Child abandonment

Last updated

Child abandonment is the practice of relinquishing interests and claims over one's offspring in an illegal way, with the intent of never resuming or reasserting guardianship. [1] The phrase is typically used to describe the physical abandonment of a child, but it can also include severe cases of neglect and emotional abandonment, such as when parents fail to provide financial and emotional support for children over an extended period of time. [1] An abandoned child is referred to as a foundling (as opposed to a runaway or an orphan). [1] Baby dumping refers to parents leaving a child younger than 12 months in a public or private place with the intent of terminating their care for the child. [1] It is also known as rehoming when adoptive parents use illegal means, such as the internet, to find new homes for their children. [2] [3] [4] In the case where child abandonment is anonymous within the first 12 months, it may be referred to as secret child abandonment. [5]


In the United States and many other countries, child abandonment is classified under a subsection of child abuse. (However, states have laws allowing a parent to permanently surrender a child at a designated safe haven "where they will not be prosecuted." [6] ) In the United states it is punishable as a class 4 felony, and a second or subsequent offense after a prior conviction is a class 3 felony (see classes of felonies ) with different state judicial systems treating it with varying severities and classifications. [6] Child abandonment may lead to the permanent loss of parental rights of the parents. [7] Some states allow for reinstatement of the parental rights, with about half of the states in the US having have laws for this purpose. [8] [9] Perpetrators can also be charged with reckless abandonment if victims die as a result of their actions or neglect. [10]

Official statistics on child abandonment do not exist in most countries. [5] In Denmark, an estimate of child abandonment prevalence was 1.7 infants per 100,000 births, [5] with another source suggesting higher prevalence in Central and Eastern European countries such as Slovakia with data suggesting 4.9 per 1,000 live births. [11]


Effects on survivors

Financial cost

In 2015, the United States' government spent over $9 billion to support 427,910 children who were in foster care. [37]

Child abandonment laws

Child abandonment is illegal in most of the world, and depending upon the facts of the case and laws of the state in which it occurs could be prosecuted as a misdemeanor or felony criminal offense. [38]



Historically, many cultures practiced abandonment of infants, often called "infant exposure." Children were left on hillsides, in the wilderness, near churches, and in other public places. If taken up by others, the children might join another family either as slaves or as free family members. Roman societies in particular chose slaves to raise their children rather than family members, who were often indifferent towards their children. [12] Although being found by others would allow children who were abandoned to often survive, exposure is sometimes compared to infanticide—as described by Tertullian in his Apology: "it is certainly the more cruel way to kill... by exposure to cold and hunger and dogs." Despite the comparison, other sources report that infanticide and exposure were viewed as morally different in ancient times. [44]

In the Early Middle Ages parents who did not want to raise their children gave them to monasteries along with a small fee, an act known as oblation. In times of social stress monasteries often received large numbers of children. By the high Middle Ages oblation was less common and something that was more often arranged privately between the monastery and the parents of the child. Sometimes medieval hospitals took care of abandoned children at the community's expense, but some refused to do so on the grounds that being willing to accept abandoned children would increase abandonment rates. [45] Medieval laws in Europe governing child abandonment, as for example the Visigothic Code, often prescribed that the person who had taken up the child was entitled to the child's service as a slave. [46] Conscripting or enslaving children into armies and labor pools often occurred as a consequence of war or pestilence when many children were left parentless. Abandoned children then became the ward of the state, military organization, or religious group. When this practice happened en masse, it had the advantage of ensuring the strength and continuity of cultural and religious practices in medieval society. [47]

Early Modern Europe saw the rise of foundling homes and increased abandonment of children to these homes. These numbers continued to rise and peaked when 5% of all births resulted in abandonment in France around 1830. The national reaction to this was to limit the resources provided by foundling homes and switch to foster homes instead such that fewer children would die within overcrowded foundling homes during infancy. As access to contraception increased and economic conditions improved in Europe towards the end of the 19th century the numbers of children being abandoned declined. [12]

