Snow White

Last updated
Snow White
Schneewittchen by Alexander Zick
Folk tale
NameSnow White
Aarne–Thompson grouping709
Country Germany
RelatedOriginal age:7 Age:14

"Snow White" is a German fairy tale, first written down in the early 19th century. The Brothers Grimm published it in 1812 in the first edition of their collection Grimms' Fairy Tales , numbered as Tale 53. The original German title was Sneewittchen; the modern spelling is Schneewittchen. The Grimms completed their final revision of the story in 1854, which can be found in the 1857 version of Grimms' Fairy Tales . [1] [2]


The fairy tale features such elements as the magic mirror, the poisoned apple, the glass coffin, and the characters of the Evil Queen and the seven Dwarfs. The seven dwarfs were first given individual names in the 1912 Broadway play Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs and then given different names in Walt Disney's 1937 film Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs . The Grimm story, which is commonly referred to as "Snow White", [3] should not be confused with the story of "Snow-White and Rose-Red" (in German "Schneeweißchen und Rosenrot"), another fairy tale collected by the Brothers Grimm.

In the Aarne–Thompson folklore classification, tales of this kind are grouped together as type 709, Snow White. Others of this kind include "Bella Venezia", "Myrsina", "Nourie Hadig", "Gold-Tree and Silver-Tree", [4] "The Young Slave", and "La petite Toute-Belle".


The fable's antagonist the Evil Queen with the protagonist Snow White as depicted in The Sleeping Snow White by Hans Makart (1872) Makart hans das schlafende schneewittchen.jpg
The fable's antagonist the Evil Queen with the protagonist Snow White as depicted in The Sleeping Snow White by Hans Makart (1872)

At the beginning of the story, a queen sits sewing at an open window during a winter snowfall when she pricks her finger with her needle, causing three drops of red blood to drip onto the freshly fallen white snow on the black windowsill. Then she says to herself, "How I wish that I had a daughter that had skin as white as snow, lips as red as blood and hair as black as ebony." Some time later, the queen dies giving birth to a baby daughter whom she names Snow White. (However, in the 1812 version of the tale, the queen does not die but later behaves the same way the step-mother does in later versions of the tale, including the 1854 iteration.) A year later, Snow White's father, the king, marries again. His new wife is very beautiful, but a vain and wicked woman who practices witchcraft. The new queen possesses a magic mirror, which she asks every morning, "Mirror mirror on the wall, who is the fairest one of all?" The mirror always tells the queen that she is the fairest. The queen is always pleased with that response because the magic mirror never lied. But when Snow White is seven years old, her fairness surpasses that of her stepmother. When the queen again asks her mirror the same question, it tells her that Snow White is the fairest. [1] [5]

This gives the queen a great shock. She becomes envious, and from that moment on, her heart turns against Snow White, whom the queen grows to hate increasingly with time. Eventually, she orders a huntsman to take Snow White into the forest and kill her. As proof that Snow White is dead, the queen also wants him to return with her heart, which she will consume in order to become immortal. The huntsman takes Snow White into the forest, but after raising his dagger, he finds himself unable to kill her when Snow White realizes her stepmother's plan and tearfully begs the huntsman, "Spare me this mockery of justice! I will run away into the forest and never come home again!" After seeing the tears in the princess's eyes, the huntsman reluctantly agrees to spare Snow White and brings the queen a boar's heart instead. [1] [5]

After wandering through the forest for hours, Snow White discovers a tiny cottage belonging to a group of seven dwarfs. Since no one is at home, she eats some of the tiny meals, drinks some of their wine, and then tests all the beds. Finally, the last bed is comfortable enough for her, and she falls asleep. When the dwarfs return home, they immediately become aware that there has been a burglar in their house because everything in their home is in disorder. Prowling about frantically, they head upstairs and discover the sleeping Snow White. She wakes up and explains to them about her stepmother's attempt to kill her, and the dwarfs take pity on her and let her stay with them in exchange for a job as a housemaid. They warn her to be careful when alone at home and to let no one in while they are working in the mountains. [1] [5]

Snow White grows into a lovely, fair, and beautiful young maiden. Meanwhile, the queen, who believes she got rid of Snow White a decade earlier, asks her mirror once again: "Mirror mirror on the wall, who now is the fairest one of all?" The mirror tells her that not only is Snow White still the fairest in the land, but she is also currently hiding with the dwarfs. [1] The queen is furious and decides to kill her herself. First, she appears at the dwarfs' cottage, disguised as an old peddler, and offers Snow White a colourful, silky laced bodice as a present. The queen laces her up so tightly that Snow White faints; the dwarfs return just in time to revive Snow White by loosening the laces. Next, the queen dresses up as a comb seller and convinces Snow White to take a beautiful comb as a present; she strokes Snow White's hair with the poisoned comb. The girl is overcome by the poison from the comb, but is again revived by the dwarfs when they remove the comb from her hair. Finally, the queen disguises herself as a farmer's wife and offers Snow White a poisoned apple. Snow White is hesitant to accept it, so the queen cuts the apple in half, eating the white (harmless) half and giving the red poisoned half to Snow White; the girl eagerly takes a bite and then falls into a coma, causing the Queen to think she has finally triumphed. This time, the dwarfs are unable to revive Snow White, and, assuming that the queen has finally killed her, they place her in a glass casket as a funeral for her. [1] [5]

The next day, a prince stumbles upon a seemingly dead Snow White lying in her glass coffin during a hunting trip. After hearing her story from the Seven Dwarfs, the prince is allowed to take Snow White to her proper resting place back at her father's castle. All of a sudden, while Snow White is being transported, one of the prince's servants trips and loses his balance. This dislodges the piece of the poisoned apple from Snow White's throat, magically reviving her. [6] (In the 1812 version, the prince becomes so obsessed with Snow White that he carries her coffin wherever he goes, until one of his servants, in anger, lifts Snow White from the coffin and strikes her on the back, causing the piece of apple to come out of her throat [7] ).The Prince is overjoyed with this miracle, and he declares his love for the now alive and well Snow White, who, surprised to meet him face to face, humbly accepts his marriage proposal. The prince invites everyone in the land to their wedding, except for Snow White's stepmother.

The queen, believing herself finally to be rid of Snow White, asks again her magic mirror, who is the fairest in the land. The mirror says that there is a bride of a prince, who is yet fairer than she. The queen decides to visit the wedding and investigate. Once she arrives, the Queen becomes frozen with rage and fear when she finds out that the prince's bride is her stepdaughter, Snow White herself. The furious Queen tries to sow chaos and attempts to kill her again, but the prince recognizes her as a threat to Snow White when he learns the truth from his bride. As punishment for the attempted murder of Snow White, the prince orders the Queen to wear a pair of red-hot iron slippers and to dance in them until she drops dead. With the evil Queen finally defeated and dead, Snow White's wedding to the prince peacefully continues.


Snow White

Snow White is the main character in the story and step-daughter to the Evil Queen. She is described by the Evil Queen's Magic Mirror as the fairest of the land. She survives several attempts by the jealous queen to murder her. Finally she eats the poison apple and with help from the Dwarves and Prince Charming, she survives to marry the Prince.

The Queen

The Queen deeply envies Snow White for her looks and her jealousy leads her to attempt to murder Snow White in multiple different ways. The Queen first tries to murder Snow White via a huntsman who she has sent to assassinate her. The Queen then decides to murder Snow White by disguising herself as an old woman in order to gain her trust so she can then poison her. The Queen initially attempts to poison Snow White with a comb, but when that fails, she gives her a poison apple. The Queen's third attempt to kill Snow White is successful: Snow White bites into the poisoned apple and dies.

The Huntsman

Appearance in the fairy tale

The Evil Queen orders an unnamed Huntsman to take Snow White into the deepest woods to be killed. As proof that Snow White is dead, the Queen demands that he return with her lungs and liver. The Huntsman takes Snow White into the forest, but spares her. The Huntsman leaves her behind alive, convinced that the girl would be eaten by some wild animal. He instead brings the Queen the lungs and liver of a wild boar, which is prepared by the cook and eaten by the Queen.

