Nationality

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Nationality is a legal relationship between an individual person and a state. [1] Nationality affords the state jurisdiction over the person and affords the person the protection of the state. What these rights and duties are varies from state to state. [2]

Sovereign state Political organization with a centralized independent government

In international law, a sovereign state, sovereign country, or simply state, is a political entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. International law defines sovereign states as having a permanent population, defined territory, one government, and the capacity to enter into relations with other sovereign states. It is also normally understood that a sovereign state is neither dependent or non subjected to any other power or state.

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By custom and international conventions, it is the right of each state to determine who its nationals are. [3] Such determinations are part of nationality law. In some cases, determinations of nationality are also governed by public international law—for example, by treaties on statelessness and the European Convention on Nationality.

Customary international law is an aspect of international law involving the principle of custom. Along with general principles of law and treaties, custom is considered by the International Court of Justice, jurists, the United Nations, and its member states to be among the primary sources of international law.

Nationality law is the law in each country and in each jurisdiction within each country which defines the rights and obligations of citizenship within the jurisdiction and the manner in which citizenship is acquired as well as how citizenship may be lost. A person who is not a citizen of the country is generally regarded as a foreigner, also referred to as an alien. A person who has no recognised nationality or citizenship is regarded as stateless.

Treaty Express agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law

A treaty is a formal written agreement entered into by actors in international law, namely sovereign states and international organizations. A treaty may also be known as an international agreement, protocol, covenant, convention, pact, or exchange of letters, among other terms. Regardless of terminology, all these instruments may be considered treaties subject to the same rules under international law.

Nationality differs technically and legally from citizenship, which is a different legal relationship between a person and a country. The noun national can include both citizens and non-citizens. The most common distinguishing feature of citizenship is that citizens have the right to participate in the political life of the state, such as by voting or standing for election. However, in most modern countries all nationals are citizens of the state, and full citizens are always nationals of the state. [1] [4]

Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the custom or law as being a legal member of a sovereign state or belonging to a nation.

Politics is a set of activities associated with the governance of a country or an area. It involves making decisions that apply to group of members.

Voting method for a group such as a meeting or an electorate to make a decision or express an opinion

Voting is a method for a group, such as a meeting or an electorate, in order to make a collective decision or express an opinion usually following discussions, debates or election campaigns. Democracies elect holders of high office by voting. Residents of a place represented by an elected official are called "constituents", and those constituents who cast a ballot for their chosen candidate are called "voters". There are different systems for collecting votes.

In older texts, the word nationality rather than ethnicity, often used to refer to an ethnic group (a group of people who share a common ethnic identity, language, culture, lineage, history, and so forth). This older meaning of nationality is not defined by political borders or passport ownership and includes nations that lack an independent state (such as the Arameans, Scots, Welsh, English, Basques, Catalans, Kurds, Kabyles, Baloch, Berbers, Bosniaks, Kashmiris, Palestinians, Sindhi, Tamils, Hmong, Inuit, Copts, Māori, Sikhs, Wakhi, Székelys, Xhosas and Zulus).[ citation needed ]

Ethnic group Socially defined category of people who identify with each other

An ethnic group or ethnicity is a category of people who identify with each other, usually on the basis of a presumed common genealogy or ancestry or on similarities such as common language or dialect, history, society, culture or nation. Ethnicity is often used synonymously with the term nation, particularly in cases of ethnic nationalism, and is separate from but related to the concept of races.

Passport Travel document usually issued by a countrys government

A passport is a travel document, usually issued by a country's government to its citizens, that certifies the identity and nationality of its holder primarily for the purpose of international travel. Standard passports may contain information such as the holder's name, place and date of birth, photograph, signature, and other relevant identifying information.

Scottish people ethnic inhabitants of Scotland

The Scottish people or Scots, are a nation and ethnic group native to Scotland. Historically, they emerged from an amalgamation of two Celtic-speaking peoples, the Picts and Gaels, who founded the Kingdom of Scotland in the 9th century. Later, the neighbouring Celtic-speaking Cumbrians, as well as Germanic-speaking Anglo-Saxons and Norse, were incorporated into the Scottish nation.

Individuals may also be considered nationals of groups with autonomous status that have ceded some power to a larger government.