Abandonment increased towards the end of the 19th century, particularly in the United States. The largest migration of abandoned children in history took place in the United States between 1853 and 1929. Over one hundred and twenty thousand orphans (not all of whom were intentionally abandoned) were shipped west on railroad cars, where families agreed to foster the children in exchange for their use as farmhands, household workers, etc. [48] Orphan trains were highly popular as a source of free labor. The sheer size of the displacement as well as complications and exploitation that occurred gave rise to new agencies and a series of laws that promoted adoption rather than indenture. [49] By 1945, adoption was formulated as a legal act with consideration of the child’s best interests. The origin of the move toward secrecy and the sealing of all adoption and birth records began when Charles Loring Brace introduced the concept to prevent children from the orphan trains from returning to or being reclaimed by their parents. [50]

Notable contemporary instances of child abandonment include homicidal neglect by confinement of infants or children such as in the affair of the Osaka child abandonment case or the affair of two abandoned children in Calgary, Alberta, Canada by their mother Rie Fujii.

Current situation

A modern Baby box or Baby hatch in the Czech Republic where a baby can be anonymously abandoned while ensuring that the child will be cared for. BabyBox in Pisek (2).JPG
A modern Baby box or Baby hatch in the Czech Republic where a baby can be anonymously abandoned while ensuring that the child will be cared for.

Today, abandonment of a child is considered to be a serious crime in many jurisdictions because it can be considered malum in se (wrong in itself) due to the direct harm to the child, and because of welfare concerns (in that the child often becomes a ward of the state). For example, in the U.S. state of Georgia, it is a misdemeanor to willfully and voluntarily abandon a child, and a felony to abandon one's child and leave the state. In 1981, this distinction was upheld as constitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court against a parent's argument that it denied parents the right to travel and thereby denied parents the equal protection of the laws. [51] 'Rehoming' is still legal in Arkansas where, in 2015, state legislator Justin Harris made national headlines by rehoming two young adopted children. [52]

Many jurisdictions have exceptions to abandonment laws in the form of safe haven laws, which apply to babies left in designated places such as hospitals (see, for example, baby hatch).

In the UK abandoning a child under the age of two years is a criminal offence. [53] In 2004 49 babies were abandoned nationwide with slightly more boys than girls being abandoned. [53]

Abandonment is rife in Malaysia, where between 2005 and 2011, 517 babies were dumped. Of those 517 children, 287 were found dead. In 2012, there were 31 cases, including at least one instance of a child being tossed from a window of a high rise apartment. [54]

Persons in cultures with poor social welfare systems who are not financially capable of taking care of a child are more likely to abandon them. Several American states are moving towards passing legislation to prevent rehoming of children post adoption. However, national legislation may be needed to protect children from being rehomed in all states. [55]

State programs for facilitating anonymous child abandonment

National law and effects on child abandonment

China’s One Child Policy: In 1979 China introduced its one-child policy which set up penalties for families that chose to have more than one child. [58] Women were compelled to undergo a surgical implantation of an IUD following the birth of their first child and tubal ligation if they were to have another child. [58] Families that disobeyed the law were levied a fine and lost their right to many government services, including access to health and educational services. [59] Nevertheless, transgressions of the law most certainly occurred. [59] Consequently, over the course of over three decades, hundreds of thousands of children, the majority of which were girls, were abandoned and required caretaking. [59] Non-governmental organizations stepped in to assist with the re-housing of these girls, leading to the international adoption of over 120,000 Chinese children. [60] Today, China's fertility rate has not quite returned to the rate of replacement (the birth rate that will maintain population size under conditions of zero net immigration/emigration). In fact, in the years since the relinquishing of the policy, China's fertility rate has only risen .04 per family. [61]

Vietnam War: During and following the Vietnam War, initiated by the Kennedy and Johnson administrations due to a fear of the spread of communism into southeastern Asia, it is estimated that roughly 50,000 babies were born of American fathers and Vietnamese mothers. [62] A large contingent of these children were either unwanted to the circumstances of their conception or unable to be cared for due to the lack of available resources and assistance in the war-torn country. [59] Locally, these children were known as "children of the dust." [62] Operation Babylift was established by the US government in an effort to bring over 3,300 children, many but not all of whom were abandoned, orphaned, or mixed-race leading to fears of their exploitation, to Western countries to be adopted with varying degrees of success. Non-governmental organizations attempted to alleviate the problem by setting up international adoptions and other rehoming methods but were largely ineffective. To this day, attempts are being made to link American veterans to children that they may have fathered during their time in Vietnam as well as children to their families in Vietnam. [62]