1916 film

In the 1916 silent movie adaption, the Huntsman is named Berthold (portrayed by Lionel Braham). [8]

Disney films

The Huntsman appears in the 1937 American animated musical fantasy film, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs voiced by Stuart Buchanan. [9] [10] The Evil Queen is so jealous of Snow White's beauty that she orders the Huntsman to take Snow White far into the forest and kill her while stating that he knows the penalty should he fail. She further demands that the Huntsman return with Snow White's heart in a jeweled box as proof of the deed. However, the Huntsman is unable to kill Snow White and urges her to flee into the woods. The Magic Mirror later reveales that the heart in the box is not Snow White's.

In the musical adaptation, the Huntsman is seen with the Prince when they tell the King of the Evil Queen's plot to dispose of Snow White.

1987 film

The Huntsman appears in the 1987 Snow White film portrayed by Amnon Meskin. When the Huntsman takes Snow White away from the King to kill her on the Evil Queen's orders, Snow White figures out her stepmother's plot and escapes from him.

Grimm's Fairy Tale Classics

The Huntsman appears in the "Snow White" episode of Grimm's Fairy Tale Classics voiced by Mike Reynolds in the English dub. He is sent by the Evil Queen to eliminate Snow White. This plan fails when Snow White's friend Klaus buys Snow White enough time to get away. When the Huntsman goes after Snow White, he is attacked by a wild boar and knocked off the cliff into the forest below.

Happily Ever After: Fairy Tales for Every Child

In the Happily Ever After: Fairy Tales for Every Child rendition of Snow White that is set to a Native American theme, the character Gray Wolf (voiced by Zahn McClarnon) is in the role of the Huntsman. Gray Wolf is summoned by Sly Fox where he is instructed to take White Snow into the forest and kill her while bringing her liver as proof.

Once Upon a Time

The Huntsman appears in the first season of Once Upon a Time played by Jamie Dornan. The Huntsman is a nameless hunter who is a solitary recluse, raised by wolves. He considers the wolves to be his true family, and is greatly saddened by the deaths of animals. He is considered by the Evil Queen Regina as the perfect assassin and is hired to kill Snow White. When he offers the Queen a stag's heart instead, she realizes she has been tricked and tears out the Huntsman's heart, keeping it in her vault and using it to make him her slave. [11] When Prince Charming is led to his execution, the Huntsman helps him escape. The Prince asks him to assist him, but he states he cannot leave. [12]

Snow White and the Huntsman

The Huntsman is named Eric and played by Chris Hemsworth. [13] Eric is a huntsman whose wife, Sara, was seemingly killed while he was off to war. After Snow White escapes into the Dark Forest, Queen Ravenna and her brother Finn make a bargain with Eric to capture Snow White, promising to bring his wife back to life in exchange. The Huntsman tracks down Snow White, but when Finn reveals that Ravenna does not actually have the power to do what she promised, the Huntsman fights him and his men while Snow White runs away. Throughout the film, Eric becomes Snow White's ally in the fight against Queen Ravenna.

The Huntsman: Winter's War

Hemsworth reprises his role as Eric who is called upon to ensure the destruction of Ravenna's mirror following the events of the first film. In the process he is pitted against Queen Revenna's sister Freya and reunited with his wife, Sara, who reveals that her 'death' was staged by Freya. Freya briefly uses the mirror to resurrect Ravenna, only for Freya to assist Eric in killing Ravenna when she learns that her sister was responsible for the death of her baby daughter.


Illustration by Otto Kubel Schneewittchen-Otto-Kubel.jpg
Illustration by Otto Kubel

Scholars have theorized about the possible origins of the tale, with folklorists such as Sigrid Schmidt, Joseph Jacobs and Christine Goldberg noting that it combines multiple motifs also found in other folktales. [14] [15] Scholar Graham Anderson compares the fairy tale to the Roman legend of Chione, or "Snow," recorded in Ovid's Metamorphoses . [16] [17]

In the 1980s and 1990s, some German authors suggested that the fairy tale could have been inspired by a real person. Eckhard Sander, a teacher, claimed that the inspiration was Margaretha von Waldeck, a German countess born in 1533, as well as several other women in her family. [18] Karlheinz Bartels, a pharmacist and scholar from Lohr am Main, a town in northwestern Bavaria, created a tongue-in-cheek theory that Snow White was Maria Sophia Margarethe Catharina, Baroness von und zu Erthal, born in 1725. [19] [20] However, these theories are generally dismissed by serious scholars, with folklore professor Donald Haase calling them "pure speculation and not at all convincing." [21]


The principal studies of traditional Snow White variants are Ernst Böklen's, Schneewittchen Studien of 1910, which reprints fifty Snow White variants, [22] and studies by Steven Swann Jones. [23] In their first edition, the Brothers Grimm published the version they had first collected, in which the villain of the piece is Snow White's jealous biological mother. In a version sent to another folklorist prior to the first edition, additionally, she does not order a servant to take her to the woods, but takes her there herself to gather flowers and abandons her; in the first edition, this task was transferred to a servant. [24] It is believed that the change to a stepmother in later editions was to tone down the story for children. [25] [26]

A popular but sanitized version of the story is the 1937 American animated film Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs by Walt Disney. Disney's variation of Snow White gave the dwarfs names and included a singing Snow White. The Disney film also is the only version in which Snow White and her prince meet before she bites the apple; in fact, it is this meeting that sets the plot in motion. Instead of her lungs and liver, as written in the original, the huntsman is asked by the queen to bring back Snow White's heart. While the heart is mentioned, it is never shown in the box. Snow White is also older and more mature. And she is discovered by the dwarfs after cleaning the house, not vandalizing it. Furthermore, in the Disney movie the evil queen tries only once to kill Snow White (with the poisoned apple) and fails. She then dies by falling down a cliff and being crushed by a boulder, after the dwarfs had chased her through the forest. In the original, the queen is forced to dance to death in red hot iron slippers. [27]

Variants and parallels to other tales

This tale type is widespread in Europe, in America, in Africa [28] and "in some Turkic traditions," [29] the Middle East, in China, in India and in the Americas. [30] Jörg Bäcker draws a parallel to Turkic tales, as well as other tales with a separate origin but overlapping themes, such as those in Central Asia and Eastern Siberia, among the Mongolians and Tungusian peoples. [31] Due to Portuguese colonization, Sigrid Schmidt posits the presence of the tale in modern times in former Portuguese colonies, and contrasts it with other distinct African tales. [32]


A primary analysis by Celtic folklorist Alfred Nutt, in the 19th century, established the tale type, in Europe, was distributed "from the Balkan peninsula to Iceland, and from Russia to Catalonia", with the highest number of variants being found in Germany and Italy. [33]

This geographical distribution seemed to be confirmed by scholarly studies of the 20th century. A 1957 article by Italian philologist Gianfranco D'Aronco (it) studied the most diffused Tales of Magic in Italian territory, among which Biancaneve. [34] A scholarly inquiry by Italian Istituto centrale per i beni sonori ed audiovisivi ("Central Institute of Sound and Audiovisual Heritage"), produced in the late 1960s and early 1970s, found thirty-seven variants of the tale across Italian sources. [35] A similar assessment was made by scholar Sigrid Schmidt, who claimed that the tale type was "particularly popular" in Southern Europe, "specially" in Italy, Greece and the Iberian Peninsula. [32] In addition, Swedish scholar Waldemar Liungman  [ sv ] suggested Italy as center of diffusion of the story, since he considered Italy as the source of tale ("Ursprung"), and it holds the highest number of variants not derived from the Grimm's tale. [36] [37]

Another study, by researcher Theo Meder, points to a wide distribution in Western Europe, specially in Ireland, Iceland and Scandinavia. [30]


The Brothers Grimm's "Snow White" was predated by several other German versions of the tale, with the earliest being Johann Karl August Musäus's "Richilde" (1782), a satirical novella told from the wicked stepmother's point of view. Albert Ludwig Grimm (no relation to the Brothers Grimm) published a play version, Schneewittchen, in 1809. [38] The Grimms collected at least eight other distinct variants of the tale, which they considered one of the most famous German folktales. [39]