Autonomous administrative division region with some freedom from its central government

An autonomous administrative division is a subdivision or dependent territory of a country that has a degree of self-governance, or autonomy, from an external authority. Typically, it is either geographically distinct from the rest of the country or populated by a national minority. Decentralization of self-governing powers and functions to such divisions is a way for a national government to try to increase democratic participation or administrative efficiency or to defuse internal conflicts. Countries that include autonomous areas may be federacies, federations, or confederations. Autonomous areas can be divided into territorial autonomies, subregional territorial autonomies, and local autonomies.

Devolution is the statutory delegation of powers from the central government of a sovereign state to govern at a subnational level, such as a regional or local level. It is a form of administrative decentralization. Devolved territories have the power to make legislation relevant to the area and thus granting them a higher level of autonomy.

International law

Nationality is the status that allows a nation to grant rights to the subject and to impose obligations upon the subject. [4] In most cases, no rights or obligations are automatically attached to this status, although the status is a necessary precondition for any rights and obligations created by the state. [5]

In European law, nationality is the status or relationship that gives a nation the right to protect a person from other nations. [4] Diplomatic and consular protection are dependent upon this relationship between the person and the state. [4] A person's status as being the national of a country is used to resolve the conflict of laws. [5]

Within the broad limits imposed by few treaties and international law, states may freely define who are and are not their nationals. [4] However, since the Nottebohm case, other states are only required to respect claim by a state to protect an alleged national if the nationality is based on a true social bond. [4] In the case of dual nationality, states may determine the most effective nationality for a person, to determine which state's laws are most relevant. [5] There are also limits on removing a person's status as a national. Article 15 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states that "Everyone has the right to a nationality," and "No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the right to change his nationality."

National law

Nationals normally have the right to enter or return to the country they belong to. Passports are issued to nationals of a state, rather than only to citizens, because the passport is the travel document used to enter the country. However, nationals may not have the right of abode (the right to live permanently) in the countries that grant them passports.

Nationality versus citizenship

Immigration inspection directory sign at Shanghai Pudong International Airport, use the term "Chinese nationals" while the Chinese text refers to "Chinese citizens (Zhong Guo Gong Min 
)". 201812 Immigration Inspection directory Sign at PVG.jpg
Immigration inspection directory sign at Shanghai Pudong International Airport, use the term "Chinese nationals" while the Chinese text refers to "Chinese citizens (中国公民 )".

Conceptually, citizenship is focused on the internal political life of the state and nationality is a matter of international dealings. [6]

In the modern era, the concept of full citizenship encompasses not only active political rights, but full civil rights and social rights. [4] Nationality is a necessary but not sufficient condition to exercise full political rights within a state or other polity. [1] Nationality is required for full citizenship, and some people have no nationality in international law. A person who is denied full citizenship or nationality is commonly called a stateless person.

Historically, the most significant difference between a national and a citizen is that the citizen has the right to vote for elected officials, and to be elected. [4] This distinction between full citizenship and other, lesser relationships goes back to antiquity. Until the 19th and 20th centuries, it was typical for only a small percentage of people who belonged to a city or state to be full citizens. In the past, most people were excluded from citizenship on the basis of sex, socioeconomic class, ethnicity, religion, and other factors. However, they held a legal relationship with their government akin to the modern concept of nationality. [4]

United States nationality law defines some persons born in U.S. outlying possessions as U.S. nationals but not citizens. British nationality law defines six classes of British national, among which "British citizen" is one class (having the right of abode in the United Kingdom, along with some "British subjects"). Similarly, in the Republic of China, commonly known as Taiwan, the status of national without household registration applies to people who have Republic of China nationality, but do not have an automatic entitlement to enter or reside in the Taiwan Area, and do not qualify for civic rights and duties there. Under the nationality laws of Mexico, Colombia, and some other Latin American countries, nationals do not become citizens until they turn 18.

Nationality versus ethnicity

Nationality is sometimes used simply as an alternative word for ethnicity or national origin, just as some people assume that citizenship and nationality are identical. [7] In some countries, the cognate word for nationality in local language may be understood as a synonym of ethnicity or as an identifier of cultural and family-based self-determination, rather than on relations with a state or current government. For example, some Kurds say that they have Kurdish nationality, even though there is no Kurdish sovereign state at this time in history.

