Somalia and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, are furthest from meeting the EFA goals and contain the majority of the unschooled inhabitants of sub-Saharan Africa. In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, in North Kivu, a region particularly affected by conflicts, for example, the likelihood of young people aged between 17 and 22 having had only two years of schooling was twice the national average. [66]

Less than half the children in sub-Saharan Africa can neither read nor write: a quarter of primary school age children reach the fourth year without having acquired the basics and over a third do not reach the fourth year. [A]ccording to the 2010 EFA Global Monitoring Report, “millions of children are leaving school without having acquired basic skills. In some countries in sub-Saharan Africa, young adults with five years of education had a 40% probability of being illiterate”. [69] The teacher training systems are generally not able to meet the quantitive and qualitative needs of training. In Chad, for example, only 35.5% of teachers are certified to teach. [66]

Educational technology

Educational technology in sub-Saharan Africa refers to the promotion, development and use of information and communication technologies (ICT), m-learning, media, and other technological tools to improve aspects of education in sub-Saharan Africa. Since the 1960s, various information and communication technologies have aroused strong interest in sub-Saharan Africa as a way of increasing access to education, and enhancing its quality and fairness. [70]

The development of individual computer technology has proved a major turning point in the implementation of projects dependent on technology use, and calls for the acquisition of computer skills first by teachers and then by pupils. Between 1990 and 2000, multiple actions were started in order to turn technologies into a lever for improving education in sub-Saharan Africa. Many initiatives focused on equipping schools with computer hardware. A number of NGOs contributed, on varying scales, to bringing computer hardware into Africa, such as groups like Computer Aid International, Digital Links, SchoolNet Africa and World Computer Exchange. Sometimes with backing from cooperation agencies or development agencies like USAID, the African Bank or the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, these individual initiatives grew without adequate coordination. States found it difficult to define their national strategies with regard to ICT in Education. [66]

The American One Laptop per Child (OLPC) project, launched in several African countries in 2005, aimed to equip schools with laptop computers at low cost. While the average price of an inexpensive personal computer was between US$200 and US$500, OLPC offered its ultraportable XO-1 computer at the price of US$100. This technological breakthrough marked an important step in potential access to ICT. OLPC became an institutional system: the programme was “bought” by governments, which then took responsibility for distribution to the schools. The underlying logic of the initiative was one of centralization, thus enabling the largescale distribution of the equipment. Almost 2 million teachers and pupils are now involved in the programme worldwide (http://one.laptop.org/) and more than 2.4 million computers have been delivered. [66] Following on from OLPC, the Intel group launched Classmate PC, a similar programme also intended for pupils in developing countries. Though it has a smaller presence in sub-Saharan Africa than the OLPC project, Classmate PC has enabled laptop computers to be delivered to primary schools in the Seychelles and Kenya, particularly in rural areas. Also in Kenya, the CFSK (Computer for School in Kenya) project was started in 2002 with the aim of distributing computers to almost 9,000 schools. [66]

The cross-fertilization of teaching models and tools has now broadened the potential of ICT within the educational framework. Certain technologies, perceived as outdated compared to more innovative technology, nonetheless remain very much embedded in local practice. Today they are undergoing a partial revival, thanks to the combination of different media that can be used in any single project. Despite its limited uses in teaching, radio is a medium that still has considerable reach in terms of its audience. Cheaper than a computer, it also has a cost-benefit ratio that makes it attractive to many project planners. [71] Launched in 2008, the BBC Janala programme, offering English courses in a combination of different media, including lessons of a few minutes via mobile phone, received more than 85,000 calls per day in the weeks following the launch of the service. In 15 months, over 10 million calls (paid, but at a reduced price compared to a normal communication) were made, by over 3 million users. [66] Television, a feature of very many households, is witnessing a revival in its educational uses, by being combined with other media. As part of the Bridge IT programme in Tanzania, short educational videos, also available on mobile phones, are broadcast on the classroom television so that all the pupils can take part collectively. The e-Schools’ Network in South Africa has also, since March 2013, been developing an educational project, the object of which is to exploit unused television frequencies. There are currently ten schools taking part in the project. [66]