The Pentamerone, published 1634-1636, contains some stories with similarities to Snow White, such as an enchanted sleep in "The Young Slave" and a female character with snow-white skin in "The Raven." In most Italian versions of Snow White, the heroine is not the daughter of a king but an innkeeper, the antagonist is not her stepmother but her biological mother, and instead of dwarfs she takes refuge with robbers. For instance, in La Bella Venezia, an Abruzzian version collected by Antonio De Nino, the mother asks her customers if they have seen a woman more beautiful than she. If they say they did not, she only charges them half the price, if they say they did she charges them twice the price. When the customers tell her that her daughter is prettier than her, she gets jealous. [40] In Maria, her Evil Stepmother and the Seven Robbers (Maria, die böse Stiefmutter und die sieben Räuber), a Sicilian version collected by Laura Gonzenbach the heroine also lives with robbers, but the antagonist is her stepmother and she's not an innkeeper. [41] [42]

Sometimes the heroine's protectors are female instead of male, as in The Cruel Stepmother (La crudel matrigna), a variant collected by Angelo de Gubernatis in which, like in the Grimm's version, Snow White's counterpart, called here Caterina, is the daughter of a king, and the antagonist is her stepmother, who orders her servants to kill her stepdaughter after she hears people commenting how much prettier Caterina is than she. One day the two women are going to mass together. Instead of a male protector, Caterina takes refuge in a house by the seashore where an old woman lives. Later a witch discovers that Caterina's still alive and where she lives, so she goes to tell the queen, who sends her back to the cottage to kill her with poisoned flowers instead of an apple. [43] A similar version from Siena was collected by Sicilian folklorist Giuseppe Pitrè, in which the heroine, called Ermellina, runs away from home riding an eagle who takes her away to a palace inhabited by fairies. Ermellina's stepmother sends a witch disguised as her stepdaughter's servants to the fairies' palace to try to kill her twice, first with poisoned sweetmeats and the second time with an enchanted dress. [44] Pitré also collected a variant from Palermo titled Child Margarita (La 'Nfanti Margarita) where the heroine stays in a haunted castle. [45] [46]

There's also a couple of conversions that combines the ATU tale type 709 with the second part of the type 410 Sleeping Beauty, in which, when the heroine is awakened, the prince's mother tries to kill her and the children she has had with the prince. Gonzenbach collected two variants from Sicily, the first one called Maruzzedda and the second Beautiful Anna; and Vittorio Imbriani collected a version titled La Bella Ostessina. [47] [48]

In some versions, the antagonists are not the heroine's mother or stepmother, but her two elder sisters, as in a version from Trentino collected by Christian Schneller, [49] or a version from Bologna collected by Carolina Coronedi-Berti. In this last version, the role of both the mirror and the dwarfs is played by the Moon, which tells the elder sisters that the youngest, called Ziricochel, is the prettiest, and later hides her in his palace. When the sisters discover Ziricochel is still alive, they send an astrologer to kill her. After several attempts, she finally manages to turn her into a statue with an enchanted shirt. Ziricochel is revived after the prince's sisters take the shirt off. [50]

Italo Calvino included the version from Bologna collected by Coronedi Berti, retitling it Giricoccola, and the Abruzzian version collected by De Nino in Italian Folktales.


Paul Sébillot collected two variants from Brittany in northwestern France. In the first one, titled The Enchanted Stockings (Les Bas enchantés), starts similarly to Gubernatis' version, with the heroine being the daughter of a queen, and her mother wanting to kill her after soldier marching in front of her balcony says the princess is prettier than the queen. The role of the poisoned apple is fulfilled by the titular stockings, and the heroine is revived after the prince's little sister takes them off when she's playing. [51] [52] In the second, titled La petite Toute-Belle, a servant accuses the heroine of stealing the things she stole and then throws her in a well. The heroine survives the fall and ends up living with three dragons that live at the bottom of the well. When the heroine's mother discovers her daughter is still alive, she twice sends a fairy to attempt to kill her, first with sugar almonds, which the dragons warn her are poisoned before she eats them, and then with a red dress. [53] In another version from Brittany, this one collected by François Cadic, the heroine is called Rose-Neige (Eng: Snow-Rose) because her mother pricked her finger with a rose in a snowy day and wished to have a child as beautiful as the rose. The role of the dwarfs is played by Korrigans, dwarf-like creatures from the Breton folklore. [54] Louis Morin collected a version from Troyes in northeastern France, where like in the Grimm's version the mother questions a magic mirror. [55] A version from Corsica titled Anghjulina was collected by Geneviève Massignon, where the roles of both the huntsman and the dwarfs are instead a group of bandits whom Anghjulina's mother asks to kill her daughter, but they instead take her away to live with them in the woods. [56]

Belgium and the Netherlands

A Flemish version from Antwerp collected by Victor de Meyere is quite similar to the version collected by the brothers Grimm. The heroine is called Sneeuwwitje (Snow White in Dutch), she is the queen's stepdaughter, and the stepmother questions a mirror. Instead of dwarfs, the princess is taken in by seven kabouters. Instead of going to kill Snow White herself, the queen twice sends the witch who had sold her the magic mirror to kill Sneeuwwitje, first with a comb and the second time with an apple. But the most significant difference is that the role of the prince in this version is instead Snow White's father, the king. [57]

Another Flemish variant, this one from Hamme, differs more from Grimm's story. The one who wants to kill the heroine, called here Mauricia, is her own biological mother. She is convinced by a demon with a spider head that if her daughter dies, she will become beautiful. The mother sends two servants to kill Mauricia, bringing as proof a lock of her hair, a bottle with her blood, a piece of her tongue and a piece of her clothes. The servants spare Mauricia's life, as well as her pet sheep. To deceive Mauricia's mother, they buy a goat and bring a bottle with the animal's blood as well as a piece of his tongue. Meanwhile, Mauricia is taken in by seventeen robbers who live in a cave deep in the forest, instead of seven dwarfs. When Mauricia's mother discovers that her daughter is still alive, she goes to the robbers' cave disguised. She turns her daughter into a bird, and she takes her place. The plan fails and Mauricia recovers her human form, so the mother tries to kill her by using a magic ring which the demon gave her. Mauricia is awoken when a prince takes the ring off her finger. When he asks her if he would marry her, she rejects him and returns with the seventeen robbers. [58] [59]

Iberian Peninsula

One of the first versions from Spain, titled The Beautiful Stepdaughter (La hermosa hijastra), was collected by Manuel Milà i Fontanals, in which a demon tells the stepmother that her stepdaughter is prettier than she is when she's looking at herself in the mirror. The stepmother orders her servants to take her stepdaughter to the forest and kill her, bringing a bottle with her blood as proof. But the servants spare her life and instead kill a dog. Eight days later the demon warns her that the blood in the bottle is not her stepdaughter's, and the stepmother sends her servants again, ordering them to bring one of her heart and bare-toes as proof. The stepdaughter later discovers four men living in the forest, inside a rock that can open and close with the right words. Every day after she sees the men leave she enters the cave and cleans it up. Believing it must be an intruder, the men take turns to stay at the cavern, but the first one falls asleep during his watch. The second one manages to catch the girl, and they agree to let the girl live with them. Later, the same demon that told her stepmother that her stepdaughter was prettier gives the girl an enchanted ring, that has the same role that the apple in the Grimm's version. [60] The version in Catalan included by Francisco Maspons y Labrós in the second volume of Lo Rondallayre follows that plot fairly closely, with some minor differences. [61]

In an Aragonese version titled The Good Daughter (La buena hija) collected by Romualdo Nogués y Milagro, there's no mirror. Instead, the story starts with the mother already hating her daughter because she's prettier, and ordering a servant to kill her, bringing as proof her heart, tongue, and her little finger. The servant spares her and brings the mother the heart and tongue from a dog he ran over and says he lost the finger. The daughter is taken in by robbers living in a cavern, but despite all, she still misses her mother. One day an old woman appears and gives her a ring, saying that if she puts it on she'll see her mother. The daughter actually falls unconscious when she does put it on because the old woman is actually a witch who wants to kidnap her, but she can't because of the scapular the girl is wearing, so she locks her in a crystal casket, where the girl is later found by the prince. [62]