A Soviet birth certificate, in which the nacional'nost' of both parents (here both Jewish) was recorded. These records were subsequently used to determine the ethnicity of the child, as specified in his internal passport. Russian birth certificate of Michael Lucas.JPG
A Soviet birth certificate, in which the nacional'nost' of both parents (here both Jewish) was recorded. These records were subsequently used to determine the ethnicity of the child, as specified in his internal passport.

In the context of former Soviet Union and former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, "nationality" is often used as translation of the Russian nacional'nost' and Serbo-Croatian narodnost, which were the terms used in those countries for ethnic groups and local affiliations within the member states of the federation. In the Soviet Union, more than 100 such groups were formally recognized. Membership in these groups was identified on Soviet internal passports, and recorded in censuses in both the USSR and Yugoslavia. In the early years of the Soviet Union's existence, ethnicity was usually determined by the person's native language, and sometimes through religion or cultural factors, such as clothing. [8] Children born after the revolution were categorized according to their parents' recorded ethnicities. Many of these ethnic groups are still recognized by modern Russia and other countries.

Similarly, the term nationalities of China refers to ethnic and cultural groups in China. Spain is one nation, made up of nationalities, which are not politically recognized as nations (state), but can be considered smaller nations within the Spanish nation. Spanish law recognises the autonomous communities of Andalusia, Aragon, Balearic Islands, Canary Islands, Catalonia, Valencia, Galicia and the Basque Country as "nationalities" (nacionalidades).

Nationality versus national identity

National identity is a person's subjective sense of belonging to one state or to one nation. A person may be a national of a state, in the sense of being its citizen, without subjectively or emotionally feeling a part of that state, for example many migrants in Europe often identify with their ancestral and/or religious background rather than with the state of which they are citizens. Conversely, a person may feel that he belongs to one state without having any legal relationship to it. For example, children who were brought to the U.S. illegally when quite young and grow up there with little contact with their native country and its culture often have a national identity of feeling American, despite legally being nationals of a different country.

Dual nationality

Dual nationality is when a single person has a formal relationship with two separate, sovereign states. [9] This might occur, for example, if a person's parents are nationals of separate countries, and the mother's country claims all offspring of the mother's as their own nationals, but the father's country claims all offspring of the father's.

Nationality, with its historical origins in allegiance to a sovereign monarch, was seen originally as a permanent, inherent, unchangeable condition, and later, when a change of allegiance was permitted, as a strictly exclusive relationship, so that becoming a national of one state required rejecting the previous state. [9]

Dual nationality was considered a problem that caused conflict between states and sometimes imposed mutually exclusive requirements on affected people, such as simultaneously serving in two countries' military forces. Through the middle of the 20th century, many international agreements were focused on reducing the possibility of dual nationality. Since then, many accords recognizing and regulating dual nationality have been formed. [9]

Statelessness

Statelessness is the condition in which an individual has no formal or protective relationship with any state. This might occur, for example, if a person's parents are nationals of separate countries, and the mother's country rejects all offspring of mothers married to foreign fathers, but the father's country rejects all offspring born to foreign mothers. Although this person may have an emotional national identity, he or she may not legally be the national of any state.

Another stateless situation arises when a person holds a travel document (passport) which recognizes the bearer as having the nationality of a "state" which is not internationally recognized, has no entry in the International Organization for Standardization's country list, is not a member of the United Nations, etc. In the current era, persons native to Taiwan who hold Republic of China passports are one example. [10] [11]

Conferment of nationality

States in which unmarried fathers are unable to confer nationality on their children
States in which mothers are unable to confer nationality on their children and spouses
States in which women are unable to confer nationality on spouses and/or acquire, change, and retain their nationality Women conferring nationality.png
  States in which unmarried fathers are unable to confer nationality on their children
  States in which mothers are unable to confer nationality on their children and spouses
  States in which women are unable to confer nationality on spouses and/or acquire, change, and retain their nationality

The following list includes states in which parents are able to confer nationality on their children or spouses. [12] [13]