Another digital tool with multiple uses, the interactive whiteboard (IWB), is also being used in some schools in sub-Saharan Africa. At the end of the 2000s, the Education for All Network (REPTA), in partnership with the Worldwide Fund for Digital Solidarity (FSN) and, in France, the interministerial delegation for digital education in Africa (DIENA) made interactive whiteboards available to schools in Burkina Faso, Niger, Benin, Senegal and Mali, along with open content. The use of the IWB has had a positive effect on motivation, for pupils and teachers alike. However, their impact in terms of learning has been muted. This system marginalizes the direct participation of the pupils in favour of multi-media demonstrations initiated by the teacher. [72]

The main initiatives based on the use of ICT and the Internet in education originally focused on distance learning at university level. Thus, the African Virtual University (AVU), set up by the World Bank in 1997, was originally conceived as an alternative to traditional teaching. When it became an intergovernmental agency in 2003, it was training 40,000 people, mostly on short programmes. It shifted its focus to teacher training and to integrating technology into higher education. The AVU has ten e-learning centres. The Agence universitaire de la Francophonie (AUF) has also, since 1999, set up around forty Frenchspeaking digital campuses, more than half of them in Africa. In these infrastructures, dedicated to technology and set up within the universities, the AUF offers access to over 80 first and masters degrees entirely by distance learning, about 30 of which are awarded by African institutions and created with its support. More recently, the MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses) phenomenon has grown up, first in the United States and then in Europe. [66]

Recommendations for reform

There is also a push in many African countries to reform colonial education standards to emphasize the importance of indigenous languages and cultures instead of European languages and cultures. Critics of these reforms maintain that European languages should continue to be the focus of education to ensure that African students can be competitive in a European-dominated global economy.

Recommendations for higher education reform

See also

Related Research Articles

Literacy ability to read for knowledge, write coherently, and think critically about the written word; ability to read, write, and use arithmetic

Literacy is traditionally defined by dictionaries as the ability to read and write. In the modern world, this is one way of interpreting literacy. One more broad interpretation sees literacy as knowledge and competence in a specific area. The concept of literacy has evolved in meaning. The modern term's meaning has been expanded to include the ability to use language, numbers, images, computers, and other basic means to understand, communicate, gain useful knowledge, solve mathematical problems and use the dominant symbol systems of a culture. The concept of literacy is expanding across OECD countries to include skills to access knowledge through technology and ability to assess complex contexts. A person who travels and resides in a foreign country but is unable to read or write in the language of the host country would be regarded by the locals as illiterate.

Information and communications technology (ICT) is an extensional term for information technology (IT) that stresses the role of unified communications and the integration of telecommunications and computers, as well as necessary enterprise software, middleware, storage, and audiovisual systems, that enable users to access, store, transmit, and manipulate information.

Education in Uganda

The system of education in Uganda has a structure of 7 years of primary education, 6 years of secondary education, and 3 to 5 years of post-secondary education. The government of Uganda recognizes education as a basic human right and continues to strive to provide free primary education to all children in the country. However, issues with funding, teacher training, rural populations, and inadequate facilities continue to hinder the progress of educational development in Uganda. Girls in Uganda are disproportionately discriminated against in terms of education; they face harsher barriers when trying to gain an education and it has left the female population disenfranchised, despite government efforts to close the gap.

Literacy in India

Literacy in India is a key for socio-economic progress, and the Indian literacy rate has grown to 74.04%. Despite government programmes, India's literacy rate increased only "sluggishly". The 2011 census, indicated a 2001–2011 decadal literacy growth of 9.2%, which is slower than the growth seen during the previous decade. An old 1990 study estimated that it would take until 2060 for India to achieve universal literacy at then-current rate of progress.

The second goal in the United Nations Millennium Development Goal is to achieve Universal Primary Education, more specifically, to "ensure that by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling." Education is vital to meeting all other Millennium Development Goals: "Educating children gives the next generation the tools to fight poverty and prevent disease, including malaria and AIDS." Despite the significance of investing in education, the recent report, Fixing the Broken Promise of Education for All: Findings from the Global Initiative on Out-of-School Children—produced by UNESCO Institute for Statistics and UNICEF found that the world has missed this 2015 target of universal primary education, and there are currently 58 million children, of primary school age, out of school worldwide.