In a version from Mallorca collected by Antoni Maria Alcover i Sureda titled Na Magraneta, a queen wishes to have a daughter after eating a pomegranate and calls her Magraneta. As in the Grimm's version the queen asks her mirror who's the most beautiful. The dwarf's role is fulfilled by thirteen men who are described as big as giants, who live in a castle in the middle of the forest called "Castell de la Colometa", whose doors can open and close by command. When the queen discovers thanks to her mirror that her daughter is still alive she sends an evil fairy disguised as an old woman. The role of the poisoned apple is fulfilled by an iron ring. [63]

Aurelio Macedonio Espinosa Sr. collected two Spanish versions. The first one, titled Blanca Flor, is from Villaluenga de la Sagra, in Toledo. In this one the villain is the heroine's own biological mother, and like in Na Magraneta she questions a mirror if there's a woman more beautiful than she is. Instead of ordering a huntsman or servant to kill her daughter, after the mirror tells the woman her daughter has surpassed her, she tries to get rid of her daughter herself, inviting her to go for a walk in the countryside, and when they reach a rock she recites some spells from her book, making the rock swallow her daughter. Fortunately thanks to her prayers to the Virgin the daughter survives and gets out the rock, and she is later taken in by twelve robbers living in a castle. When the mother discovers her daughter is still alive, she sends a witch to kill her, who gives the daughter an enchanted silk shirt. The moment she puts it on, she falls in a deathlike state. She's later revived when a sexton takes the shirt off. [64] The second one, titled The Envious Mother (La madre envidiosa), comes from Jaraíz de la Vera, Cáceres. Here the villain is also the heroine's biological mother, and she's an innkeeper who asks a witch whether there's a woman prettier than she is. Instead of a shirt, here the role of the apple is fulfilled by enchanted shoes. [65] Aurelio de Llano Roza de Ampudia collected an Asturian version from Teverga titled The Envious Stepmother (La madrastra envidiosa), in which the stepmother locks her stepdaughter in a room with the hope that no one will see her and think she's more beautiful. But the attempt fails when a guest tells the mother the girl locked in a room is prettier than she is. The story ends with the men who found the heroine discussing who should marry the girl once she's revived, and she replies by telling them that she chooses to marry the servant who revived her. [66] Aurelio Macedonio Espinosa Jr. collected four versions. The first one is titled Blancanieves, is from Medina del Campo, Valladolid, and follows the plot of the Grimm's version fairly closely with barely any significant differences. [67] The same happens with the second one, titled Blancaflor, that comes from Tordesillas, another location from Valladolid. [68] The last two are the ones that present more significant differences, although like in Grimm's the stepmother questions a magic mirror. The Bad Stepmother (La mala madrastra) comes from Sepúlveda, Segovia, and also has instead of seven dwarfs the robbers that live in a cave deep in the forest, that can open and close at command. Here the words to make it happen are "Open, parsley!" and "Close, peppermint!" [69] The last one, Blancaflor, is from Siete Iglesias de Trabancos, also in Valladolid, ends with the heroine buried after biting a poisoned pear, and the mirror proclaiming that, now that her stepdaughter is finally dead, the stepmother is the most beautiful again. [70]

One of the first Portuguese versions was collected by Francisco Adolfo Coelho. It was titled The Enchanted Shoes (Os sapatinhos encantados), where the heroine is the daughter of an innkeeper, who asks muleteers if they have seen a woman prettier than she is. One day, one answers that her daughter is prettier. The daughter takes refugee with a group of robbers who live in the forest, and the role of the apple is fulfilled by the titular enchanted shoes. [71] Zófimo Consiglieri Pedroso collected another version, titled The Vain Queen, in which the titular queen questions her maids of honor and servants who's the most beautiful. One day, when she asks the same question to her chamberlain, he replies the queen's daughter is more beautiful than she is. The queen orders her servants to behead her daughter bring back his tongue as proof, but they instead spare her and bring the queen a dog's tongue. The princess is taken in by a man, who gives her two options, to live with him as either his wife or his daughter, and the princess chooses the second. The rest of the tale is quite different from most versions, with the titular queen completely disappeared from the story, and the story focusing instead of a prince that falls in love with the princess. [71]

British Isles

In the Scottish version Gold-Tree and Silver-Tree, queen Silver-Tree asks a trout in a well, instead of a magic mirror, who's the most beautiful. When the trout tells her that Gold-Tree, her daughter, is more beautiful, Silver-Tree pretends to fall ill, declaring that her only cure is to eat her own daughter's heart and liver. To save his daughter's life, the king marries her off to a prince, and serves his wife a goat's heart and liver. After Silver-Tree discovers that she has been deceived thanks to the trout, she visits her daughter and sticks her finger on a poisoned thorn. The prince later remarries, and his second wife removes the poisoned thorn from Gold-Tree, reviving her. The second wife then tricks the queen into drinking the poison that was meant for Gold-Tree. [72] In another Scottish version, Lasair Gheug, the King of Ireland's Daughter, the heroine's stepmother frames the princess for the murder of the queen's firstborn and manages to make her swear she'll never tell the truth to anybody. Lasair Gheug, a name that in Gaelic means Flame of Branches, take refugee with thirteen cats, who turn out to be an enchanted prince and his squires. After marrying the prince and having three sons with him the queen discovers her stepdaughter is still alive, also thanks to a talking trout, and sends three giants of ice to put her in a death-like state. As in Gold-Tree and Silver-Tree the prince takes a second wife afterwards, and the second wife is the one who revives the heroine. [73] Thomas William Thompson collected an English version from Blackburn simply titled Snow White which follows Grimm's plot much more closely, although with some significant differences, such as Snow White being taken in by three robbers instead of seven dwarfs. [74]


One of the first Danish versions collected was Snehvide (Snow White), by Mathias Winther. In this variant, the stepmother is the princess' nurse, who persuades Snow White to ask her father to marry her. Because the king says he won't remarry until grass grows in the grave of the princess' mother, the nurse plants magic seeds in the grave so grass will grow quicker. Then, after the king marries the nurse, Snow White gets betrothed to a prince, who choses her over the nurse's three biological daughters, but after that the king and the prince had to leave to fight in a war. The queen seizes her opportunity to chase Snow White away, and she ends up living with the dwarfs in a mountain. When the queen finds out Snow White is still alive thanks to a magic mirror, she sends her daughters three times, each time one of them, with poisoned gifts to give them to her. With the third gift, a poisoned apple, Snow White falls into a deep sleep, and the dwarfs leave her in the forest, fearing that the king would accuse them of killing her once he comes back. When the king and the prince finally come back from the war and find Snow White's body, the king dies of sorrow, but the prince manages to wake her up. After that we see an ending quite similar to the ones in The Goose Girl and The Three Oranges of Love the prince and Snow White get married, and the prince invites the stepmother and asks her what punishment deserve someone who has hurt someone as innocent as Snow White. The queen suggests for the culprit to be put inside a barrel full of needles, and the prince tells the stepmother she has pronounced her own sentence. [75] Evald Tang Kristensen collected a version titled The Pretty Girl and the Crystal Bowls (Den Kjønne Pige og de Klare Skåle), which, like some Italian variants, combines the tale type 709 with the type 410. In this version, the stepmother questions a pair of crystal bowls instead of a magic mirror, and when they tell her that her stepdaughter is prettier, she sends her to a witch's hut where she's tricked to eat a porridge that makes her pregnant. Ashamed that her daughter has become pregnant out of wedlock she kicks her out, but the girl is taken in by a shepherd. Later a crow lets a ring fall on the huts' floor, and, when the heroine puts it on, she falls in a deathlike state. Believing she's dead the shepherd kills himself and the heroine is later revived when she gives birth to twins, each one of them with a star on the forehead, and one of them sucks the ring off her finger. She's later found by a prince, whose mother tries to kill the girl and her children. [76] [77]