Romania under Nicolae Ceaușescu: During the rule of Communist politician Nicolae Ceaușescu, Romania underwent drastic changes to its populace. Ceaușescu, in an attempt to form a robust and young population, outlawed methods of contraception and encouraged the creation of large families with many children. [59] Much like during the Fascist period of Italian history, incentives and cultural praise were offered to parents who produced many children. [63] Ceaușescu established Decree 770 which outlawed abortion and contraception for all women, except those who were over 40, had already born 4–5 children, had life-threatening complications during pregnancy, or who became pregnant through rape or incest. [63] In the following years, Romania’s birth rate nearly doubled. [64] However, due to a lack of resources necessary to care for the abundance of children, thousands were abandoned or left to die. Other women resorted to unsafe forms of abortion carried out by people without medical training. [59] The problem persisted until the coup that overthrew Ceaușescu in 1989. Following the coup, Romania's birthrate steadily declined for the following decades. [65] Today, the birth rate has dropped to 1.52 births per woman, under the rate of replacement. [65]

In literature

Foundlings, who may be orphans, can combine many advantages to a plot: mysterious antecedents, leading to plots to discover them; high birth and lowly upbringing. Foundlings have appeared in literature in some of the oldest known tales. [66] The most common reasons for abandoning children in literature are oracles that the child will cause harm; the mother's desire to conceal her illegitimate child, often after rape by a god; or spite on the part of people other than the parents, such as sisters and mothers-in-law in such fairy tales as The Dancing Water, the Singing Apple, and the Speaking Bird. In some chivalric romances, such as Le Fresne and the Swan-Children, in the variant Beatrix, some children of a multiple birth are abandoned after the heroine has taunted another woman with a claim that such a birth is proof of adultery and then suffered such a birth of her own. [67] Poverty usually features as a cause only with the case of older children, who can survive on their own. Indeed, most such individuals are of royal or noble birth; their abandonment means they grow up in ignorance of their true social status. [68]


One of the earliest surviving examples of child abandonment in literature is that of Oedipus, who is left to die as a baby in the hills by a herdsman ordered to kill the baby, but is found and grows up to unwittingly marry his biological mother.

In a common variant on the abandonment and rediscovery of an infant, the biblical story of Moses describes how the Jewish infant is abandoned by his mother and set to float in the Nile in a reed basket, in hopes that he will be found and nurtured; as planned, the child is discovered and adopted by the queen of Egypt, thus gaining a higher social status and better education, as well as a more powerful position than his birth family could have given him. A similar story is told of other heroes who eventually learn about their true origins only as adults, when they find they are able to save their original parents or family by wielding power from their adoptive status, while making use of an education that sets them apart from their peers. The theme is also carried through in the case of many modern superheroes, most famously Superman (see Modern Media below). Mark Twain tweaks the traditional "upgrading" of the foundling's social status by having the child's twin, who is powerful by birth, experience the "downgrading " of his position in a switch planned by the two children, in "The Prince and the Pauper".

In many tales, such as Snow White, the child is actually abandoned by a servant who had been given orders to put the child to death. Other tales such as Hansel and Gretel has children reluctantly abandoned in the forest by their parents since they were no longer able to feed them.

Children are often abandoned with birth tokens, which act as plot devices to ensure that the child can be identified. This theme is a main element in Angelo F. Coniglio's historical fiction novella The Lady of the Wheel, in which the title refers to a "receiver of foundlings" who were placed in a device called a "foundling wheel", in the wall of a church or hospital. [69]

In Shakespeare's The Winter's Tale, a recognition scene in the final act reveals by these that Perdita is a king's daughter rather than a shepherdess, and so suitable for her prince lover. [70] Similarly, when the heroine of Le Fresne reveals the brocade and the ring she was abandoned with, her mother and sister recognize her; this makes her a suitable bride for the man whose mistress she had been. [71]

The children of Queen Blondine and of her sister, Princess Brunette, picked up by a Corsair after seven days at sea; illustration by Walter Crane to the fairy tale Princess Belle-Etoile. Princess Belle-Etoile 2 - illustration by Walter Crane - Project Gutenberg eText 18344.jpg
The children of Queen Blondine and of her sister, Princess Brunette, picked up by a Corsair after seven days at sea; illustration by Walter Crane to the fairy tale Princess Belle-Etoile.

