Curfew

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Haditha Dam, Iraq, (September 16, 2007) - A Riverine Patrol Boat with Riverine Squadron 1, Riverine Group 1, Navy Expeditionary Combat Command, in support of Regimental Combat Team 2, tows several boats the riverines seized in support of the new 24-hour curfew enforcement of the waterway near the dam. The riverines warned locals of the new curfew for several days before seizing the boats of repeat curfew offenders USMC-18943.jpg
Haditha Dam, Iraq, (September 16, 2007) – A Riverine Patrol Boat with Riverine Squadron 1, Riverine Group 1, Navy Expeditionary Combat Command, in support of Regimental Combat Team 2, tows several boats the riverines seized in support of the new 24-hour curfew enforcement of the waterway near the dam. The riverines warned locals of the new curfew for several days before seizing the boats of repeat curfew offenders

A curfew is an order specifying a time during which certain regulations apply. [1] [2] Typically it refers to the time when individuals are required to return to and stay in their homes. Such an order may be issued by public authorities but also by the head of a household to those living in the household. For instance, an au pair is typically given a curfew, which regulates when they must return to the host family's home in the evening.

An au pair is a domestic assistant from a foreign country working for, and living as part of, a host family. Typically, au pairs take on a share of the family's responsibility for childcare as well as some housework, and receive a monetary allowance for personal use. Au pair arrangements are subject to government restrictions which specify an age range usually from mid-late teens to mid to late twenties; some countries explicitly limit the arrangement to females.

Contents

Etymology

The word "curfew" comes from the French phrase "couvre-feu", which means "fire cover". It was later adopted into Middle English as "curfeu", which later became the modern "curfew". [3] Its original meaning refers to a law made by William The Conqueror that all lights and fires should be covered at the ringing of an eight o'clock bell to prevent the spread of destructive fire within communities in timber buildings. [4]

French language Romance language

French is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages, most notably Haitian Creole. A French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as Francophone in both English and French.

Middle English Stage of the English language from about the 12th through 15th centuries

Middle English was a form of the English language, spoken after the Norman conquest (1066) until the late 15th century. English underwent distinct variations and developments following the Old English period. Scholarly opinion varies, but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period when Middle English was spoken as being from 1150 to 1500. This stage of the development of the English language roughly followed the High to the Late Middle Ages.

Types

  1. An order issued by the public authorities or military forces requiring everyone or certain people to be indoors at certain times, often at night. It can be imposed to maintain public order (such as those after the Northeast Blackout of 2003, the 2005 civil unrest in France, the 2010 Chile earthquake, the 2011 Egyptian revolution, and the 2014 Ferguson unrest), or suppress targeted groups. Curfews have long been directed at certain groups in many cities or states, such as Japanese-American university students on the West Coast of the United States during World War II, African-Americans in many towns during the time of Jim Crow laws, or people younger than a certain age (usually within a few years either side of 18) in many towns of the United States since the 1980s; see below.
  2. An order by the legal guardians of a teenager to return home by a specific time, usually in the evening or night. This may apply daily, or vary with the day of the week, e.g., if the minor has to go to school the next day.
  3. An order by the head of household to a domestic assistant such as an au pair or nanny. The domestic assistant must then return home by a specific time.
  4. A daily requirement for guests to return to their hostel before a specified time, usually in the evening or night.
  5. In baseball, a time after which a game must end, or play be suspended. For example, in the American League the curfew rule for many years decreed that no inning could begin after 1 am local time (with the exception of international games).
  6. In aeronautics, night flying restrictions may restrict aircraft operations over a defined period in the nighttime, to limit the disruption of aircraft noise on the sleep of nearby residents. Notable examples are the London airports of Heathrow, Gatwick and Stansted, which operate under the Quota Count system.
  7. In a few locations in the UK patrons of licensed premises may not enter after a "curfew" time, also known as "last orders". In Inverclyde for example this is currently set at 12:00 am. [5]