A Swedish version titled The Daughter of the Sun and the Twelve Bewitched Princes (Solens dotter och de tolv förtrollade prinsarna) starts pretty similarly to the Grimm's version, with a queen wishing to have a child as white as snow and as red as blood, but that child turned out to be not the heroine but the villain, her own biological mother. Instead of a mirror, the queen asks the Sun, who tells her that her daughter will surpass her in beauty. Because of it the queen orders that her daughter must be raised in the countryside, away from the Royal Court, but when It's time for the princess to come back the queen orders a servant to throw her in a well before she arrives. In the bottom, the princess meets twelve princes cursed to be chimeras, and she agrees to live with them. When the queen and the servant discover she is alive, they give her poisoned candy, which she eats. After being revived by a young king she marries him and has a son with him, but the queen goes to the castle pretending to be a midwife, turns her daughter into a golden bird by sticking a needle on her head, and then the queen takes her daughter's place. After disenchanting the twelve princes with her singing, the princess returns to the court, where she's finally restored to her human form, and her mother is punished after she believed she ate her own daughter while she was still under the spell. [78]

Greece and Albania

French folklorist Henri Carnoy collected a Greek version, titled Marietta and the Witch her Stepmother (Marietta et la Sorcière, sa Marâtre), in which the heroine is manipulated by her governess to kill her own mother, so the governess could marry her father. Soon after she marries Marietta's father, the new stepmother orders her husband to get rid of his daughter. Marietta ends up living in a castle with forty giants. Meanwhile, Marietta's stepmother, believing her stepdaughter is dead, asks the Sun who's the most beautiful. When the Sun answers Marietta is more beautiful, she realises her stepdaughter is still alive, and, disguised as a peddler, goes to the giants' castle to kill her. She goes twice, the first trying to kill her with an enchanted ring, and the second with poisoned grapes. After Marietta is awoken and marries the prince, the stepmother goes to the prince's castle pretending to be a midwife, sticks a fork on Marietta's head to turn her into a pigeon, and then takes her place. After several transformations, Marietta recovers her human form and her stepmother is punished. [79] Georgios A. Megas collected another Greek version, titled Myrsina, in which the antagonists are the heroine's two elder sisters, and the role of the seven dwarfs is fulfilled by the Twelve Months. [80]

Austrian diplomat Johann Georg von Hahn collected a version from Albania, that also starts with the heroine, called Marigo, killing her mother so her governess can marry her father. But after the marriage, Marigo's stepmother asks the king to get rid of the princess, but instead of killing her the king just abandons her daughter in the woods. Marigo finds a castle inhabited by forty dragons instead of giants, that take her in as their surrogate sister. After discovering her stepdaughter is still alive thanks also to the Sun, the queen twice sends her husband to the dragons' castle to kill Marigo, first with enchanted hair-pins and the second time with an enchanted ring. [81] In another Albanian version, titled Fatimé and collected by French folklorist Auguste Dozon, the antagonists are also the heroine's two elder sisters, as in Myrsina. [82]

Russia and Eastern Europe

According to Christine Shojaei Kawan, the earliest surviving folktale version of the Snow White story is a Russian tale published anonymously in 1795. The heroine is Olga, a merchant's daughter, and the role of the magic mirror is played by some beggars who comment on her beauty. [83] In the Russian tale, titled "Сказка о старичках-келейчиках", a merchant has a daughter named Olga, and marries another woman. Years later, the girl's stepmother welcomes some beggars in need of alms, who tell her Olga is more beautiful than her. A servant takes Olga to the open field and, in tears, tells the girl the stepmother ordered her to be killed and her heart and little finger brought back as proof of the deed. Olga cuts off her little finger and gives to the servant, who kills a little dog and takes out its heart. Olga takes refuge in a cottage with hunters, and asks the beggars to trade gifts with her stepmother: Olga sends a pie, and her stepmother sends her a poisoned pearl-studded shirt. Olga puts on the shirt and faints, as if dead. The hunters find her apparently dead body and place it in a crystal tomb. A prince appears to them and asks to take the coffin with him to his palace. Later, the prince's mother takes off the pearl-studded shirt from Olga's body and she wakes up. [84]

Alexander Afanasyev collected a Russian version titled The Magic Mirror, in which the reason that the heroine has to leave her parents' house is different from the usual. Instead of being the daughter of a king, she is the daughter of a merchant, who's left with her uncle while her father and brothers travel. During their absence, the heroine's uncle attempts to assault her, but she frustrates his plans. To get his revenge he writes a letter to the heroine's father, accusing her of misconduct. Believing what's written in the letter, the merchant sends his son back home to kill his own sister, but the merchant's son does not trust his uncle's letter, and after discovering what's in the letter are lies, he warns her sister, who escapes and is taken in by two bogatyrs. The elements of the stepmother and the mirror are introduced much later, after the merchant returns home believing his daughter is dead and remarries the woman who owns the titular magic mirror, that tells her that her stepdaughter is still alive and is more beautiful than she is. [85] In another Russian version the heroine is the daughter of a Tsar, and her stepmother decides to kill her after asking three different mirrors and all of them told her her stepdaughters is more beautiful than she is. The dwarfs' role is fulfilled by twelve brothers cursed to be hawks, living at the top of a glass mountain. [86]

Arthur and Albert Schott collected a Romanian version titled The Magic Mirror (German : Der Zauberspiegel; Romanian : Oglinda fermecată), in which the villain is the heroine's biological mother. After the titular mirror tells her that her daughter is prettiest, she takes her to go for a walk in the woods and feeds her extremely salty bread, so her daughter will become so thirsty that she would agree to let her tear out her eyes in exchange for water. Once the daughter is blinded her mother leaves her in the forest, where she manages to restore her eyes and is taken in by twelve thieves. After discovering her daughter is still alive, the mother sends an old woman to the thieves' house three times. The first she gives the daughter a ring, the second earrings, and the third poisoned flowers. After the heroine marries the prince, she has a child, and the mother goes to the castle pretending to be a midwife to kill both her daughter and the newborn. After killing the infant, she's stopped before she can kill the heroine. [87]

The Pushkin fairytale The Tale of the Dead Princess and the Seven Knights bears a striking similarity to the tale of Snow White. However, the Dead Princess befriends 7 knights instead of dwarfs, and it is the Sun and Moon who aid the Prince to the resting place of the Dead Princess, where he breaks with his sword the coffin of the Tsarevna, bringing her back to life.


In a Louisiana tale, Lé Roi Pan ("The King Peacock"), a mother has a child who becomes more beautiful than she, so she orders her daughter's nurse to kill her. The daughter resigns to her fate, but the nurse spares her and gives her three seeds. After failing to drown in a well and to be eaten by an ogre, the girl eats a seed and falls into a deep sleep. The ogre family (who took her in after seeing her beauty) put her in a crystal coffin to float down the river. Her coffin is found by the titular King Peacock, who takes the seed from her mouth and awakens her. [88] The King Peacock shares "motifs and tropes" with Snow White, according to Maria Tatar. [89]


Snow White in the trailer of Walt Disney's Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937) SNOW WHITE DISNEY.jpg
Snow White in the trailer of Walt Disney's Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937)
The famous "Heigh-Ho" sequence from the 1937 adaption Snow white 1937 trailer screenshot (2).jpg
The famous "Heigh-Ho" sequence from the 1937 adaption
Walt Disney introducing the Seven Dwarfs in the trailer of Walt Disney's Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937) Walt Disney Snow white 1937 trailer screenshot (13).jpg
Walt Disney introducing the Seven Dwarfs in the trailer of Walt Disney's Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937)
Snow White , 1916, full 63 minute film

Theatrical - Live-action

Theatrical - Animation

Direct-to-video - Animation

Animation - Television

Live-action - Television

Live-action - Direct-to-video

Music and audio


Opera and ballet



Video games


Religious interpretation

Erin Heys' [106] "Religious Symbols" article at the website Religion & Snow White analyzes the use of numerous symbols in the story, their implications, and their Christian interpretations, such as the colours red, white, and black; the apple; the number seven; and resurrection. [107]

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Stepmother</span> Female stepparent

A stepmother, stepmum or stepmom is a female non-biological parent married to one's preexisting parent. Children from her spouse's previous unions are known as her stepchildren. A stepmother-in-law is a stepmother of one's spouse.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Evil Queen</span> Character in Snow White fairy tale by Brothers Grimm

The Evil Queen, also called the Wicked Queen or the Queen, is a fictional character and the main antagonist of "Snow White", a German fairy tale recorded by the Brothers Grimm; similar stories exist worldwide. Other versions of the Queen appear in subsequent adaptations and continuations of the fairy tale, including novels and films. A particularly notable version is Disney's depiction, sometimes known as Queen Grimhilde. The character has also become an archetype that inspired unrelated works.