Education in Cambodia

Education in Cambodia is controlled by the state through the Ministry of Education in a national level and by the Department of Education at the provincial level. The Constitution of Cambodia establishes that the state shall protect and upgrade citizen's rights to quality education at all levels, guaranteeing that all citizens have equal opportunity to earn a living. The state shall adopt an education program "according to the principle of modern pedagogy including technology and foreign languages," as well as the state controls public and private schools and classrooms at all levels. The Cambodian education system includes pre-school, primary, general secondary, higher education and non-formal education. The education system includes the development of sport, information technology education, research development and technical education. School enrollment has increased during the 2000s in Cambodia. USAID data shows that in 2011 primary enrollment reached 96% of the child population, lower secondary school 34% and upper secondary 21%.

Female education complex set of issues and debates surrounding education for girls and women

Female education is a catch-all term of a complex set of issues and debates surrounding education for girls and women. It includes areas of gender equality and access to education, and its connection to the alleviation of poverty. Also involved are the issues of single-sex education and religious education, in that the division of education along gender lines as well as religious teachings on education have been traditionally dominant and are still highly relevant in contemporary discussions of educating females as a global consideration. In the field of female education in STEM, it has been shown that girls’ and women under-representation in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education is deep rooted.

Education For All (EFA) is a global movement led by UNESCO, aiming to meet the learning needs of all children, youth and adults by 2015.

Education in Djibouti

The education system of Djibouti is strongly influenced by France.

The UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) is the statistical office of UNESCO and is the UN depository for cross-nationally comparable statistics on education, science and technology, culture, and communication.

Education in South Sudan is modelled after the educational system of the Republic of Sudan. Primary education consists of eight years, followed by four years of secondary education, and then four years of university instruction; the 8 + 4 + 4 system, in place since 1990. The primary language at all levels is English, as compared to the Republic of Sudan, where the language of instruction is Arabic. There is a severe shortage of English teachers and English-speaking teachers in the scientific and technical fields.

Female education in Nigeria

Women in Nigeria have had various challenges in order to obtain equal education in all forms of formal education in Nigeria. Education is a basic human right and has been recognized as such since the 1948 adoption of the Universal Declaration on Human Rights. A positive correlation exists between the enrollment of girls in primary school and the gross national product and increase of life expectancy.

Keith Lewin Education specialist

Keith M Lewin is a British Professor of International education and Development at the University of Sussex and Director of the Consortium for Research on Educational Access, Transitions and Equity (CREATE). He is known for his work in educational planning, economics and finance of education, teacher education, assessment, science and technology education policy in developing countries, educational aid and program evaluation. He has been adviser to various governmental, multilateral and non-profit organisations on education planning and policy, including the World Bank, DFID, UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning, UNICEF, UNDP, AusAID and others. His country experience includes projects in Ghana, Rwanda, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, South Africa, Zimbabwe, Mauritius, Trinidad and Tobago, Barbados, India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Malaysia, and China.

Educational inequalities in South Sudan can be attributed to a number of factors. The lack of funds and infrastructure, along with a poor and mostly illiterate population makes establishing an effective education system challenging. There are also certain traditional cultural ideas about women which make it more difficult for girls to get an education than their male counterparts.

According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED), basic education comprises the two stages primary education and lower secondary education.

The OER4Schools programme is a teacher professional development programme utilizing information and communication technologies (ICT), focussing on sub-Saharan Africa. It was initiated at the Centre for Commonwealth Education, based at the Faculty of Education, University of Cambridge. Aspects of the OER4Schools project are developed in conjunction with OER Africa.

Educational technology in sub-Saharan Africa refers to the promotion, development and use of information and communication technologies (ICT), m-learning, media, and other technological tools to improve aspects of education in sub-Saharan Africa. Since the 1960s, various information and communication technologies have aroused strong interest in sub-Saharan Africa as a way of increasing access to education, and enhancing its quality and fairness.