From Oedipus onward, Greek and Roman tales are filled with exposed children who escaped death to be reunited with their families—usually, as in Longus' Daphnis and Chloe, more happily than in Oedipus' case. Grown children, having been taken up by strangers, were usually recognized by tokens that had been left with the exposed baby: In Euripides's Ion, Creüsa is about to kill Ion, believing him to be her husband's illegitimate child, when a priestess reveals the birth-tokens that show that Ion is her own, abandoned infant.

This may reflect the widespread practice of child abandonment in their cultures. On the other hand, the motif is continued through literature where the practice is not widespread. William Shakespeare used the abandonment and discovery of Perdita in The Winter's Tale, as noted above, and Edmund Spenser reveals in the last Canto of Book 6 of The Faerie Queene that the character Pastorella, raised by shepherds, is in fact of noble birth. Henry Fielding, in one of the first novels recognized as such, recounted The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling. In the case of Quasimodo, the eponymous character in Victor Hugo's The Hunchback of Notre-Dame , the disfigured child is abandoned at the cathedral's foundling's bed, made available for the leaving of unwanted infants. Ruth Benedict, in studying the Zuni, found that the practice of child abandonment was unknown, but featured heavily in their folktales. [72]

Still, even cultures that do not practice it may reflect older customs; in medieval literature, such as Sir Degaré and Le Fresne, the child is abandoned immediately after birth, which may reflect pre-Christian practices, both Scandavian and Roman, that the newborn would not be raised without the father's decision to do so. [73]


The strangers who take up the child are often shepherds or other herdsmen. This befell not only Oedipus, but also Cyrus II of Persia, Amphion and Zethus and several of the characters listed above. Romulus and Remus were suckled by a wolf in the wilderness, but afterward, again found by a shepherd. This ties this motif in with the genre of the pastoral. This can imply or outright state that the child benefits by this pure upbringing by unspoiled people, as opposed to the corruption that surrounded his birth family.

Often, the child is aided by animals before being found; Artemis sent a bear to nurse the abandoned Atalanta, and Paris was also nursed by a bear before being found. [74] In some cases, the child is depicted as being raised by animals; however, in actuality, feral children have proven to be incapable of speech. [75]

In adulthood

The pattern of a child remaining with its adoptive parents is less common than the reverse, but it occurs. In the Indian epic Mahabharata, Karna is never reconciled with his mother, and dies in battle with her legitimate son. In the Grimm fairy tale Foundling-Bird, Foundling Bird never learns of, least of all reunites with, his parents. George Eliot depicted the abandonment of the character Eppie in Silas Marner; despite learning her true father at the end of the book, she refuses to leave Silas Marner, who had actually reared her.

When the cause of the abandonment is a prophecy, the abandonment is usually instrumental in causing the prophecy to be fulfilled. Besides Oedipus, Greek legends also included Telephus, who was prophesied to kill his uncle; his ignorance of his parentage, stemming from his abandonment, caused his uncle to jeer at him and him to kill the uncle in anger.

Older children

When older children are abandoned in fairy tales, while poverty may be cited as a cause, as in Hop o' My Thumb, also called Thumbelina, the most common effect is when poverty is combined with a stepmother's malice, as in Hansel and Gretel (or sometimes, a mother's malice). The stepmother's wishes may be the sole cause, as in Father Frost. In these stories, the children seldom find adoptive parents, but malicious monsters, such as ogres and witches; [76] outwitting them, they find treasure enough to solve their poverty. The stepmother may die coincidentally, or be driven out by the father when he hears, so that the reunited family can live happily in her absence.

In a grimmer variation, the tale Babes in the Wood features a wicked uncle in the role of the wicked stepmother, who gives an order for the children to be killed. However, although the servants scruple to obey him, and the children are abandoned in the woods, the tale ends tragically: the children die, and their bodies are covered with leaves by robins.

In modern media

Foundlings still appear in modern literature; this is a partial list of examples:

See also

Related Research Articles

Infanticide is the intentional killing of infants or offspring. Infanticide was a widespread practice throughout human history that was mainly used to dispose of unwanted children, its main purpose being the prevention of resources being spent on weak or disabled offspring. Unwanted infants were normally abandoned to die of exposure, but in some societies they were deliberately killed.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Adoption</span> Parenting a child in place of the original parents

Adoption is a process whereby a person assumes the parenting of another, usually a child, from that person's biological or legal parent or parents. Legal adoptions permanently transfer all rights and responsibilities, along with filiation, from the biological parents to the adoptive parents.