"Snow, Glass, Apples" is a 1994 short story written by Neil Gaiman. It was originally released as a benefit book for the Comic Book Legal Defense Fund and was reprinted in the anthology Love in Vein II, edited by Poppy Z. Brite. It is a retelling of the Brothers Grimm fairy tale Snow White, but from her stepmother's point of view.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Snow-White and Rose-Red</span> German fairy tale

"Snow-White and Rose-Red" is a German fairy tale. The best-known version is the one collected by the Brothers Grimm in 1837 in the third edition of their collection Grimm's Fairy Tales. It was first published by Wilhelm Grimm in 1827 in Wilhelm Hauff's Märchen-Almanach. An older, somewhat shorter version, "The Ungrateful Dwarf", was written by Caroline Stahl (1776–1837). Indeed, that appears to be the oldest variant; no previous oral version is known, although several have been collected since its publication in 1818. Oral versions are very limited regionally. The tale is of Aarne-Thompson type 426.

<i>The 10th Kingdom</i> American fantasy television miniseries

The 10th Kingdom is an American fairytale fantasy miniseries written by Simon Moore and produced by Britain's Carnival Films, Germany's Babelsberg Film und Fernsehen, and the US's Hallmark Entertainment. It depicts the adventures of a young woman and her father after they are transported from New York City, through a magical mirror, into a parallel world of fairy tales.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">The Six Swans</span> German fairy tale

"The Six Swans" is a German fairy tale collected by the Brothers Grimm in Grimm's Fairy Tales in 1812. It is of Aarne–Thompson type 451, commonly found throughout Europe. Other tales of this type include The Seven Ravens, The Twelve Wild Ducks, Udea and her Seven Brothers, The Wild Swans, and The Twelve Brothers. Andrew Lang included a variant of the tale in The Yellow Fairy Book.

<i>The Legend of Snow White</i> Japanese TV anime series

The Legend of Snow White is an Italian-Japanese anime series produced by Tatsunoko Productions and Mondo TV based on the 1812 European fairy tale. Directed by Kunitoshi Okajima, the series premiered on NHK on 6 April 1994 and ran for 52 episodes until its conclusion on 29 March 1995.

<i>Snow White: The Fairest of Them All</i> 2001 film directed by Caroline Thompson

Snow White: The Fairest of Them All is a 2001 fantasy adventure television film co-written and directed by Caroline Thompson and produced by Hallmark Entertainment. The film was first released theatrically in Europe, and subsequently aired in the United States on ABC as part of their series on The Wonderful World of Disney on March 17, 2002.

<i>Snow White</i> (1987 film) 1987 American musical film directed by Michael Berz

Snow White is a 1987 American musical fantasy film based on the classic 1812 fairytale and released as part of the "Cannon Movie Tales" series. The film was released straight to video. In August 2005 it was released on Region 1 DVD by MGM.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Seven Dwarfs</span> Group of fictional characters in the fairy tale "Snow White"

The Seven Dwarfs are a group of seven fictional dwarfs that appear in the 1812 fairy tale Snow White by the Brothers Grimm and other renditions and adaptations.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Snow White (Disney character)</span> Title character from Disneys 1937 animated film Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs

Snow White is a fictional character and a main character from Walt Disney Productions' first animated feature film Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937). She was originally voiced by Adriana Caselotti. The character of Snow White was derived from a fairy tale known from many countries in Europe with the best-known version being the 1812 tale collected by the Brothers Grimm.

<i>Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs</i> (1955 film) 1955 film

Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs is a 1955 West German film, directed by Erich Kobler, based on the 1812 story of Schneewittchen by the Brothers Grimm.

<i>Snow White</i> (1961 film) 1961 film

Schneewittchen is a 1961 East German film, directed by Gottfried Kolditz and based on the fairy tale Snow White by the Brothers Grimm.

<i>Mirror Mirror</i> (film) 2012 film by Tarsem Singh

Mirror Mirror is a 2012 American fantasy comedy film based on the fairy tale, "Snow White," collected by the Brothers Grimm. The film follows a beautiful princess named Snow White, who uses the help of a band of seven dwarfs as well as a prince, to reclaim her throne from her wicked stepmother, the enchantress Clementianna.

<i>Snow White and the Huntsman</i> 2012 film by Rupert Sanders

Snow White & the Huntsman is a 2012 American fantasy film based on the German fairy tale "Snow White" compiled by the Brothers Grimm. The directorial debut of Rupert Sanders, it was written by Evan Daugherty, John Lee Hancock and Hossein Amini, from a screen story by Daugherty. The cast includes Kristen Stewart, Charlize Theron, Chris Hemsworth, Sam Claflin, and Bob Hoskins in his final film performance. In the film's retelling of the tale, Snow White grows up imprisoned by her evil stepmother, Queen Ravenna, a powerful sorceress. After Snow White escapes into the forest, Ravenna enlists Eric the Huntsman to capture her, but he becomes her companion in a quest to overthrow Ravenna.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Magic Mirror (Snow White)</span> Mystical object in the story of Snow White

The Magic Mirror is a mystical object that is featured in the story of Snow White, depicted as either a hand mirror or a wall-mounted mirror.

Margaretha von Waldeck was the daughter of Philip IV, Count of Waldeck-Wildungen (1493–1574) and his first wife, Margaret Cirksena (1500–1537), daughter of Edzard I, Count of East Frisia. One author theorized in the 1990s that her life influenced the fairy tale of Snow White. It is said she is buried in Brussels where the Place de la Bourse/Beursplein is now located.

"Snow White" is a German fairy tale known across much of the world. There has been debate over possible origins of the tale and whether it could be an amalgam of other stories, have mythical roots, or be inspired by a real person. It falls within the classification of Type 709 in the Aarne–Thompson–Uther Index.

<i>Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs</i> (book) 1938 picture book

Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs is a 1938 picture book written and illustrated by Wanda Gág and published by Coward-McCann. Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs was a Caldecott Medal Honor Book in 1939. The book is a twist on the classic tale of Snow White by the Brothers Grimm. Since then it has been republished several times, including in 1999, 2004, and 2013.

<i>Red Shoes and the Seven Dwarfs</i> 2019 film by Sung-ho Hong

Red Shoes and the Seven Dwarfs, known in Korean as simply Red Shoes, is a 2019 English-language South Korean animated fantasy film produced by Locus Corporation. It is based on the 1812 German-language fairy tale "Snow White" by the Brothers Grimm, and its name is derived from the 1845 Danish fairy tale The Red Shoes by Hans Christian Andersen. The film features the voices of Chloë Grace Moretz, Sam Claflin, Gina Gershon, Patrick Warburton, and Jim Rash.


