Efteling

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Efteling
Efteling Entrance.jpg
The House of the Five Senses, the entrance to the Efteling theme park
Location Kaatsheuvel, North Brabant, Netherlands
Coordinates 51°39′01″N5°02′53″E / 51.65028°N 5.04806°E / 51.65028; 5.04806 Coordinates: 51°39′01″N5°02′53″E / 51.65028°N 5.04806°E / 51.65028; 5.04806
Theme Fantasy - ancient legends, mythology, fables, folklore and fairy tales
OwnerEfteling Nature Park Foundation
OpenedMay 31, 1952;68 years ago (1952-05-31)
Operating seasonYear-round
Visitors per year5.26 million in 2019 [1]
Area72 ha (720,000 m2) : the park ; 276 ha (2,760,000 m2) : the resort
Attractions
Total36
Roller coasters6
Water rides4
Website www.efteling.com

Efteling (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈɛftəlɪŋ] ) is a fantasy-themed amusement park in Kaatsheuvel, the Netherlands. The attractions reflect elements from ancient myths and legends, fairy tales, fables, and folklore.

Contents

The park was opened on May 31, 1952. It evolved from a nature park with a playground and a Fairytale Forest into a full-sized theme park. It now caters to both children and adults with its cultural, romantic, and nostalgic themes, in addition to its wide array of amusement rides including six roller coasters and four dark rides.

It is the largest theme park in the Netherlands and one of the oldest theme parks in the world. It is twice as large as the original Disneyland park in California and predates it by three years. Annually, the park has more than 5 million visitors. In 2019, it was the third most visited theme park in Europe, behind Disneyland Paris and Europa-Park.

History

Paper gobbler Hollow Bulging Gijs - classic Pieck design Geeuwende gijs.jpg
Paper gobbler Hollow Bulging Gijs - classic Pieck design

Efteling is one of the oldest theme parks still in existence. Its roots go back to 1935, when the R. K. Sport en Wandelpark was inaugurated. [2] [3]

In 1950, Efteling Nature Park Foundation (Stichting Natuurpark de Efteling) was founded by the mayor of Loon op Zand, R.J. van der Heijden, filmmaker Peter Reijnders, and designer artist Anton Pieck (1895-1987). The foundation was named after a 16th-century farm named Ersteling.

Efteling officially opened on May 31, 1952, [4] when the Fairy Tale Forest (het Sprookjesbos), designed by the famous Dutch illustrator Anton Pieck, was opened to the public. Initially, the Fairy Tale Forest was home to some 10 different fairy tales, all of them brought to life using original drawings by Pieck alongside mechanics, lighting and sound effects designed by the Dutch filmmaker Peter Reijnders. The life-sized dioramas, displayed together in an atmospheric forest, was an enormous success. In 1952 alone, Efteling welcomed 240,000 visitors. [5]

Since 1978, the park has been expanded and grown to become one of the most popular theme parks in the world. In the same year, English singer Kate Bush performed in the park in De Efteling Special, which was broadcast on 11 May 1978. In early 1978, the amusement park's Haunted Castle was completed and the opening was scheduled on 10 May that year. Bush, who just had a big hit in the Netherlands with "Wuthering Heights", made her debut on Dutch television in the special. Her popularity was used to draw the attention to the Haunted Castle. [6]

The Dutch climate and the integral role of natural greenery in the park's appearance prevented the opening of the park year-round.

In 2010, Efteling announced plans to remain open year-round. From November through about February, the 'Winter Efteling' theme remains in place. However, attractions which involve water, such as the rapids ride 'Piraña' or the water coaster 'Vliegende Hollander' (Flying Dutchman), are closed.

Gisela Williams, a reporter for The Wall Street Journal , wrote a review of the park in early 2014. [7] Williams praised Efteling but criticized the teacups-style ride Monsieur Cannibale due to ethnic stereotypes. [8] Her review was later mentioned in De Telegraaf , a daily newspaper in the Netherlands. [9] In recent years, activists have repeatedly requested the Efteling to remove or re-theme the attraction.

The park received its 123,456,789th guest on June 19, 2015. [10]

The Efteling opened the trackless darkride Symbolica in 2017. With a price tag of 35 million euro, it is the most expensive investment in Efteling history. [11] Beside the theme park, the Efteling operates two hotels, a theatre, a golf course, and two holiday villages.