By country

British paratroopers enforce curfew in Tel Aviv after King David Hotel bombing, July 1946. Photographer: Haim Fine, Russian Emmanuel collection, from collections of the National Library of Israel. Curfew in Tel Aviv H ih 039.JPG
British paratroopers enforce curfew in Tel Aviv after King David Hotel bombing, July 1946. Photographer: Haim Fine, Russian Emmanuel collection, from collections of the National Library of Israel.
Movement and curfew pass, issued under the authority of the British Military Commander, East Palestine, 1946 CurfewPalestine 01.jpg
Movement and curfew pass, issued under the authority of the British Military Commander, East Palestine, 1946

Egypt

On 28 January 2011, and following the collapse of the police system, President Hosni Mubarak declared a country-wide military enforced curfew. [6] However, it was ignored by demonstrators who continued their sit-in in Tahrir Square. Concerned residents formed neighborhood vigilante groups to defend their communities against looters and the newly escaped prisoners. [7]

Hosni Mubarak 20th and 21st-century Egyptian president and politician

Muhammad Hosni El Sayed Mubarak is a former Egyptian military and political leader who served as the fourth President of Egypt from 1981 to 2011.

On the second anniversary of the revolution, January 2013, a wave of demonstrations swept the country against President Mohamed Morsi who declared a curfew in Port Said, Ismaïlia, and Suez, three cities where deadly street clashes had occurred. In defiance, the locals took to the streets during the curfew, [8] organizing football tournaments and street festivals, [9] prohibiting police and military forces from enforcing the curfew.

Mohamed Morsi 5th President of Egypt

Mohamed Morsi is an Egyptian politician who served as the fifth President of Egypt, from 30 June 2012 to 3 July 2013, when General Abdel Fattah el-Sisi removed Morsi from office in the 2013 Egyptian coup d'état after the June 2013 Egyptian protests.

Port Said Place in Egypt

Port Said is a city that lies in north east Egypt extending about 30 kilometres (19 mi) along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, north of the Suez Canal, with an approximate population of 603,787 (2010). The city was established in 1859 during the building of the Suez Canal.

Suez Place in Egypt

Suez is a seaport city in north-eastern Egypt, located on the north coast of the Gulf of Suez, near the southern terminus of the Suez Canal, having the same boundaries as Suez governorate. It has three harbours, Adabya, Ain Sukhna and Port Tawfiq, and extensive port facilities. Together they form a metropolitan area. Railway lines and highways connect the city with Cairo, Port Said, and Ismailia. Suez has a petrochemical plant, and its oil refineries have pipelines carrying the finished product to Cairo, in the flag of the governorate: the blue background refer to the sea, the gear refer to the fact that Suez an industrial governorate, and the flame refer to the petroleum firms in it.

Iceland

Under Iceland's Child Protection Act (no. 80/2002 Art. 92) [10] , children aged 12 and under may not be outdoors after 20:00 (8:00 p.m.) unless accompanied by an adult. Children aged 13 to 16 may not be outdoors after 22:00 (10:00 p.m.), unless on their way home from a recognized event organized by a school, sports organization or youth club. During the period 1 May to 1 September, children may be outdoors for two hours longer.

Iceland island republic in Northern Europe

Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of 357,050 and an area of 103,000 km2 (40,000 sq mi), making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe. The capital and largest city is Reykjavík, with Reykjavík and the surrounding areas in the southwest of the country being home to over two-thirds of the population. Iceland is volcanically and geologically active. The interior consists of a plateau characterised by sand and lava fields, mountains, and glaciers, and many glacial rivers flow to the sea through the lowlands. Iceland is warmed by the Gulf Stream and has a temperate climate, despite a high latitude just outside the Arctic Circle. Its high latitude and marine influence keep summers chilly, with most of the archipelago having a tundra climate.

Children and teenagers that break curfew are taken to the local police station and police officers inform their parents to get them. The age limits stated here shall be based upon year of birth, not date of birth. If a parent cannot be reached, the child or teenager is taken to a shelter.

Sri Lanka

In Sri Lanka, the Sri Lanka Police are empowered to declare and enforce a Police Curfew in any police area for any particular period to maintain the peace, law and order. Under the emergency regulations of the Public Security Ordinance, the President may declare a curfew over the whole or over any part of the country. Travel is restricted, during a curfew, to authorised persons such as police, armed forces personal and public officers. Civilians may gain a Curfew Pass from a police station to travel during a curfew.

