Inter-Parliamentary Union

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Inter-Parliamentary Union
New IPU-e.jpg
Founded1889;132 years ago (1889)
Founder Frédéric Passy,
William Randal Cremer
Legal statusInternational organization
Headquarters Geneva, Switzerland
Duarte Pacheco
Martin Chungong
Website www.ipu.org

The Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU; French : Union Interparlementaire, UIP) is an international organization of national parliaments. Its primary purpose is to promote democratic governance, accountability, and cooperation among its members; other initiatives include advancing gender parity among legislatures, empowering youth participation in politics, and sustainable development.

Contents

The organization was established in 1889 as the Inter-Parliamentary Congress. Its founders were statesmen Frédéric Passy of France and William Randal Cremer of the United Kingdom, who sought to create the first permanent forum for political multilateral negotiations. Initially, IPU membership was reserved for individual parliamentarians, but has since transformed to include the legislatures of sovereign states. As of 2020, the national parliaments of 179 countries are members of the IPU, while 13 regional parliamentary assemblies are associate members. [1] [2]

The IPU has played a leading role in the development of international law and institutions, including the Permanent Court of Arbitration, the League of Nations, and the United Nations. It also sponsors and takes part in international conferences and forums, and has permanent observer status at the United Nations General Assembly. Consequently, eight individuals associated with the organization are Nobel Peace Prize laureates.

History

Eight leading personalities of the IPU have received Nobel Peace Prizes:

The organisation's initial objective was the arbitration of conflicts. The IPU played an important part in setting up the Permanent Court of Arbitration in The Hague. Over time, its mission has evolved towards the promotion of democracy and inter-parliamentary dialogue. The IPU has worked for establishment of institutions at the inter-governmental level, including the United Nations, an organization with which it cooperates and with which it has permanent observer status.

Map of IPU member states Inter-Parliamentary Union Members.png
Map of IPU member states

Numerous bodies have expressed interest in the possibility of transforming the IPU into a United Nations Parliamentary Assembly, among them the Committee for a Democratic UN, the German Bundestag and the Socialist International. The Liberal International also considers this as an option.

The headquarters of the union have been moved several times since its inception. Locations:

Members and organization

Members

It is the duty of the Members of the IPU to submit the resolutions of the IPU within their respective Parliament, in the most appropriate form; to communicate them to the Government; to stimulate their implementation and to inform the IPU Secretariat, as often and fully as possible, particularly in its annual reports, as to the steps taken and the results obtained.

Associate Members

The participating parliamentary assemblies other than national parliaments are the following: [1]

NameRelated organization
Andean Parliament CAN
Central American Parliament SICA
East African Legislative Assembly EAC
European Parliament EU
Inter-parliamentary Assembly of Member Nations of the Commonwealth of Independent States CIS
Interparliamentary Assembly on Orthodoxy [3] none
Inter-Parliamentary Committee of the West African Economic and Monetary Union UEMOA
Latin American Parliament none [note 1]
Parliamentary Assembly of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation BSEC
Parliament of the Economic Community of West African States ECOWAS
Parliament of the Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa CEMAC
Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe CoE
Transitional Arab Parliament AL

Organs

Headquarters of the IPU in Geneva (2010) IPU Building2010.jpg
Headquarters of the IPU in Geneva (2010)

The organs of the Inter-Parliamentary Union are:

The Association of Secretaries General of Parliaments is a consultative body of the Inter-Parliamentary Union.

Conferences

Art Nouveau plaque-medallion for the 15th Inter-Parliamentary Conference 1908 in Berlin Berlin Plaque Medal 1908 Inter-Parliamentary Union.jpg
Art Nouveau plaque-medallion for the 15th Inter-Parliamentary Conference 1908 in Berlin

The IPU Assembly (formerly known as the Inter-Parliamentary Conference) is the principal statutory body that expresses the views of the Inter-Parliamentary Union on political issues. [6]