The Efteling inaugurated its 30th fairytale in 2019. [12]

Design

Efteling Theater - typical Van de Ven design Efteling 21-7-2007 005.jpg
Efteling Theater - typical Van de Ven design
Baron 1898 - Newly built dive coaster Baronaanzicht.JPG
Baron 1898 - Newly built dive coaster

The success of Efteling has been attributed largely to its ride designs, architecture and atmosphere. When Anton Pieck was asked to design the initial fairy tales for the Efteling, he made sure the park would live up to his personal high standards. There would be no use of cheap building materials, plastic, or concrete. Pieck's illustration style, somewhat grim and dark, but also romantic and nostalgic, was the thematic base on which nearly all future expansions were built. [13]

Pieck worked for Efteling until the mid-1970s, when his position as chief designer was passed on to the younger Ton van de Ven. Van de Ven had already been working for Efteling for several years and Pieck was very pleased with his work. The Haunted Castle (het Spookslot), which opened in 1978 as the park's first new large attraction, was Efteling's first to be designed entirely by Van de Ven.

Van de Ven continued his work until 2002, when he retired. A new team of imagineers works on new Efteling attractions, still in a style suitable to the Efteling.

Divisions

The Efteling Theme Park Resort now comprises several divisions: the theme park (1952), the four-star Efteling Hotel (1992), the 18-hole golf course (1995), Efteling Theatre (2002), accommodation parks: Efteling Bosrijk (2009) & Het Loonsche Land (2017). The theatre, which was once used for park shows, is one of the five biggest theatres in the Netherlands and can house big theatre productions, which will not be included in park admissions. Besides using it as a home base for shows/musicals created by the Efteling itself (like "Droomvlucht") it also lends itself out for other big productions, events, and business events. The hotel was operated by Golden Tulip for several years, but Efteling decided in 2004 to manage it independently. All divisions are now profitable, although it took the golf course several years to break even. [14] The divisions are each contained in commercial corporations, but all shares are still held by the nonprofit Efteling Nature Park Foundation (Stichting Natuurpark de Efteling).

The park

Gondoletta and Pagode Efteling bootjes pagoda.JPG
Gondoletta and Pagode
Symbolica Palace of Fantasy Symbolica (Efteling) 20170521.jpg
Symbolica Palace of Fantasy

The theme park covers 72 hectares (180 acres). This area has changed only marginally over the course of its history. The Efteling Theme Park Resort also offers the Efteling hotel, the Efteling hotel Loonsche Land, a theatre, a golf course, Villa Pardoes, and two holiday villages (Efteling Bosrijk and Efteling Loonsche Land) on 276.1 hectares (682 acres). [15] The park's foundation owns a total of 400 hectares (990 acres) also including young forest, nature reserve, some grassland, fields and roads. [16]

The park is divided into five themed areas or 'realms'. Originally, the park was divided into four areas called North, West, East, and South, with most of the park's historical rides and attractions, such as the Fairy Tale Forest, located in West. When the park reorganized its infrastructure in the late 1990s, adding the Pardoes Promenade (named after Efteling's mascot Pardoes, a court jester) and a central hub called Efteling Brink, it also changed the areas' names. North was changed to Reizenrijk (Travel Realm), West became Marerijk (Fairy Realm), East became Ruigrijk (Adventure Realm), and South became Anderrijk (Other Realm). In 2017 a fifth realm opened in the center of the park called Fantasierijk (Fantasy Realm).

Although the park was not built with these divisions in mind and the names may seem cryptic, they do make sense. Perhaps the area most suited to its name is Ruigrijk, where most fast rides such as the double-loop roller coaster Python (constructed in 1981) are located. Marerijk is the home to the Fairy Tale Forest and the Fairies of the Droomvlucht, Anderrijk has some rides that are inspired by non-Western cultures (e.g. Fata Morgana and Piraña), while Reizenrijk has the Carnaval Festival ride, which travels through several different 'countries'. The Fantasierijk got its name from the darkride Symbolica: Palace of Fantasy.

Efteling was largely built in an existing pine forest located in a rural area, giving it a 'nature park' feeling. Together with its large ponds and gardens, its abundant green space is rather unusual among the world's leading theme parks.