Africa

Country:Unmarried fathers able to confer nationality on childrenMothers able to confer nationality on childrenWomen able to confer nationality on spouses
Flag of Benin.svg Benin Yes check.svg Yes check.svg X mark.svg
Flag of Burundi.svg Burundi Yes check.svg X mark.svg [note 1] X mark.svg
Flag of Cameroon.svg Cameroon Yes check.svg Yes check.svg X mark.svg
Flag of the Central African Republic.svg Central African Republic Yes check.svg Yes check.svg X mark.svg
Flag of the Comoros.svg Comoros Yes check.svg Yes check.svg X mark.svg
Flag of the Republic of the Congo.svg Congo Yes check.svg Yes check.svg X mark.svg
Flag of Egypt.svg Egypt Yes check.svg Yes check.svg X mark.svg
Flag of Eswatini.svg Eswatini Yes check.svg X mark.svg X mark.svg
Flag of Guinea.svg Guinea Yes check.svg Yes check.svg X mark.svg
Flag of Lesotho.svg Lesotho Yes check.svg Yes check.svg X mark.svg
Flag of Liberia.svg Liberia Yes check.svg X mark.svg [note 2] Yes check.svg
Flag of Libya.svg Libya Yes check.svg X mark.svg [note 3] X mark.svg
Flag of Madagascar.svg Madagascar Yes check.svg Yes check.svg [note 4] X mark.svg
Flag of Malawi.svg Malawi Yes check.svg Yes check.svg X mark.svg
Flag of Mauritania.svg Mauritania Yes check.svg X mark.svg [note 3] X mark.svg
Flag of Mauritius.svg Mauritius Yes check.svg Yes check.svg X mark.svg
Flag of Morocco.svg Morocco Yes check.svg Yes check.svg X mark.svg
Flag of Nigeria.svg Nigeria Yes check.svg Yes check.svg X mark.svg
Flag of Sierra Leone.svg Sierra Leone Yes check.svg Yes check.svg X mark.svg
Flag of Somalia.svg Somalia Yes check.svg X mark.svg X mark.svg
Flag of Sudan.svg Sudan Yes check.svg X mark.svg X mark.svg
Flag of Tanzania.svg Tanzania Yes check.svg Yes check.svg X mark.svg
Flag of Togo.svg Togo Yes check.svg X mark.svg [note 3] X mark.svg
Flag of Tunisia.svg Tunisia Yes check.svg Yes check.svg X mark.svg

Americas

Nation:Unmarried fathers able to confer nationality on childrenMothers able to confer nationality on childrenWomen able to confer nationality on spouses
Flag of the Bahamas.svg Bahamas X mark.svg X mark.svg [note 2] X mark.svg
Flag of Barbados.svg Barbados X mark.svg X mark.svg [note 2] X mark.svg
Flag of Guatemala.svg Guatemala Yes check.svg Yes check.svg X mark.svg
Flag of Saint Lucia.svg Saint Lucia Yes check.svg Yes check.svg X mark.svg
Flag of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.svg Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Yes check.svg Yes check.svg X mark.svg

Asia

Country:Unmarried fathers able to confer nationality on childrenMothers able to confer nationality on childrenWomen able to confer nationality on spouses
Flag of Bahrain.svg Bahrain Yes check.svg X mark.svg [note 3] X mark.svg
Flag of Bangladesh.svg Bangladesh Yes check.svg Yes check.svg X mark.svg
Flag of Brunei.svg Brunei Yes check.svg X mark.svg X mark.svg
Flag of Iran.svg Iran Yes check.svg Yes check.svg [note 5] X mark.svg
Flag of Iraq.svg Iraq Yes check.svg X mark.svg [note 6] X mark.svg
Flag of Jordan.svg Jordan Yes check.svg X mark.svg [note 3] X mark.svg
Flag of Kuwait.svg Kuwait Yes check.svg X mark.svg [note 7] X mark.svg
Flag of Lebanon.svg Lebanon Yes check.svg X mark.svg [note 8] X mark.svg
Flag of Malaysia.svg Malaysia X mark.svg X mark.svg [note 2] X mark.svg
Flag of Nepal.svg Nepal Yes check.svg X mark.svg X mark.svg
Flag of Oman.svg Oman Yes check.svg X mark.svg X mark.svg
Flag of India.svg India Yes check.svg Yes check.svg X mark.svg
Flag of Pakistan.svg Pakistan Yes check.svg Yes check.svg X mark.svg
Flag of the Philippines.svg Philippines Yes check.svg Yes check.svg X mark.svg
Flag of Qatar.svg Qatar Yes check.svg X mark.svg X mark.svg
Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg Saudi Arabia Yes check.svg X mark.svg [note 3] X mark.svg
Flag of Singapore.svg Singapore Yes check.svg Yes check.svg X mark.svg
Flag of Syria.svg Syria Yes check.svg X mark.svg [note 9] X mark.svg
Flag of Thailand.svg Thailand Yes check.svg Yes check.svg X mark.svg
Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg United Arab Emirates Yes check.svg Yes check.svg [note 10] X mark.svg
Flag of Yemen.svg Yemen Yes check.svg Yes check.svg X mark.svg