  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Jacob Grimm & Wilhelm Grimm: Kinder- und Hausmärchen; Band 1, 7. Ausgabe (children's and households fairy tales, volume 1, 7th edition). Dietrich, Göttingen 1857, page 264–273.
  2. Jacob Grimm; Wilhelm Grimm (2014-10-19). The Original Folk and Fairy Tales of the Brothers Grimm: The Complete First ... Princeton University Press. ISBN   978-1-4008-5189-8 . Retrieved 2016-04-05.
  3. Bartels, Karlheinz (2012). Schneewittchen – Zur Fabulologie des Spessarts. Geschichts- und Museumsverein Lohr a. Main, Lohr a. Main. pp. 56–59. ISBN   978-3-934128-40-8.
  4. Heidi Anne Heiner. "Tales Similar to Snow White and the 7 Dwarfs". Archived from the original on 22 May 2013. Retrieved 22 September 2010.
  5. 1 2 3 4 English translation of the original
  6. Grimm, Jacob; Grimm, Wilhelm (2014). Zipes, Jack (ed.). The Original Folk and Fairy Tales of the Brothers Grimm: the complete first edition. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN   978-0-691-16059-7. OCLC   879662315., I pp. 184-85.
  7. "Snow-White and other tales of type 709". Retrieved 2024-01-02.
  8. "National Film Preservation Foundation: Snow White (1916)". Retrieved 27 November 2023.
  9. "Buchanan, Stuart - D23". 6 October 2022. Archived from the original on 6 October 2022. Retrieved 9 August 2023.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  10. Cottrell, William; Hand, David; Jackson, Wilfred (4 February 1938). "Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs". Walt Disney Animation Studios. Retrieved 9 August 2023.
  11. "Once Upon a Time: "The Heart is a Lonely Hunter" Review". IGN. 2011-12-12. Retrieved 2015-08-10.
  12. Busis, Hillary (2012-05-14). "Once Upon a Time season finale recap: A Land Without Magic". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 2015-08-10.
  13. "Snow White and the Huntsman". Retrieved 27 November 2023.
  14. Jacobs, Joseph. Europa's Fairy Book . London: G. Putnam and Sons. 1916. pp. 260–261.
  15. Goldberg, Christine (1993). "Review of Steven Swann Jones: The New Comparative Method: Structural and Symbolic Analysis of the Allomotifs of 'Snow White'". The Journal of American Folklore. 106 (419): 104. doi:10.2307/541351. JSTOR   541351.
  16. Ovid, Metamorphoses, Book XI, 289
  17. Anderson, Graham (2000). Fairytale in the ancient world. Routledge. ISBN   978-0-415-23702-4 . Retrieved 4 May 2017.
  18. Sander, Eckhard (1994). Schneewittchen: Marchen oder Wahrheit?: ein lokaler Bezug zum Kellerwald.
  19. Bartels, Karlheinz (2012). Schneewittchen – Zur Fabulologie des Spessarts. Geschichts- und Museumsverein Lohr a. Main, Lohr a. Main; second edition. ISBN   978-3-934128-40-8.
  20. Vorwerk, Wolfgang (2015). Das 'Lohrer Schneewittchen' – Zur Fabulologie eines Märchens. Ein Beitrag zu: Christian Grandl/ Kevin J.McKenna, (eds.) Bis dat, qui cito dat. Gegengabe in Paremiology, Folklore, Language, and Literature. Honoring Wolfgang Mieder on His Seventieth Birthday. Peter Lang Frankfurt am Main, Bern, Bruxelles, New York, Oxford, Warszawa, Wien. pp. 491–503. ISBN   978-3-631-64872-8.
  21. Kawan, Christine Shojaei (June 2005). "Innovation, persistence and self-correction: the case of Snow White" (PDF). Estudos de Literatura Oral. 11–12: 238.
  22. Ernst Böklen, Schneewittchenstudien: Erster Teil, Fünfundsiebzig Varianten im ergen Sinn (Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs, 1910).
  23. Jones, Steven Swann (1983). "The Structure of Snow White". Fabula. 24 (1–2): 56–71. doi:10.1515/fabl.1983.24.1-2.56. S2CID   161709267. reprinted and slightly expanded in Fairy Tales and Society: Illusion, Allusion, and Paradigm, ed. by Ruth B. Bottigheimer (Philadelphia: University of Philadelphia Press, 1986), pp. 165–84. The material is also repeated in a different context in his The New Comparative Method: Structural and Symbolic Analysis of the Allomotifs of Snow White (Helsinki: Academia Scientiarum Fennica, 1990).
  24. Kay Stone, "Three Transformations of Snow White", in The Brothers Grimm and Folktale, ed. by James M. McGlathery (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1988), pp. 52–65 (pp. 57-58); ISBN   0-252-01549-5
  25. Maria Tatar, The Hard Facts of the Grimms' Fairy Tales, p. 36; ISBN   0-691-06722-8
  26. Orbach, Israel (1960). "The Emotional Impact of Frightening Stories on Children". Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 1 (3): 379–389. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.1993.tb00999.x. PMID   8463375.
  27. Grimm's Complete Fairy Tales, p. 194; ISBN   978-1-60710-313-4
  28. Thompson, Stith (1977). The Folktale. University of California Press. p. 124. ISBN   0-520-03537-2. The tale [type 709, "Snow White"] appears without great variation over a considerable area—from Ireland to Asia Minor and well down into central Africa.
  29. Haney, Jack V. (2015). The Complete Folktales of A. N. Afanas'ev, Volume II. Univ. Press of Mississippi. pp. 536–556. ISBN   978-1-4968-0275-0.
  30. 1 2 Meder, Theo. "Sneeuwwitje". In: Van Aladdin tot Zwaan kleef aan. Lexicon van sprookjes: ontstaan, ontwikkeling, variaties. 1ste druk. Ton Dekker & Jurjen van der Kooi & Theo Meder. Kritak: Sun. 1997. p. 336.
  31. Bäcker, Jörg (1 December 2008). "Zhaos Mergen und Zhanglîhuâ Katô. Weibliche Initiation, Schamanismus und Bärenkult in einer daghuro-mongolischen Schneewittchen-Vorform" [Zhaos Mergen and Zhanglîhuâ Katô. Female initiation, shamanism and bear cult in a Daghuro-Mongolian Snow White precursor]. Fabula (in German). 49 (3–4): 288–324. doi:10.1515/FABL.2008.022. S2CID   161591972.
  32. 1 2 Schmidt, Sigrid (1 December 2008). "Snow White in Africa". Fabula. 49 (3–4): 268–287. doi:10.1515/FABL.2008.021. S2CID   161823801.
  33. Nutt, Alfred. "The Lai of Eliduc and the Märchen of Little Snow-White". In: Folk-Lore Volume 3. London: David Nutt. 1892. p. 30.
  34. D'Aronco, Gianfranco. Le Fiabe Di Magia In Italia. Udine: Arti Grafiche Friulane, 1957. pp. 88-92.
  35. Discoteca di Stato (1975). Alberto Mario Cirese; Liliana Serafini (eds.). Tradizioni orali non cantate: primo inventario nazionale per tipi, motivi o argomenti [Oral and Non Sung Traditions: First National Inventory by Types, Motifs or Topics] (in Italian and English). Ministero dei beni culturali e ambientali. pp. 156–157.
  36. Liungman, Waldemar. Die Schwedischen Volksmärchen: Herkunft und Geschichte. Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter, 2022 [1961]. p. 200.
  37. Pino Saavedra, Yolando. Folktales of Chile. University of Chicago Press, 1967. p. 268.
  38. Kawan, Christine Shojaei (2005–2006). "Innovation, Persistence and Self-Correction: The Case of Snow White" (PDF). Estudos de Literatura Oral. 11–12: 239.
  39. Kawan, Christine Shojaei (2005–2006). "Innovation, Persistence and Self-Correction: The Case of Snow White" (PDF). Estudos de Literatura Oral. 11–12: 238–239.
  40. De Nino, Antonio Usi e costumi abruzzesi Volume Terzo. Firenze: Tipografia di G. Barbèra 1883 pp. 253-257
  41. Gonzenbach, Laura Sicilianische Märchen vol. 1 Leipzig: Verlag von Wilhelm Engelmann 1870 pp. 4-7
  42. Zipes, Jack The Robber with the Witch's Head: More Story from the Great Treasury of Sicilian Folk and Fairy Tales Collected by Laura Gonzenbach New York and London: Routledge 2004 pp. 22-25
  43. De Gubernatis, Angelo Le Novellino di Santo Stefano Torino: Augusto Federico Negro 1869 pp. 32-35