Attractions and rides in Efteling and their designers

Langnek, A well-known icon of Efteling theme park Langenek Efteling1.JPG
Langnek, A well-known icon of Efteling theme park
Darkride Fata Morgana by night Eft FataMorgana 04.jpg
Darkride Fata Morgana by night

1952 - Fairytale Forest (Dutch: Sprookjesbos; Anton Pieck, Peter Reijnders, Ton van de Ven, Henny Knoet, Michel den Dulk, Karel Willemen and Pim-Martijn Sanders)
1954 - Children's Railway (Dutch: Kinderspoor), (pedal trains, Anton Pieck and Peter Reijnders) Not in winter.svg
1954 - Anton Pieck Square (Dutch: Anton Pieckplein), (square with nostalgic rides, Anton Pieck and Michel den Dulk)
1956 - Stoomcarrousel (carousel, bought from L. Janvier)
1969 - Stoomtrein (a 600 mm (1 ft 11+58 in) narrow-gauge heritage railway)
1971 - Diorama (Model railway/ Diorama, Anton Pieck)
1978 - Haunted Castle (Dutch: Spookslot) (haunted attraction, Ton van de Ven and Anton Pieck)
1981 - Python (double loop corkscrew roller coaster, Vekoma) (original demolished in 2018, replaced by a replica 3 months later) Not in winter.svg when freezing
1981 - Gondoletta (tow boat ride, Ton van de Ven)
1982 - Half Moon (Dutch: Halve Maen) (ship swing, Ton van de Ven)
1983 - Piraña (river rafting ride, Ton van de Ven) Not in winter.svg
1984 - Carnival Festival (dark ride, Geesink)
1984 - Polka Marina (a combination of a carousel and a minirollercoaster, Ton van de Ven)
1984 - Tin Lizzies (Dutch: De Oude Tuffer) (car ride, Ton van de Ven)
1986 - Fata Morgana (dark, tow boat ride, [17] [18] Ton van de Ven)
1987 - Pagode (observation tower, Ton van de Ven)
1988 - Monsieur Cannibale (teacups ride, Henny Knoet)
1990 - The People of Laaf (Dutch: Volk van Laaf) (Ton van de Ven)
1993 - Dreamflight (Dutch: Droomvlucht) (dark ride, Ton van de Ven)
1996 - The House of the Five Senses (Dutch: Het huis van de 5 zintuigen) (park entrance, Ton van de Ven)
1996 - Villa Volta (madhouse, Ton van de Ven)
1998 - Bird Rok (Dutch: Vogel Rok) (enclosed roller coaster, Ton van de Ven)
2007 - The Flying Dutchman (Dutch: De Vliegende Hollander) (water coaster / dark ride, Karel Willemen) Not in winter.svg when freezing
2010 - George and the Dragon (Dutch: Joris en de Draak) (wooden racing coaster, Karel Willemen)
2011 - Ravelin (Dutch: Raveleijn) (theatre, Sander de Bruijn)
2012 - Aquanura (Musical Fountain, WET)
2015 - Baron 1898 (dive coaster [19] [20] Bolliger & Mabillard, Sander de Bruijn)
2017 - Symbolica (dark ride, ETF Ride Systems/Sander de Bruijn and others) [21] [22]
2019 - Fabula replaces the former PandaVision (€3.5 million renovation by Efteling and Aardman Animations) [23] [24]
2020 - Max & Moritz (double roller coaster, Mack Rides), Robbert Jaap Janssen

Former attractions:

1953 - Rowing Pond (Dutch: Roeivijver), replaced by Aquanura
1953 - Swimming Pool (Dutch: Zwembad), closed in 1989
1966 - Water Organ (Dutch: Waterorgel), in use as a TV studio since 2010
1985 - Bob Track (Dutch: Bobbaan) (bobsled roller coaster, Intamin Ton van de Ven), demolished in 2019, replaced by Max & Moritz
1991 - Pegasus (junior wooden roller coaster, demolished in 2009), replaced by George and the Dragon
2002 - PandaVision (Dutch: Pandadroom) (a 4-D film cinema, Van Doorn and associates) [25]

Other ventures operating independently from the amusement park:

Village's square at Forest Realm (Bosrijk) Bosrijk dorpsplein.jpg
Village's square at Forest Realm (Bosrijk)

1992 - Tower Realm (Dutch: Torenrijk) (theme hotel)
1995 - Efteling Golf course (Dutch: Golfclub Efteling) (golf course)
2002 - Efteling Theatre (theatre, Ton van de Ven)
2008 - Efteling Radio (radio station) [26]
2009 - Forest Realm (Dutch: Bosrijk) (accommodation area, Karel Willemen)
2017 - The Loonsche Land (Dutch: Het Loonsche Land) (accommodation) [27]

Awards

Economy and governance

Herautenplein Efteling.jpg
Efteling Herautenplein.jpg
Herald Square (Herautenplein) in the Fairy Tale Forest
The Flying Dutchman, modern water coaster Efteling vl hollander.jpg
The Flying Dutchman, modern water coaster

Structure

The Efteling is a private company limited by shares. The Efteling Nature Park Foundation (Stichting Natuurpark de Efteling) is the only shareholder. The foundation was founded in 1950 by R.J.Th. van der Heijden, Peter Reijnders, and Anton Pieck. The company is led by two directors. They manage four sections: the theme park, the Efteling Hotel, the Efteling Golf course, and the Efteling Theatre.