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to childhood:

In the United States, adoption is the process of creating a legal parent-child relationship between a child and a parent who was not automatically recognized as the child's parent at birth.

A foundling hospital was originally an institution for the reception of foundlings, i.e., children who had been abandoned or exposed, and left for the public to find and save. A foundling hospital was not necessarily a medical hospital, but more commonly a children's home, offering shelter and education to foundlings.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Baby hatch</span> Device for transfer of unwanted infants

A baby hatch or baby box is a place where people can bring babies, usually newborn, and abandon them anonymously in a safe place to be found and cared for. This kind of arrangement was common in the Middle Ages and in the 18th and 19th centuries, when the device was known as a foundling wheel. Foundling wheels were taken out of use in the late 19th century, but a modern form, the baby hatch, began to be introduced again from 1952 and since 2000 has come into use in many countries, most notably in Pakistan where there are more than 300. They can also be found in Germany, where there are around 100, Czech Republic (76) and Poland (67).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Safe-haven law</span>

Safe-haven laws are statutes in the United States that decriminalize the leaving of unharmed infants with statutorily designated private persons so that the child becomes a ward of the state. All fifty states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico have enacted such statutes.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Georgia Tann</span> American child trafficker (1891–1950)

Beulah George "Georgia" Tann, was an American child trafficker who operated the Tennessee Children's Home Society, an adoption agency in Memphis, Tennessee. Tann used the unlicensed home as a front for her black market baby adoption scheme from the 1920s. Young children were kidnapped and then sold to wealthy families, abused, or—in some instances—murdered. A state investigation into numerous instances of adoption fraud led to the closure of the institution in 1950. Tann died of cancer before the investigation made its findings public. Tann's custom of placing children with influential members of society normalized adoption in the U.S., and many of her adoption policies have become standard practice.

Abortion in Romania is currently legal as an elective procedure during the first 14 weeks of pregnancy, and for medical reasons at later stages of pregnancy. In the year 2004, there were 216,261 live births and 191,000 reported abortions, meaning that 46% of the 407,261 reported pregnancies that year ended in abortion.

Neonaticide is the deliberate act of a parent murdering their own child during the first 24 hours of life. As a noun, the word "neonaticide" may also refer to anyone who practices or who has practiced this.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sister Mary Irene FitzGibbon</span> American nun

Sister Irene was an American nun who founded the New York Foundling Hospital in 1869, at a time when abandoned infants were routinely sent to almshouses with the sick and insane. The first refuge was in a brownstone on E.12th St. in Manhattan, where babies could be left anonymously in a receiving crib with no questions asked. The practice was an echo of the medieval foundling wheel and an early example of modern "safe haven" practices.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">New York Foundling</span> Child welfare agency active in New York and Puerto Rico

The New York Foundling, founded in 1869 by the Roman Catholic Sisters of Charity, is one of New York City's oldest and largest child welfare agencies. The Foundling operates programs in the five boroughs of New York City, Rockland County, and Puerto Rico. Its services include foster care, adoptions, educational programs, mental health services, and many other community-based services for children, families, and adults.

Orphanhood in Romania became prevalent as a consequence of the Socialist Republic of Romania's pro-natality policy under Nicolae Ceaușescu. Its effectiveness led to an increase in birth rates at the expense of adequate family planning and reproductive rights. Its consequences were most felt with the collapse of the regime's social safety net during the Romanian austerity period, which led to widespread institutional neglect of the needs of orphans, with severe consequences in their health and well-being. A series of international and governmental interventions have taken place since the 1990s to improve the conditions in orphanages and reform the country's child protection system, with variable degrees of success.

Coin-operated-locker babies or coin-locker babies are victims of child abuse often occurring in Japan, in which infants are left in public lockers. There are two main variables that account for the differences in frequency and the type of these child abuse cases: social and economical. Predominantly neonates and male babies, the murder of infants became a form of population control in Japan, being discovered 1–3 months after death, wrapped in plastic and appearing to have died of asphyxiation. The presumption is that such lockers are regularly checked by attendants and the infant will be found quickly; however, many children are found dead. Between 1980 and 1990, there were 191 reported cases of infants which died in coin-operated lockers, which represents about six percent of all infanticides during that period.