Europe

Country:Unmarried fathers able to confer nationality on childrenMothers able to confer nationality on childrenWomen able to confer nationality on spouses
Flag of Monaco.svg Monaco Yes check.svg Yes check.svg X mark.svg

Oceania

Country:Unmarried fathers able to confer nationality on childrenMothers able to confer nationality on childrenWomen able to confer nationality on spouses
Flag of Kiribati.svg Kiribati Yes check.svg X mark.svg [note 2] X mark.svg
Flag of Nauru.svg Nauru Yes check.svg Yes check.svg X mark.svg
Flag of the Solomon Islands.svg Solomon Islands Yes check.svg Yes check.svg X mark.svg

See also

Notes

  1. In Burundi, women nationals can confer their nationality on their children if their children are born out of wedlock to unknown fathers or their fathers disown them.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 Women only can confer their nationality on their children who are born in the nation; children born abroad can not acquire citizenship.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Women nationals can confer their nationality on their children whose fathers are stateless, whose fathers' identities or nationalities are unknown, or whose fathers do not establish filiation with such children.
  4. In Madagascar, mothers can confer nationality on children born in wedlock if the father is stateless or of unknown nationality. Children born out of wedlock or to Madagascan mothers and foreign fathers can apply to the nationality until they reach majority. [14]
  5. On 14 May 2019, the Iranian Islamic Consultative Assembly approved an amendment to their nationality law, in which women married to men with a foreign nationality should request to confer nationality on children under age 18, while children and spouses of Iranian men are granted nationality automatically. However, the Guardian Council should approve the amendment. [15] On 2 October 2019, the Guardian Council agreed to sign the bill into a law, [16] taking into account the background checks on foreign fathers. [17]
  6. In Iraq, nationality law limits the ability of Iraqi women to confer nationality on children who are born without the nation.
  7. In Kuwait, a person whose father is unknown or whose paternity has not been established may apply for Kuwaiti citizenship upon the age of majority.
  8. In Lebanon, women only can confer their citizenship on their children who are born out of wedlock and whose Lebanese mother recognizes them as her children during such children's minority.
  9. In Syria, mothers only can confer nationality on their children who are born in Syria and whose fathers do not establish filiation of such children.
  10. In United Arab Emirates, mothers only can confer nationality on their children who have lived in the UAE for at least six years. [18]

Related Research Articles

Naturalization process by which a non-citizen in a country may acquire citizenship or nationality of that country

Naturalization is the legal act or process by which a non-citizen in a country may acquire citizenship or nationality of that country. It may be done automatically by a statute, i.e., without any effort on the part of the individual, or it may involve an application or a motion and approval by legal authorities. The rules of naturalization vary from country to country but typically include a promise to obeying and upholding that country's laws, taking and subscribing to the oath of allegiance, and may specify other requirements such as a minimum legal residency and adequate knowledge of the national dominant language or culture. To counter multiple citizenship, most countries require that applicants for naturalization renounce any other citizenship that they currently hold, but whether this renunciation actually causes loss of original citizenship, as seen by the host country and by the original country, will depend on the laws of the countries involved.

<i>Jus soli</i> Birthright of anyone born in the territory of a state to nationality or citizenship

Jus soli, meaning "right of the soil", commonly referred to as birthright citizenship in the United States, is the right of anyone born in the territory of a state to nationality or citizenship.