Since April 17, 2014, the company's CEO has been Fons Jurgens.

Employees

In the high season, Efteling employs 2,500 workers. In 2000, the number was 1670, of which 400 had a permanent contract (24%), 450 were seasonal employees (27%) and 820 had temp jobs (49%). [35]

Visitors

Treasury Schatkist.jpg
Treasury
Efteling
red Disneyland Paris,
#1 amusement park in Europe of annual attendance
blue Efteling,
#3 amusement park in Europe of annual attendance

Efteling welcomed 3,240,000 visitors in 2007, making it the most popular theme park in the Netherlands. [36] In 2009, the park's attendance surpassed for the first time since its opening 4,000,000 visitors and in 2017 roughly 5,180,000 visitors went to the park, making it the most popular tourist daytrip destination in all categories. [37] The objective was to reach 5 million admissions in 2020. It is reached in 2017, three years earlier than expected. [38] [39]

In its opening year (1952), [40] the park had 222,941 visitors. In 1954, the millionth visitor since the official opening was welcomed.

In 1983, the attendance increases by 30%. Efteling is the leading leisure park in Europe with 1.9 million visitors per year. [41] In 1989, Efteling leads European parks in terms of attendance, [42] 2.1 million people go to the park, including 1.6 million from the Netherlands. [43] In 1991, Efteling is on the top step of the European podium with 2.6 million visitors. On the second step, three parks have 2 million admissions: Europa-Park, Alton Towers and Phantasialand. On the third step, two parks show 1.4 million admissions: Walibi Wavre and Parc Astérix. [44] [45]

Most of the visitors are Dutch; 94% of the Dutch population has visited the park. [46] About 16% of visitors live in areas such as Flanders (Belgium), Westphalia (Germany) and Southern England (UK). [47]

A graph of the number of visitors of the Efteling during the period 1952–2018:

Efteling

Ticket price

A graph of the ticket price in euros of the Efteling during the period 1952-2014:

Efteling

From 1952 to 2002, the ticket price was set in Dutch guilders. These prices were converted to euros using a conversion factor of 0,45378. In 1952, the ticket price was 0,80 Dutch guilders (0,36 euro). From 1956 to 1965, the ticket price was 1 Dutch guilder. The price had risen to 42 Dutch guilders by 2001 and was converted to 21 euros in 2002, during the switch to the euro in the Netherlands. In May 2019 tickets cost 42.00 Euros or 40.00 Euros by "low season". There are also "luxe" tickets for €68.00 that include i.a. lunch, dinner and free parking. Tickets ordered online are sold with a discount of 2 euros. Admission is free for children under 4. [48]

Investments

On December 11, 2008, theme park officials announced that they would spend EUR40 million during 2009-2012 on three large construction projects: a convention centre accommodating 1500 visitors (de Burcht), an arena from the Middle Ages for 750 show spectators (Raveleijn), and a redesign for snack bar "De Likkebaerd" to turn it into a station for the park's steam train.

They also said they did not expect to suffer from the Financial crisis of 2007–2008. [49] In 2009, the Efteling announced that the Burcht has been cancelled. [50]

The Disney connection

Efteling has a good relationship with the Disney theme parks. Disneyland Paris consulted Efteling during its construction and design phase, to adapt the American park to European tastes. As a token of appreciation, the Disney Company gave Efteling a small statue. Ton van de Ven, who designed many of Efteling's attractions, was also a good friend of Disney's Tony Baxter (senior vice president of Walt Disney Imagineering). The relationship between the two parks was emphasized when Efteling won the 2004 Thea Classic Award, the highest honor awarded by the Themed Entertainment Association: Efteling had, as it turned out, been nominated by Tony Baxter. [29] [51]