  44. Crane, Thomas Frederick Italian Popular Tales Boston and New York: Houghton, Mifflin and Company 1885 pp. 326-331
  45. Pitrè, Giuseppe Fiabe, novelle e racconti popolari siciliane Volume Secondo. Palermo: Luigi Pedone Lauriel 1875 pp. 39-44
  46. Zipes, Jack The Collected Sicilian Folk and Fairy Tales of Giuseppe Pitré Volume 1 New York and London: Routledge 2009 pp. 260-263
  47. Imnbriani, Vittorio La Novellaja Fiorentina Livorno: Coi tipi di F. Vigo 1877 pp. 239-250
  48. Monnier, Marc Les Contes Populaires en Italie Paris: G. Charpentier 1880 pp. 341-357
  49. Schneller, Christian Märchen und Sagen aus Wälschtirol Innsbruck: Wagner 1867 pp. 55-59
  50. Coronedi Berti, Carolina Favelo bolognesi Monti 1883 pp. 8-10
  51. Sébillot, Paul Contes Populaires de la Haute-Bretagne Paris: G. Charpentier 1880 pp. 146-150
  52. Tatar, Maria The Fairest of Them All: Snow White and Other 21 Tales of Mothers and Daughters Harvard University Press 2020 pp. 89-93
  53. Sébillot, Paul Contes des Landes et des grèves Rennes: Hyacinthe Caillière 1900 pp. 144-152
  54. Cadic, François Contes et légendes de Bretagne Tome Second Rennes: Terre de Brume University Press 1999 pp. 293-299
  55. Morin, Louis Revue des Traditions Populaires Volume 5 Paris: J. Maisonneuve 1890 pp. 725-728
  56. Massignon, Geneviève Contes Corses Paris: Picard 1984 pp. 169-171
  57. de Meyere, Victor (1927). "CLXXX. Sneeuwwitje". De Vlaamsche vertelselschat. Deel 2 (in Dutch). Antwerpen: De Sikkel. pp. 272–279. Retrieved 23 June 2021.
  58. Roelans, J (1924). "XLI. Mauricia". In de Mont, Pol; de Cock, Alphons (eds.). Wondervertelsels uit Vlaanderen (in Dutch) (2 ed.). Zutphen: W. J. Thieme & CIE. pp. 313–319. Retrieved 29 June 2021.
  59. Lox, Harlinda Flämische Märchen Munich: Diederichs 1999 p. 36 nº 11
  60. Milá y Fontanals, Manuel Observaciones sobre la poesía popular Barcelona: Imprenta de Narciso Ramirez 1853 pp. 184-185
  61. Maspons y Labrós, Francisco Lo Rondallayre: Quentos Populars Catalans Vol. II Barcelona: Llibrería de Álvar Verdaguer 1871 pp. 83-85
  62. Nogués y Milagro, Romualdo Cuentos para gente menuda Madrid: Imprenta de A. Pérez Dubrull 1886 pp. 91-96
  63. Alcover, Antoni Maria Aplec de Rondaies Mallorquines S. Galayut (1915), pp. 80-92
  64. Espinosa, Aurelio Macedonio Cuentos Populares Españoles Standford University Press 1924, pp. 227-230
  65. Espinosa, Aurelio Macedonio Cuentos Populares Españoles Standford University Press 1924, pp. 230-231
  66. Llano Roza de Ampudia, Aurelio Cuentos Asturianos Recogidos de la Tradición Oral Madrid: Cario Ragio 1925, pp. 91-92
  67. Espinosa, Aurelio Macedonio Cuentos populares de Castilla y León Volumen 1 Madrid: CSIC 1987, pp. 331-334
  68. Espinosa, Aurelio Macedonio Cuentos populares de Castilla y León Volumen 1 Madrid: CSIC 1987, pp. 334-336
  69. Espinosa, Aurelio Macedonio Cuentos populares de Castilla y León Volumen 1 Madrid: CSIC 1987 pp. 337-342
  70. Espinosa, Aurelio Macedonio Cuentos populares de Castilla y León Volumen 1 Madrid: CSIC 1987, pp. 342-346
  71. 1 2 Zipes, Jack The Golden Age of Folk and Fairy Tales: From the Brothers Grimm to Andrew Lang Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company 2013, pp. 580-582
  72. Jacobs, Joseph Celtic Fairy Tales London: David Nutt 1892 pp. 88-92
  73. Bruford, Alan and Donald A. MacDonald Scottish Traditional Tales Edinburgh: Polygon 1994 pp. 98-106
  74. Briggs, Katharine Mary A Dictionary of British Folktales in the English Language London: Routledge & Kegan Paul 1970 pp. 494-495
  75. Winter, Mathias Danske folkeeventyr 1823 pp. 40-47
  76. Tang Kristensen, Evald Æventyr fra Jylland Vol. III Kjobehavn: Trykt hos Konrad Jorgensen i Kolding 1895 pp. 273-277
  77. Badman, Stephen Folk and Fairy Tales from Denmark vol. 1 2015 pp. 263-267
  78. Sanavio, Annuska Palme Fiabe popolari svedesi Milano: Rizzoli 2017 Tale nº 7
  79. Carnoy, Henri et Nicolaides, Jean Traditions populaires de l'Asie Mineure Paris 1889 pp. 91-106
  80. Megas, Georgios A. Folktales of Greece Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press pp. 106-113 1970
  81. Hahn, Johann Georg von Griechische und Albanesische Märchen Zweiter Theil Leipzig: Wilhelm Engelmann 1864 pp. 134-143
  82. Dozon, Auguste Contes Albanais Paris: Ernst Leroux 1881 pp. 1-6
  83. Kawan, Christine Shojaei (2008). "A Brief Literary History of Snow White". Fabula. 49 (3–4): 325–342. doi:10.1515/FABL.2008.023. S2CID   161939712.
  84. "Старая погудка на новый лад: Русская сказка в изданиях конца XVIII века". Б-ка Рос. акад. наук. Saint Petersburg: Тропа Троянова, 2003. pp. 214-218 (text), 358 (classification). Полное собрание русских сказок; Т. 8. Ранние собрания.
  85. Haney, Jack V. The Complete Folktales of A.N. Afanas'ev Volume II University Press of Mississippi 2015 nº 211
  86. Löwis of Menar, August von Russische Volksmärchen Jena: Eugen Diederichs 1927 pp. 123-134
  87. Schott, Arthur und Albert Rumänische Volkserzählungen aus dem Banat Bukarest: Kriterion 1975 pp. 34-42
  88. Fortier, Alcée. Louisiana Folk-Tales . Memoirs of the American Folk-Lore Society. Vol. 2. Boston and New York: Houghton, Mifflin and Company. 1895. pp. 56-61.
  89. "coaccess". doi:10.4159/9780674245822-013. S2CID   242168546 . Retrieved 2023-06-17.
  90. "Lumikki ja 7 jätkää (1953)". IMDb. Retrieved 1 September 2020.
  91. "Update: Relativity Confirms Julia Roberts In Snow White Pic".
  92. Breznican, Anthony (2011-03-26). "Armie Hammer cast as prince in 'Snow White'". Entertainment Weekly . Retrieved 2011-03-28.
  93. "Red Shoes and The 7 Dwarfs (2019)". Repelis (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2019-12-20. Retrieved 2019-12-19.
  94. Stephanie Prange (November 7, 2023). "Family Film 'Snow White's Christmas Adventure' Due Digitally Dec. 19". Media Play News. Retrieved December 5, 2023.
  95. "BBC Radio 4 - John Finnemore's Souvenir Programme, Series 5, Episode 1".
  96. "John Finnemore's Souvenir Programme Series 1-8". January 2011.
  97. "John Finnemore's Souvenir Programme Series 1-9". BBC Radio 4.
  98. Aurbacher, Aurbacher. Ein Büchlein für die Jugend. Stuttgart/Tübingen/München: 1834. pp. 252-264.
  99. Anne Sexton (2001). Transformations. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. ISBN   978-0-618-08343-5 . Retrieved 2016-04-05.
  100. Dantas, Eriane (2020-07-25). "[Resenha] O fantástico mistério de feiurinha". Histórias em Mim (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 2023-03-06.
  101. Ocasio, Rafael (2021). Folk Stories from the Hills of Puerto Rico. Rutgers University Press. pp. 29–41. ISBN   978-1-9788-2298-6.
  102. "Helen Oyeyemi's 'Boy, Snow, Bird' turns a fairy tale inside out". LA Times. 2014-02-27. Retrieved 2016-04-05.
  103. "Girls Made of Snow and Glass". Retrieved 2021-05-15.
  104. Davis, Mari. "Concept Korea Spring 2011".
  105. Annabella Winsteald (17 March 2019). "Model Stella Maxwell FALLS during Pucca by Kwak Hyun Joo Spring/Summer 2011 - 3 ANGLES OF VIEW". Archived from the original on 2021-12-11 via YouTube.
  106. Heys, Erin. "Home". Religion & Snow White. Archived from the original on October 23, 2014.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  107. Heys, Erin. "Religious Symbols". Religion & Snow White. Archived from the original on October 28, 2014.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)

Further reading