#Host CityHost CountryYear
141st Belgrade Flag of Serbia.svg  Serbia 2019
140th Doha Flag of Qatar.svg  Qatar 2019
139th Geneva Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland 2018
138th Geneva Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland 2018
137th St. Petersburg Flag of Russia.svg  Russia 2017
136th Dhaka Flag of Bangladesh.svg  Bangladesh 2017
135th Geneva Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland 2016
134th Lusaka Flag of Zambia.svg  Zambia 2016
133rd Geneva Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland 2015
132nd Hanoi Flag of Vietnam.svg  Vietnam 2015
131st Geneva Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland [7] 2014
130th Geneva Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland 2014
129th Geneva Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland 2013
128th Quito Flag of Ecuador.svg  Ecuador 2013
127th Quebec City Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 2012
126th Kampala Flag of Uganda.svg  Uganda 2012
125th Bern Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland 2011
124th Panama city Flag of Panama.svg  Panama 2011
123rd Geneva Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland 2010
122nd Bangkok Flag of Thailand.svg  Thailand 2010
121st Geneva Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland 2009
120th Addis Ababa Flag of Ethiopia.svg  Ethiopia 2009
119th Geneva Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland 2008
118th Cape Town Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa 2008
117th Geneva Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland 2007
116th Nusa Dua, Bali Flag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia 2007
115th Geneva Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland 2006
114th Nairobi Flag of Kenya.svg  Kenya 2006
113th Geneva Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland 2005
112th Manila Flag of the Philippines.svg  Philippines 2005
111th Geneva Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland 2004
110th Mexico Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico 2004
109th Geneva Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland 2003
108th Santiago Flag of Chile.svg  Chile 2003
107th Marrakesh Flag of Morocco.svg  Morocco 2002
106th Ouagadougou Flag of Burkina Faso.svg  Burkina Faso 2001
105th Havana Flag of Cuba.svg  Cuba 2001
104th Jakarta Flag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia 2000
103rd Amman Flag of Jordan.svg  Jordan 2000
102nd Berlin Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 1999
101st Brussels Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium 1999
100th Moscow Flag of Russia.svg  Russia 1998
99th Windhoek Flag of Namibia.svg  Namibia 1998
98th Cairo Flag of Egypt.svg  Egypt 1997
97th Seoul Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea 1997
96th Beijing Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 1996
95th Istanbul Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey 1996
94th Bucharest Flag of Romania.svg  Romania 1995
93rd Madrid Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 1995
92nd Copenhagen Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark 1994
91st Paris Flag of France.svg  France 1994
90th Canberra Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia 1993
89th New Delhi Flag of India.svg  India 1993
88th Stockholm Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden 1992
87th Yaoundé Flag of Cameroon.svg  Cameroon 1992
86th Santiago Flag of Chile.svg  Chile 1991
85th Pyongyang Flag of North Korea.svg  North Korea 1991
84th Punta del Este Flag of Uruguay.svg  Uruguay 1990
83rd Nicosia Flag of Cyprus.svg  Cyprus 1990
82nd London Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 1989
81st Budapest Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary 1989
80th Sofia Flag of Bulgaria (1971 - 1990).svg  Bulgaria 1988
79th Guatemala City Flag of Guatemala.svg  Guatemala 1988
78th Bangkok Flag of Thailand.svg  Thailand 1987
77th Managua Flag of Nicaragua.svg  Nicaragua 1987
76th Buenos Aires Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 1986
75th Mexico City Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico 1986
74th Ottawa Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 1985
73rd Lomé Flag of Togo.svg  Togo 1985
72nd Geneva Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland 1984
71st Geneva Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland 1984
70th Seoul Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea 1983
69th Rome Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 1982
68th Havana Flag of Cuba.svg  Cuba 1981
67th Berlin Flag of East Germany.svg  East Germany 1980
66th Caracas Flag of Venezuela (1954-2006).svg  Venezuela 1979
65th Bonn Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 1978
64th Sofia Flag of Bulgaria (1971 - 1990).svg  Bulgaria 1977
63rd Madrid Flag of Spain (1945-1977).svg  Spain 1976
62nd London Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 1975
61st Tokyo Flag of Japan (1870-1999).svg  Japan 1974
60th Rome Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 1972
59th Paris Flag of France.svg  France 1971
58th The Hague Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 1970
57th New Delhi Flag of India.svg  India 1969
56th Lima Flag of Peru.svg  Peru 1968
55th Tehran State Flag of Iran (1964).svg  Iran 1966
54th Ottawa Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 1965
53rd Copenhagen Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark 1964
52nd Belgrade Flag of Yugoslavia (1946-1992).svg  Yugoslavia 1963
51st Brasilia Flag of Brazil (1960-1968).svg  Brazil 1962
50th Brussels Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium 1961
49th Tokyo Flag of Japan (1870-1999).svg  Japan 1960
48th Warsaw Flag of Poland.svg  Poland 1959
47th Rio de Janeiro Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil 1958
46th London Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 1957
45th Bangkok Flag of Thailand.svg  Thailand 1956
44th Helsinki Flag of Finland.svg  Finland 1955
43rd Vienna Flag of Austria.svg  Austria 1954
42nd Washington, D.C. Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States 1953
41st Bern Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland 1952
40th Istanbul Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey 1951
39th Dublin Flag of Ireland.svg  Ireland 1950
38th Stockholm Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden 1949
37th Rome Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 1948
36th Cairo Flag of Egypt (1922-1958).svg  Egypt 1947
35th Oslo Flag of Norway.svg  Norway 1939
34th The Hague Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 1938
33rd Paris Flag of France.svg  France 1937
32nd Budapest Flag of Hungary (1915-1918, 1919-1946).svg  Hungary 1936
31st Brussels Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium 1935
30th Istanbul Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey 1934
29th Madrid Flag of Spain (1931-1939).svg  Spain 1933
28th Geneva Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland 1932
27th Bucharest Flag of Romania.svg  Romania 1931
26th London Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 1930
25th Berlin Flag of Germany (3-2 aspect ratio).svg  Germany 1928
24th Paris Flag of France.svg  France 1927
23rd Washington, D.C. Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States 1925
Ottawa Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada
22nd Bern Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland 1924
21st Copenhagen Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark 1923
20th Vienna Flag of Austria.svg  Austria 1922
19th Stockholm Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden 1921
18th The Hague Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 1913
17th Geneva Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland 1912
16th Brussels Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium 1910
15th Berlin Flag of the German Empire.svg  Germany 1908
14th London Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 1906
13th Brussels Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium 1905
12th St. Louis Flag of the United States (1896-1908).svg  United States 1904
11th Vienna Flag of Austria-Hungary (1869-1918).svg  Austria-Hungary 1903
10th Paris Flag of France.svg  France 1900
9th Christiania Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark 1899
8th Brussels Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium 1897
7th Budapest Flag of Austria-Hungary (1869-1918).svg  Austria-Hungary 1896
6th Brussels Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium 1895
5th The Hague Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 1894
4th Bern Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland 1892
3rd Rome Flag of Italy (1861-1946).svg  Italy 1891
2nd London Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 1890
1st Paris Flag of France.svg  France 1889