Also, a popular legend further links Disney and Efteling. For years, rumors have circulated that Walt Disney derived his inspiration for Disneyland (which opened in 1955), from Efteling (which opened in 1952). According to the legend, in the early 1950s, Walt Disney traveled to Europe a few times and visited several tourist attractions. Reportedly, a brochure from the International Association of Amusement Parks and Attractions even states that Disney "spent a great deal of time studying Pieck's work at Efteling before beginning his own park." However, the rumor was later discredited by Efteling. An off-hand remark by a PR person for Efteling during a presentation for a group of reporters further extend the legend's longevity. Disney likely never actually visited Efteling, though he did visit Madurodam and Tivoli Gardens in Copenhagen. The latter actually did provide some inspiration for Disneyland. [52]

Related Research Articles

Parc Astérix

Parc Astérix is a theme amusement park in France, based on the comic book series Asterix by Albert Uderzo and René Goscinny. With more than two million visitors yearly, Parc Astérix is the country's second biggest theme park after Disneyland Paris and its 14 million annual visitors.

Anton Pieck

Anton Franciscus Pieck was a Dutch painter, artist and graphic artist. His works are noted for their nostalgic or fairy tale-like character and are widely popular, appearing regularly on cards and calendars. He is also famous for designing the fairy tale forest in Dutch theme park De Efteling.

Themed Entertainment Association Theme park industry association

The Themed Entertainment Association (TEA) is an international non-profit association that represents creators, developers, designers and producers of themed entertainment. It is also noted for its THEA Awards, which were founded in 1995 and are distributed annually in a range of themed entertainment categories.

Petrus Lambertus Wilhelmus (Peter) Reijnders was a Dutch photographer, film director and inventor. He is best known for his crucial role in founding the theme park Efteling.

Ton van de Ven

Ton van de Ven was a Dutch industrial designer. He is best known as the creative director at the Efteling theme park.

Fairytale Forest

The Fairytale Forest is a 15-acre (61,000 m2) wooded section of the amusement park Efteling in the Netherlands, where a number of well-known fairy tales and fairy tale figures are depicted by animated statues and buildings. Most of the figures are inspired by the Brothers Grimm, Hans Christian Andersen, and Charles Perrault.

Diorama (Efteling)

The Diorama is a miniature world in Efteling amusement park in the Netherlands. The highly detailed mountainous world, or Diorama, was designed by Anton Pieck and opened in 1971, in honour of the 20th birthday of Efteling.

Dreamflight

Droomvlucht is a dark ride in Efteling amusement park in the Netherlands. It was designed by Ton van de Ven, built by Translift and opened in 1993.

Villa Volta

Villa Volta is an attraction in the amusement park Efteling in the Netherlands. It is a rare type of ride known as a Madhouse, which is a sort of haunted house, where the visitors get the illusion that either the building, the visitors themselves or both are turned upside down. It has been designed by Ton van de Ven and was built by Vekoma in 1996. At the time it was the first of its sort; nowadays the concept has been taken over by a number of other amusement parks.

The People of Laaf

The People of Laaf is an attraction in the amusement park Efteling in the Netherlands. It was designed by Ton van de Ven and opened its doors in 1990.

Fata Morgana (Efteling)

Fata Morgana, the forbidden city, also known as 1001 Arabian Nights is a dark ride in the amusement park Efteling in the Netherlands. The attraction was designed by Ton van de Ven and Jan Verhoeven and opened in 1986.

Piraña (Efteling)

Piraña is a river rapids ride in amusement park Efteling in the Netherlands. It was designed by Ton van de Ven, built by Intamin, and opened in 1983.

Efteling Steam Train Company

The Efteling Steam Train Company is a 600 mm narrow gauge passenger railway line at the Efteling theme park, in the Netherlands.

The Indian Water Lilies is an indoor automatic puppet show in Efteling amusement park in the Netherlands. It was designed by Anton Pieck and opened its doors in 1966.

Halve Maen (Efteling)

Halve Maen is a Pirate Ship ride at Efteling theme park in the Netherlands. Designed by Ton van de Ven and manufactured by Intamin, it opened its doors in 1982.

Theater Efteling is a theatre in the amusement park Efteling in the Netherlands. It was designed by Ton van de Ven and opened its doors in 2002.

Haunted Castle (Efteling)

The Haunted Castle is a haunted attraction in the amusement park Efteling in the Netherlands. It was designed by Ton van de Ven and was the first attraction built outside the Fairy Tale Forest.

Pagoda is an unobtrusive variation of an observation tower in the Efteling amusement park in the Netherlands. It was designed by Ton van de Ven and started operating in 1987.

Anton Pieck Square

The Anton Pieck Square is a square in the Efteling, a theme park in the Netherlands.

Symbolica

Symbolica is a trackless dark ride at Efteling theme park in the Netherlands, which opened July 1, 2017.

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