Female education in STEM

Female education in STEM includes child and adult female represented in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. In 2017, 33% of students in STEM fields were women.

The colonial roots of gender inequality refers to the political, educational, and economic inequalities between men and women in Africa. According to a Global Gender Gap Index report published in 2018, it would take 135 years to close the gender gap in Sub-Saharan Africa and nearly 153 years to close the gap in North Africa. There are competing theories about the cause of gender inequality in Africa, but scholars suggest its genesis is in slavery and colonialism.

References

  1. 1 2 Herbest, Jeffery (2000). "Power and Space in Pre-Colonial Africa". States and Power in Africa. Princeton University Press. pp. 35–57. ISBN   9780691164137.
  2. 1 2 Lord, Jack (Winter 2011). "Child Labor in the Gold Coast: The Economics of Work, Education, and the Family in Late-Colonial African Childhoods, c. 1940-57". The Journal of the History of Childhood and Youth. 4: 88–115. doi:10.1353/hcy.2011.0005 via Project Muse.
  3. 1 2 Hymer, Stephen (1970). "Economic Forms in Pre-Colonial Ghana". The Journal of Economic History. 30 (1): 33–50. doi:10.1017/S0022050700078578. hdl:10419/160011. JSTOR   2116722.
  4. 1 2 3 Bentor, Eli (2019). "Warrior Masking, Youth Culture, and Gender Roles: Masks and History in Aro Ikeji Festival". African Arts. 52: 34–45. doi:10.1162/afar_a_00445.
  5. 1 2 3 4 Kaschula, Russell H (1999). "Imbongi And Griot: Toward A Comparitive Analysis Of Oral Poetics In Southern And West Africa". Journal of African Cultural Studies. 12: 55–76. doi:10.1080/13696819908717840.
  6. 1 2 Marijke, Steegstra (2005). Dipo and the politics of culture in Ghana. Accra Newtown, Ghana: Woeli Publication. ISBN   998862655X.
  7. Karel, Van Der Toorn (July/August 2018). "Egyptian Papyrus shed light on Jewish History". Biblical Archaeology Review. 44 (4): 32–39, 66, 68.Check date values in: |date= (help)
  8. Hartnett, Koepfle, Dana, Lauren (Fall 2011). "Exploring the Rhind Papyrus". Ohio Journal of School Mathematics. 64: 31–35, 5 via Education Source.
  9. "Timbuktu: home of Sankore University". Journal of Pan African Studies. 9: 269, 3. 2016 via Literature Resource Center.
  10. "Millennium Development Goals Goal 2 Fact Sheet" (PDF). un.org. September 2010. Retrieved 2017-03-16.
  11. "Education for All | Education | United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization". www.unesco.org. Retrieved 2017-03-16.
  12. "Regional overview: sub-Saharan Africa" (PDF). unesco.org. 2008. Retrieved 2017-03-16.
  13. "SA can learn a thing or two from Zimbabwe's education system".Cite web requires |website= (help)
  14. "Overview - UNICEF DATA". UNICEF DATA. Retrieved 2017-03-16.
  15. 1 2 "Goal 4 .:. Sustainable Development Knowledge Platform". sustainabledevelopment.un.org. Retrieved 2017-03-16.
  16. "Africa: Make Girls' Access to Education a Reality". Human Rights Watch. 16 June 2017.
  17. Walter, S. L. (2015). Mother Tongue-based Education in Developing Countries: Some emerging insights. Researchgate.net.
  18. Dutcher, N. in collaboration with Tucker, G. R. (1997). The Use of First and Second Languages in Education: A Review of Educational Experience, Washington D.C., World Bank, Country Department III.
  19. Mehrotra, S. (1998). Education for All: Policy Lessons From High-Achieving Countries. UNICEF Staff Working Papers, New York, Unicef.
  20. SACMEQ III. "SACMEQ III Project Results: Pupil achievement levels in reading and mathematics Working Document Number 1" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 July 2011. Retrieved 11 March 2011.Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help); Cite web requires |website= (help)
  21. "End It, Don't Mend It - Our Falling Education Standards." Africa News Service 15 Dec. 2011. Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web. 19 July. 2013
  22. "Sub-Saharan Africa Strengthens Advocacy for Quality Education." Africa News Service 10 June 2011. Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web. 19 July. 2013.