Presidents

PresidentYearsCountry
Duarte Pacheco 2020–presentFlag of Portugal.svg  Portugal
Gabriela Cuevas Barron 2017–2020Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico
Saber Hossain Chowdhury 2014–2017Flag of Bangladesh.svg  Bangladesh
Abdelwahad Radi 2011–2014Flag of Morocco.svg  Morocco
Theo-Ben Gurirab 2008–2011Flag of Namibia.svg  Namibia
Pier Ferdinando Casini 2005–2008Flag of Italy.svg  Italy
Sergio Paes Verdugo 2002–2005Flag of Chile.svg  Chile
Najma Heptulla 1999–2002Flag of India.svg  India
Miguel Angel Martinez 1997–1999Flag of Spain.svg  Spain
Ahmed Fathi Sorour 1994–1997Flag of Egypt.svg  Egypt
Michael Marshall 1991–1994Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Dauda Sow 1988–1991Flag of Senegal.svg  Senegal
Hans Stercken 1985–1988Flag of Germany.svg  West Germany
John Page 1985Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Izz El Din El Sayed 1983–1985Flag of Sudan.svg  Sudan
Emile Cuvelier 1983Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium
Johannes Virolainen 1982–1983Flag of Finland.svg  Finland
Rafael Caldera 1979–1982Flag of Venezuela.svg  Venezuela
Thomas Williams 1976–1979Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Gurdial Singh Dhillon 1973–1976Flag of India.svg  India
André Chandernagor 1968–1973Flag of France.svg  France
Abderrahman Abdennebi 1967–1968Flag of Tunisia.svg  Tunisia
Ranieri Mazzilli 1962–1967Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil
Giuseppe Codacci-Pisanelli 1957–1962Flag of Italy.svg  Italy
William Wedgwood Benn 1947–1957Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Henri Carton de Wiart 1934–1947Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium
Fernand Bouisson 1928–1934Flag of France.svg  France
Theodor Adelsward 1922–1928Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden
Philip Stanhope 1912–1922Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
August Beernaert 1909–1912Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium

Amendments to the Statutes

Any proposal to amend the Statutes shall be submitted in writing to the Secretariat of the Union at least three months before the meeting of the Assembly. The Secretariat will immediately communicate all such proposals to the Members of the Union. The consideration of such proposed amendments shall be automatically placed on the agenda of the Assembly.