Jus sanguinis is a principle of nationality law by which citizenship is determined or acquired by the nationality of one or both parents. Children at birth may automatically be citizens of a particular state if either or both of their parents have citizenship of that state or national identities of ethnic, cultural, or other origins. Citizenship can also apply to children whose parents belong to a diaspora and were not themselves citizens of the state conferring citizenship. This principle contrasts with jus soli.

In international law, a stateless person is someone who is "not considered as a national by any state under the operation of its law". Some stateless persons are also refugees. However, not all refugees are stateless, and many persons who are stateless have never crossed an international border. On 13 November, 2018, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees warned there are about 12 million stateless people in the world.

British nationality law and Hong Kong Status of Hong Kong people in United Kingdom law

British nationality law as it pertains to Hong Kong has been unusual ever since Hong Kong became a British colony in 1842. From its beginning as a sparsely populated trading port to today's cosmopolitan international financial centre and world city of over seven million people, the territory has attracted refugees, immigrants and expatriates alike searching for a new life.

Austrian nationality law

Nationality law in the Republic of Austria is based on the principle of jus sanguinis. In other words, one usually acquires Austrian citizenship if a parent is Austrian, irrespective of place of birth.

Czech nationality law citizenship

The citizenship law of the Czech Republic is based on the principles of jus sanguinis or "right by blood". In other words, descent from a Czech parent is the primary method of acquiring Czech citizenship. Birth on Czech territory without a Czech parent is in itself insufficient for the conferral of Czech citizenship. Every Czech citizen is also a citizen of the European Union. The law came into effect on 1 January 1993, the date of the dissolution of Czechoslovakia, and has been amended in 1993, 1995, 1996, 1999, 2002, 2003, and 2005. Since 1 January 2014, multiple citizenship under Czech law is allowed.

A travel document is an identity document issued by a government or international treaty organization to facilitate the movement of individuals or small groups of people across international boundaries, following international agreements. Travel documents usually assure other governments that the bearer may return to the issuing country, and are often issued in booklet form to allow other governments to place visas as well as entry and exit stamps into them. The most common travel document is a passport, which usually gives the bearer more privileges like visa-free access to certain countries. However, the term is sometimes used only for those documents which do not bear proof of nationality, such as a refugee travel document.

Turkish nationality law

Turkish nationality law is based primarily on the principle of jus sanguinis. Children who are born to a Turkish mother or a Turkish father are Turkish citizens from birth. The intention to renounce Turkish citizenship is submitted in Turkey by a petition to the highest administrative official in the concerned person's place of residence, and when overseas to the Turkish consulate. Documents processed by these authorities are forwarded to the Ministry of Interior for appropriate action.

Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness

The Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness is a 1961 United Nations multilateral treaty whereby sovereign states agree to reduce the incidence of statelessness. The Convention was originally intended as a Protocol to the Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, while the 1954 Convention Relating to the Status of Stateless Persons was adopted to cover stateless persons who are not refugees and therefore not within the scope of the Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees.

Taiwanese nationality law Nationality law of the Republic of China (Taiwan)

The Taiwanese nationality law defines and regulates the acquisition, loss, restoration, and revocation of the nationality of the Republic of China (Taiwan), commonly known as Taiwan. Nationality is in the jurisdiction of the Ministry of the Interior and is based on jus sanguinis.

Bangladeshi nationality law

The nationality law of Bangladesh governs the issues of citizenship and nationality of the People's Republic of Bangladesh. The law regulates the nationality and citizenship status of all people who live in Bangladesh as well as all people who are of Bangladeshi descent. It allows the children of expatriates, foreigners as well as residents in Bangladesh to examine their citizenship status and if necessary, apply for and obtain citizenship of Bangladesh.

Azerbaijani nationality law

Azerbaijani nationality law is a nationality law which determines who is a citizen of Azerbaijan.

Algerian nationality law

The Algerian nationality law was first enacted in March 1963 after Algeria had achieved independence from France in July 1962.

Indonesian nationality law

The Indonesian nationality law is a law regulating about who an Indonesian citizen is, the requirements and how to obtain Indonesian citizenship, the loss of Indonesian citizenship, the requirements and how to re-obtain Indonesian citizenship, and the penal provision. The nationality law is stated in Constitution of Indonesia.