Pregnancy options counseling is a form of counseling, aimed to help women come to a decision regarding a troubling or unintended pregnancy.

An anonymous birth is a birth where the mother gives birth to a child without disclosing her identity, or where her identity remains unregistered. In many countries, anonymous births have been legalized for centuries in order to prevent formerly frequent killings of newborn children, particularly outside of marriage.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">The Infants' Home Child and Family Services</span>

The Infants' Home Child and Family Services was established in Sydney, Australia in 1874 as a refuge for unwed mothers and their babies and evolving over time to a current provider of early childhood education and health services.

Spence-Chapin Services to Families and Children is a New York-based licensed and Hague-accredited non-profit providing adoption services, which includes the continuum of counseling and support services to members of the adoption triad: birth parents, adoptive families, and adoptees. They provide interim care for infants as the biological parents make a plan for the child’s future, and also specialize in the adoption of older children, sibling groups and children with special needs.

Noboru Kikuta (菊田昇) was a Japanese gynecologist. He is best known for circumventing Japanese adoption law in the 1970's by falsifying birth certificates so that children could be adopted anonymously.


  1. 1 2 3 4 "Child Abandonment". FindLaw. Retrieved 7 March 2018.
  2. "Reuters Investigates – The Child Exchange". Reuters. Retrieved 7 March 2018.
  3. "What is Rehoming and What Can Be Done to Stop it". 29 December 2015. Retrieved 7 March 2018.
  4. "What is Adoption Rehoming, Disruption, Dissolution?". 20 May 2014. Retrieved 8 March 2018.
  5. 1 2 3 Navne, Laura; Jakobsen, Marie (27 December 2020). "Child Abandonment and Anonymous Surrendering of Babies: Experiences in Ten High-income Countries". Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies. 16 (3): 195–205. doi:10.1080/17450128.2020.1861400. ISSN   1745-0128. S2CID   234400044.
  6. 1 2 "Child Abandonment Law and Legal Definition | USLegal, Inc".
  7. Chung, Cindy. "Parental Rights Terminated Due to Child Abandonment". Legal Zoom. Archived from the original on 18 May 2013.
  8. "Parental rights restoration". Casey Family Programs. 5 February 2018. Retrieved 19 June 2022.
  9. "Reinstatement of Parental Rights - Child Welfare Information Gateway". Retrieved 19 June 2022.
  10. "Reckless Abandonment". Georgia Criminal Lawyer. Retrieved 19 June 2022.
  11. Browne, Kevin. "Child abandonment and its prevention". Daphne Foundation. Institute of Work, Health & Organisations, University of Nottingham.
  12. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Schweder, Richard (2009). The Child: An Encyclopedic Companion. University of Chicago Press. pp. 1–3. ISBN   978-0226475394.
  13. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Child abandonment and its prevention in Europe. Institute of Work, Health and Organisations. Nottingham: University of Nottingham. 2012. ISBN   978-0853582861. OCLC   935864111.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  14. 1 2 Delaunay, Valérie (30 December 2011). "Improving knowledge on child abandonment and care in United States and other countries: A demographic contribution to the achievement of child protection". African Population Studies. 25 (1). doi: 10.11564/25-1-268 . ISSN   2308-7854.
  15. Bailey, Heather; Semenenko, Igor; Pilipenko, Tatyana; Malyuta, Ruslan; Thorne, Claire (December 2010). "Factors associated with abandonment of infants born to HIV positive mother: results from a birth cohort". AIDS Care. 22 (12): 1439–1448. doi:10.1080/09540121.2010.482127. ISSN   0954-0121. PMC   3428901 . PMID   20824547.
  16. "The tragic tale of China's orphanages: 98% of abandoned children have disabilities" . Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  17. Miller-Loessi, Karen; Kilic, Zeynep (2001). "A Unique Diaspora?: The Case of Adopted Girls and Boys from the People's Republic of China". Diaspora: A Journal of Transnational Studies. 10 (2): 243–260. doi:10.1353/dsp.2011.0057. ISSN   1911-1568. S2CID   144059791.