Any sub-amendments shall be submitted in writing to the Secretariat of the Union at least six weeks before the meeting of the Assembly. The Secretariat will immediately communicate all such sub-amendments to the Members of the Union.

After hearing the opinion of the Governing Council, expressed through a simple majority vote, the Assembly shall decide on such proposals by a two-thirds majority vote.

The IPU and the United Nations

The IPU marked the 50th anniversary of the United Nations, in 1995, by holding a special session in the General Assembly Hall before the start of the session, [8] where they planned for closer cooperation with the United Nations. The General Assembly Resolution passed during that session requested the Secretary-General to put this into action. [9] An agreement was signed between the IPU and the Secretary-General on 24 July 1996 and subsequently ratified by a General Assembly Resolution, where the United Nations recognizes IPU as the world organization of parliaments. [10] [11] Pursuant to this resolution, the Secretary-General submitted a report [12] which was noted with appreciation by the General Assembly, who requested further strengthening of cooperation and another report. [13] This report detailed the measures that had been taken, including opening a liaison office in New York, and cooperation on issues such land-mines and the promotion of representative democracy. [14] Following an entire morning of debate [15] the General Assembly passed a resolution which simply stated that it "looks forward to continued close cooperation". [16]

The following year (1999) the Secretary-General reported on an increased number of areas of cooperation, [17] the issue was debated for an entire afternoon [18] (interrupted by a minute of silence held for tribute to Vazgen Sargsyan, the Prime Minister of Armenia who had just at that time been killed by gunmen), [19] and passed a resolution requesting the IPU be allowed to address the Millennium General Assembly directly. [20]

Following another report, [21] and another half-day debate, [22] the General Assembly welcomed the IPU declaration entitled "The Parliamentary vision for international cooperation at the dawn of the third millennium" and called for the Secretary-General to explore new and further ways in which the relationship could be strengthened. [23]

On 19 November 2002 the IPU was granted observer status to the General Assembly. [24]

In the Resolution 59/19, Cooperation between the United Nations and the Inter-Parliamentary Union, the UN General Assembly takes note of the recommendations in regard to engaging parliamentarians more systematically in the work of the United Nations. [25]

The final declaration of the Second World Conference of Speakers of Parliament, hosted at United Nations headquarters, took place in September 2005, was entitled Bridging the democracy gap in international relations: A stronger role for parliament. [26]

In the Resolution adopted by the UN General Assembly, 61/6, Cooperation between the United Nations and the Inter-Parliamentary Union, on 27 November 2006, it calls for the further development of the annual parliamentary hearing at the United Nations and other specialized parliamentary meetings in the context of major United Nations meetings as joint United Nations-Inter-Parliamentary Union events. [27]

Every year during the fall session of the General Assembly the IPU organises a Parliamentary Hearing. [28] A resolution on cooperation between the United Nations and the IPU allowed for circulation of official IPU documents in the General Assembly.

UN and the IPU cooperate closely in various fields, in particular peace and security, economic and social development, international law, human rights, and democracy and gender issues, but IPU has not obtained the status of UN General Assembly subsidiary organ.

Fourth World Conference of Speakers of Parliament

The fourth world conference on UN 70th anniversary marked by Ban Ki-Moon as "UN70" was organised in September 2015 where Speakers of all IPU(Inter-Parliamentary Union) member parliaments and of non-member parliaments were invited from across the world. The theme was on peace, democracy, and development. [29]

United Nations reports, resolutions, and agreements

See also

Notes

  1. Multiple regional organizations in Latin America such as the Rio Group, Latin American Economic System and Latin American Integration Association have similar membership.

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