The Bidoon, or stateless is a social class in countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council, particularly Kuwait, and Iraq. They are considered by some regional governments, for instance Kuwait, as foreign nationals or illegal immigrants.

Emirati nationality law

Emirati nationality law governs citizenship eligibility in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The law is governed by Federal Law No.17 of 1972 concerning nationality and passports. It is primarily jus sanguinis. Foreigners may be naturalized and granted citizenship, but the process is limited due to the declining Emirati population and fears of national identity loss. Gulf Cooperation Council citizens are allowed to live in the UAE without restriction and have the right of freedom of movement.

Jordanian nationality law

Jordanian citizenship is the status of being a citizen of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. It can be obtained by birth or naturalisation.

References

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  2. Weis, Paul. Nationality and Statelessness in International Law . BRILL; 1979 [cited 19 August 2012]. ISBN   9789028603295. p. 29–61.
  3. Convention on Certain Questions Relating to the Conflict of Nationality Laws Archived 2014-12-26 at the Wayback Machine . The Hague, 12 April 1930. Full text. Article 1, "It is for each State to determine under its own law who are its nationals...".
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Kadelbach, Stefan (2007). "Part V: Citizenship Rights in Europe". In Ehlers, Dirk (ed.). European Fundamental Rights and Freedoms. Berlin: De Gruyter Recht. pp. 547–548. ISBN   9783110971965.
  5. 1 2 3 von Bogdandy, Armin; Bast, Jürgen, eds. (2009). Principles of European Constitutional Law (2nd ed.). Oxford: Hart Pub. pp. 449–451. ISBN   9781847315502.
  6. Sassen, Saskia (2002). "17. Towards Post-National and Denationalized Citzenship". In Isin, Engin F.; Turner, Bryan S. (eds.). Handbook of Citizenship Studies. SAGE Publications. p.  278. ISBN   978-0-7619-6858-0.
  7. Oommen, T. K. (1997). Citizenship, nationality, and ethnicity: reconciling competing identities. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press. p. 6. ISBN   978-0-7456-1620-9.
  8. Slezkine, Yuri (Summer 1994) "The USSR as a Communal Apartment, or How a Socialist State Promoted Ethnic Particularism" Slavic Review Vol. 53, No. 2, pp. 414-452
  9. 1 2 3 Turner, Bryan S; Isin, Engin F. Handbook of Citizenship Studies . SAGE; 2003-01-29. ISBN   9780761968580. p. 278–279.
  10. US District Court, Washington, D.C., Roger C. S. Lin et al. v. USA , retrieved 2017-08-06, Plaintiffs have essentially been persons without a state for almost 60 years.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  11. International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), ISO 3166-1 alpha-3 codes , retrieved 2017-08-06, The Republic of China passport carried by native Taiwanese people clearly indicates the bearer's nationality as 'Republic of China.' Under international standards however, such a nationality designation does not exist. This is explained as follows. ISO 3166-1 alpha-3 codes are three-letter country codes defined in ISO 3166-1, part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), to represent countries, territories, etc. These three-letter abbreviations have been formally adopted by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) as the official designation(s) of a 'recognized nationality' for use in manufacturing machine-readable passports, carried by travelers in order to deal with entry/exit procedures at customs authorities in all nations/territories of the world. According to these three-letter ISO country codes adopted by ICAO, the 'Republic of China' is not a recognized nationality in the international community, and thus there is no 'ROC' entry.
  12. "Gender-Discriminatory Nationality Laws". Equal Nationality Rights. Retrieved 16 September 2017.
  13. "Background Note on Gender Equality, Nationality Laws and Statelessness" (PDF). 8 March 2017.
  14. "Citizenship" (PDF). Pew Research Center. 5 August 2014.
  15. "Iran: Parliament OKs Nationality Law Reform". Human Rights Watch. 14 May 2019.
  16. "Victory for Iran's Women as Breakthrough Citizenship Law Is Passed". Bloomberg. 2 October 2019.
  17. "Iran women married to foreigners can pass citizenship to children". Al Jazeera. 2 October 2019.
  18. "'This will change our lives': Emirati mothers rejoice as children granted citizenship". The National. 28 May 2019.

Further reading