  18. Citro, Brian; Gilson, Je; Kalantry, Sital; Stricker, Kelsey; University of Chicago Law School. International Human Rights Clinic; National Asian Paci c American Women's Forum (U.S.); and Advancing New Standards in Reproductive Health (Organization), "Replacing Myths with Facts: Sex-Selective Abortion Laws in the United States" (2014). Cornell Law Faculty Publications. Paper 1399.
  19. 1 2 "How can abandonment of children by noncustodial parents be prevented?". Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  20. "Disrupting young lives: How detention and deportation affect US-born children of immigrants" . Retrieved 19 February 2018.
  21. Hall, Macer (11 February 2001). "False DNA test led father to reject daughter" . The Daily Telegraph. ISSN   0307-1235. Archived from the original on 12 January 2022. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  22. "Family functioning in families with alcohol and other drug addiction". Ministry of Social Development (MSD). Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  23. Abuheweila, Iyad; Kershner, Isabel (2018). "ISIS Declares War on Hamas, and Gaza Families Disown Sons in Sinai". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  24. Seaton, Jaimie. "Homeless rates for LGBT teens are alarming, but parents can make a difference". Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  25. "America's Shame: 40% of Homeless Youth Are LGBT Kids". Williams Institute. 13 July 2012. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  26. "Serving Our Youth: Findings from a National Survey of Service Providers Working with Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Youth Who Are Homeless or At Risk of Becoming Homeless". Williams Institute. 11 July 2012. Retrieved 6 March 2018.
  27. Hobbs, G. F.; Hobbs, C. J.; Wynne, J. M. (December 1999). "Abuse of children in foster and residential care". Child Abuse & Neglect. 23 (12): 1239–1252. doi:10.1016/S0145-2134(99)00096-4. ISSN   0145-2134. PMID   10626608.
  28. 1 2 Thorne, Roger. "Child Abandonment Laws in Pennsylvania". Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  29. "Child Attachment Disorder | Health". Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  30. "Abandonment Issues – Are They Holding You Back In Life?". Harley Therapy™ Blog. 2 June 2016. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  31. "Understanding Clinginess". Evolution Counseling. 12 June 2014. Retrieved 5 March 2018.
  32. Levy, Michael S. (1998). "A Helpful Way to Conceptualize and Understand Reenactments". The Journal of Psychotherapy Practice and Research. 7 (3): 227–235. ISSN   1055-050X. PMC   3330499 . PMID   9631344.
  33. "Traumatic Reenactment". Retrieved 5 March 2018.
  34. "Post Traumatic Stress Disorder of Abandonment, Part I: An Overview". Archived from the original on 9 March 2018. Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  35. AACAP. "Attachment Disorders". Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  36. Ripley, Will. "Meet China's abandoned children". CNN. Retrieved 7 March 2018.
  37. Child Welfare Information Gateway. “Foster care statistics 2015”. Washington, DC: Department of Health and Human Services, Children’s Bureau.
  38. "Child Welfare Enacted Legislation". NCSL. National Conference of State Legislatures. 23 February 2020. Retrieved 24 February 2021.
  39. Mitrut, Andreea; Wolff, François-Charles (December 2011). "The impact of legalized abortion on child health outcomes and abandonment. Evidence from Romania". Journal of Health Economics. 30 (6): 1219–1231. doi:10.1016/j.jhealeco.2011.08.004. hdl: 2077/26523 . ISSN   1879-1646. PMID   21889810. S2CID   2808883.
  40. Bitler, Marianne; Zavodny, Madeline (2002). "Child Abuse and Abortion Availability ". American Economic Review. 92 (2): 363–367. doi:10.1257/000282802320191624. PMID   29058396.