  23. "South Africa: fast facts". Archived from the original on 2008-07-19.Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help); Cite web requires |website= (help)
  24. Watkins, Kevin. "Basic education for all Africans" . Retrieved 11 March 2011.Cite web requires |website= (help)
  25. "War Hurting Learning in Continent" . Retrieved 27 April 2011.Cite web requires |website= (help)
  26. "She's the First". 27 April 2011.Cite web requires |website= (help)
  27. "A way to ensure research cooperation at eyelevel between junior scientists from Africa and their German peers". D+C. Retrieved 2018-11-23.
  28. 1 2 3 4 5 "Africa Education Watch Good Governance Lessons for Primary Education" (PDF). Retrieved 27 April 2011.Cite web requires |website= (help)
  29. 1 2 "Corruption Stifles Learning in Africa, Report Finds" . Retrieved 27 April 2011.Cite web requires |website= (help)
  30. 1 2 3 "Evolving Partnerships: The Role of NGOs in Basic Education in Africa" (PDF). Retrieved 27 April 2011.Cite web requires |website= (help)
  31. Nassimbeni, Mary and Bev May. "Adult education in South African public libraries: enabling conditions and inhibiting factors". University of Cape Town, p.3
  32. 1 2 Aitchison, John and Hassana Alidou. "The state and development of adult learning and education in Subsaharan Africa". UNESCO, 2009, p.3
  33. Nassimbeni, Mary and Bev May. "Adult education in South African public libraries: enabling conditions and inhibiting factors". University of Cape Town, p.8
  34. Aitchison, John and Hassana Alidou. "The state and development of adult learning and education in Subsaharan Africa". UNESCO, 2009, p.20
  35. MacGregor, Karen. "Boom in Adult Basic Education". University World News, 16 March 2008
  36. Aitchison, John and Hassana Alidou. "The state and development of adult learning and education in Subsaharan Africa". UNESCO, 2009, p.27
  37. Aitchison, John and Hassana Alidou. "The state and development of adult learning and education in Subsaharan Africa". UNESCO, 2009, p.32
  38. Nafukho, Fredrick; Amutabi, Maurice; Ruth Otango (2005). Foundations of Adult Education in Africa (Uie Studies). Geneva: UNESCO.
  39. Caffarella, Rosemary S. (2001). Planning Programs for Adult Learners: A Practical Guide for Educators, Trainers, and Staff Developers (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  40. Fasokun, Thomas; Anne Katahoire; Akpovire Oduaran (2005). The Psychology of Adult Learning in Africa (Uie Studies). Geneva: UNESCO.
  41. S., Indabawa; S. Mpofu (2005). The Social Context of Adult Learning in Africa (Uie Studies Series). Geneva: UNESCO.
  42. Developing Programmes for Adult Learners in Africa (Uil Studies Series). Montreal: United Nations Educational. 2007.
  43. "The State of Education in Africa" (PDF). Retrieved 27 April 2011.Cite web requires |website= (help)
  44. "International conference "Fighting corruption and good governance"" (PDF).Cite web requires |website= (help)
  45. 1 2 3 4 5 "UNICEF - Goal: Promote gender equality and empower women". www.unicef.org. Retrieved 2018-11-23.
  46. 1 2 3 4 "Gender equality". www.unfpa.org. Retrieved 2018-11-23.
  47. 1 2 "Education". www.unicef.org. Retrieved 2018-11-23.
  48. "Why don't Africa's girls go to school?". 2003-07-04. Retrieved 2018-11-23.Cite news requires |newspaper= (help)
  49. 1 2 3 Sharma, Geeta. "Gender Inequality in Education and Employment." Learningchannel.org. Web.
  50. Manuh, Takyiwaa. "Africa Recovery/UN/Briefing Paper #11 on Women." Welcome to the United Nations: It's Your World. 11 Apr. 1998. Web. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-11-05. Retrieved 2011-10-27.Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help); Cite web requires |website= (help)CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  51. "Impacts of Water Scarcity on Women's Life" . Retrieved 1 April 2012.Cite web requires |website= (help)
  52. "Women Affected by the Crisis". Archived from the original on 5 December 2011. Retrieved 18 March 2012.Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help); Cite web requires |website= (help)
  53. Crow, Ben; Roy, Jessica (2004-03-26). "Gender Relations and Access to Water: What We Want to Know About Social Relations and Women's Time Allocation" . Retrieved 18 March 2013.Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  54. • ^ "Table 7: Measures of children out of school".
  55. "Baliamoune-Lutz, Mina, and Mark McGillivray.""Gender Inequality and Growth: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa and Arab Countries." 1 September 2007. Web.
  56. "United Nations (2000), Millennium Declaration, New York: United Nations".
  57. 1 2 Sen, A. (1999), Development as Freedom, New York: Knopf
  58. Aly 1990; Smith and Haddad, 1999; Knowles et al. 2002; Klasen 2003
  59. 1 2 "Investing in Women and Girls." United Nations Department of Public Information, Jan.-Feb. 2008. Web.
  60. 1 2 3 Global Campaign for Education. 2004. Learning to Survive: How Education for All would save millions of young people from HIV/AIDS. p. 2.
  61. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 "CEDAW 29th Session 30 June to 25 July 2003." Welcome to the United Nations: It's Your World. Web. < "CEDAW 29th Session 30 June to 25 July 2003". Archived from the original on 2011-04-01. Retrieved 2013-11-29.Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help); Cite web requires |website= (help)>.
  62. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "Education for All A Framework for Action in Sub-Saharan Africa: Education for African Renaissance in the Twenty-first Century Adopted by the Regional Conference on Education for All for Sub-Saharan Africa." http://www.unesco.org/education. Dec. 1999. Web.
  63. Jomtien, Thailand, 1990
  64. 1 2 3 "FAWE Calls for Proposals to Conduct Research on Gender and Education in Africa." FAWE | Forum for African Women Educationalists.
  65. 1 2 3 Mingat, A., Lesoux, B., & Rakotomalala, R. (2010). L’enseignement post-primaire en Afrique Subsaharienne. Viabilité financière des différentes options de développement. Washington, D.C.: World Bank. http://documents.banquemondiale.org/curated/fr/701461468340273548/pdf/538780FRENCH0B1st1Primary0Ed0in0SSA.pdf
  66. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Agence Française de Développement, Agence universitaire de la Francophonie, Orange, & UNESCO. (2015). Digital Services for Education in Africa. Savoirs communs, 17. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002318/231867e.pdf
  67. UNICEF. (2014). Global Initiative on Out-of-school Children: Regional Report, West and Central Africa. http://uis.unesco.org/sites/default/files/documents/out-of-school-children-west-central-africa-regional-report-education-2014-en.pdf
  68. 1 2 UNESCO. (2011). The hidden crisis: armed conflict and education. EFA Global Monitoring Report. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0019/001907/190743e.pdf
  69. UNESCO. (2010). Reaching the marginalized. EFA Global Monitoring Report. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0018/001866/186606E.pdf
  70. UNESCO (2015). Digital Services for Education in Africa (PDF). UNESCO. p. 56.
  71. Trucano M. (2005). Knowledge Maps: ICT in Education. Washington: infoDev/World Bank. http://www.infodev.org/infodev-files/resource/InfodevDocuments_8.pdf
  72. AFD. (2010). Bilan critique en matière d’utilisation pédagogique des NTIC dans le secteur de l’éducation.
  73. Kigotho, Wachira (20 March 2015). "Producing unemployable graduates wastes time and money". University World News. Retrieved 21 March 2015.

Sources

Definition of Free Cultural Works logo notext.svg  This article incorporates text from a free content work. Licensed under CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0 License statement : Digital Services for Education in Africa , UNESCO, UNESCO. UNESCO. To learn how to add open license text to Wikipedia articles, please see this how-to page . For information on reusing text from Wikipedia , please see the terms of use .

Further reading