  41. "Unequal Access to Abortion". National Abortion Federation. Archived from the original on 9 March 2018. Retrieved 5 March 2018.
  42. "Preventing Child Neglect". Prevent Child Abuse America. Archived from the original on 9 March 2018. Retrieved 5 March 2018.
  43. "About Teen Pregnancy | Teen Pregnancy | Reproductive Health". Retrieved 5 March 2018.
  44. Boswell, John Eastburn (1984). "Expositio and Oblatio: The Abandonment of Children and the Ancient and Medieval Family". The American Historical Review. 89 (1): 10–33. doi:10.2307/1855916. JSTOR   1855916. PMID   11611460.
  45. E., Lester, Anne (2007). "Lost but not yet Found: Medieval Foundlings and their Care in Northern France, 1200–1500". Proceedings of the Western Society for French History. 35. ISSN   2573-5012.
  46. The Visigothic Code: (Forum judicum), Book IV: Concerning Natural Lineage Title IV: Concerning Foundlings
  47. Judith and Martin Land, Adoption Detective: Memoir of an Adopted Child, Wheatmark Publishing, 2011, p. ix
  48. "The Orphan Train Movement". Children's Aid. Retrieved 8 March 2018.
  49. " Horizon Section". Retrieved 23 February 2018.
  50. Philanthropy in America : a comprehensive historical encyclopedia. Burlingame, Dwight. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. 2004. ISBN   978-1576078600. OCLC   56747800.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  51. Jones v. Helms, 452 U.S. 412 (1981).
  52. Benjamin Hardy, "Foster Family Disputes Key Statements from Justin Harris", The Arkansas Times,
  53. 1 2 "What happens to abandoned babies?". Magazine. BBC. 8 December 2005. Retrieved 22 March 2010.
  54. Barro, Josh (28 September 2012). "Malaysia's 'Baby-Dumping' Epidemic". Bloomberg. Retrieved 13 October 2012.
  55. Montanari, Stefano (15 April 2015). "As Arkansas Outlaws Re-homing, Other States Might Follow Suit". Social Work Helper. Retrieved 19 May 2015.
  56. "Newborn killings drop after anonymous delivery law". Reuters. 12 December 2012. Retrieved 8 March 2018.
  57. "Save Abandoned Babies". Save Abandoned Babies Foundation. Retrieved 8 March 2018.
  58. 1 2 Ripley, Will (11 August 2015). "'They don't deserve this kind of life:' Meet China's Abandoned Children". Retrieved 9 February 2018.
  59. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "Abandoned children". The Encyclopedia of World Problems & Human Potential. UIA. Retrieved 8 February 2018.
  60. Johnson, Kay Ann (2016). China's Hidden Children: Abandonment, Adoption, and the Human Costs of the One-child Policy. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
  61. "Public Data".
  62. 1 2 3 Watts, Jonathan (May 2005). "GIs return to end 30 years of pain for Vietnam's children of the dust". The Guardian.
  63. 1 2 "Decree 770 of Ceaucescu". Searching in History. Searching in History. 19 January 2014. Retrieved 11 February 2018.
  64. Breslau, Karen. "Overplanned Parenthood: Ceausescu's Cruel Law". Ceausescu. Retrieved 16 February 2018.
  65. 1 2 "Romania – Birth Rate". Index Mundi.
  66. Northrop Frye, Anatomy of Criticism, p. 198. ISBN   0-691-01298-9.
  67. Laura A. Hibbard (1963). Medieval Romance in England, p. 242. New York: Burt Franklin[ ISBN missing ]
  68. Josepha Sherman, Once upon a Galaxy, pp. 55–56. ISBN   0-87483-387-6.
  69. Cipolla, Gaetano. "The Lady of the Wheel (La Ruotaia)". Legas.
  70. Northrop Frye, "Recognition in The Winter's Tale," pp. 108–109 of Fables of Identity: Studies in Poetic Mythology. ISBN   0-15-629730-2.
  71. Francis James Child, The English and Scottish Popular Ballads, v. 2, p. 68. Dover Publications, New York, 1965.
  72. Maria Tatar, The Hard Facts of the Grimms' Fairy Tales, p. 60. ISBN   0-691-06722-8.
  73. Barbara A. Hanawalt, The Ties That Bound: Peasant Families in Medieval England, p. 172. ISBN   0-19-504564-5.
  74. Jane Yolen, Touch Magic, p. 73. ISBN   0-87483-591-7.
  75. Jane Yolen, Touch Magic, p. 74. ISBN   0-87483-591-7.
  76. Jack Zipes, The Great Fairy Tale Tradition: From Straparola and Basile to the Brothers Grimm, p. 474. ISBN   0-393-97636-X.
  77. Josepha Sherman, Once upon a Galaxy, p. 55. ISBN   0-87483-387-6.

Further reading