Sri Lanka Island country in South Asia

Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea. The island is geographically separated from the Indian subcontinent by the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait. The legislative capital, Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte, is a suburb of the commercial capital and largest city, Colombo.

Sri Lanka Police

The Sri Lanka Police is the civilian national police force of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka. The police force has a manpower of approximately 77,000, and is responsible for enforcing criminal- and traffic law, enhancing public safety, maintaining order and keeping the peace throughout Sri Lanka. The professional head of the police is the Inspector General of Police who reports to the Minister of Law and Order as well as the National Police Commission. The current Inspector General of Police is Pujith Jayasundara.

Police station building which serves to accommodate police officers

A police station is a building which serves to accommodate police officers and other members of staff. These buildings often contain offices and accommodation for personnel and vehicles, along with locker rooms, temporary holding cells and interview/interrogation rooms.

United Kingdom

The United Kingdom's 2003 Anti-Social Behaviour Act created zones that allow police from 9 PM to 6 AM to hold and escort home unaccompanied minors under the age of 16, whether badly behaved or not. Although hailed as a success, [11] the High Court ruled in one particular case that the law did not give the police a power of arrest, and officers could not force someone to come with them. On appeal the court of appeal held that the act gave police powers to escort minors home only if they are involved in, or at risk from, actual or imminently anticipated bad behaviour. [12]

In a few towns in the United Kingdom, the curfew bell is still rung as a continuation of the medieval tradition where the bell used to be rung from the parish church to guide travelers safely towards a town or village as darkness fell, or when bad weather made it difficult to follow trackways and for the villagers to extinguish their lights and fires as a safety measure to combat accidental fires. Until 1100 it was against the law to burn any lights after the ringing of the curfew bell. In Morpeth, the curfew is rung each night at 8pm from Morpeth Clock Tower. In Chertsey, it is rung at 8pm, from Michaelmas to Lady Day. [13] A short story concerning the Chertsey curfew, set in 1471, and entitled "Blanche Heriot. A legend of old Chertsey Church" was published by Albert Richard Smith in 1843, and formed a basis for the poem "Curfew Must Not Ring Tonight". At Castleton in the Peak District, the curfew is rung from Michaelmas to Shrove Tuesday. [14] At Wallingford in Oxfordshire, the curfew bell continues to be rung at 9pm rather than 8pm which is a one-hour extension granted by William The Conqueror as the Lord of the town was a Norman sympathiser. However, none of these curfew bells serve their original function.

United States of America

Juvenile curfews

Curfew law in the United States is usually a matter of local ordinance (mainly applied by a municipality or county), rather than federal law. However, the Constitution guarantees certain rights, which have been applied to the states through the 14th Amendment. Hence, any curfew law may be overruled and struck down if, for example, it violates a juvenile's 1st, 4th, 5th or 14th Amendment rights. Nonetheless, curfews are set by state and local governments. They vary by state [15] and even by county or municipality. In some cities there are curfews for persons under the age of 18. American military curfews are a tool used by commanders at various installations to shape the behavior of soldiers. [16]

The stated purpose of such laws is generally to deter disorderly behavior and crime, while others can include to protect youth from victimization and to strengthen parental responsibility [17] but their effectiveness is subject to debate. Generally, curfews attempt to address vandalism, shootings, and property crimes, which are believed to happen mostly at night, but are less commonly used to address underage drinking, drunk driving and teenage pregnancy. Parents can be fined, charged or ordered to take parenting classes for willingly, or through insufficient control or supervision, permitting the child to violate the curfew. Many local curfew laws were enacted in the 1950s and 1960s to attack the "juvenile delinquent" problem of youth gangs. Most curfew exceptions include:

  • accompanied by a parent or an adult appointed by the parent;
  • going to or coming home from work, school, religious, or recreational activity;
  • engaging in a lawful employment activity or;
  • involved in an emergency;

Some cities make it illegal for a business owner, operator, or any employee to knowingly allow a minor to remain in the establishment during curfew hours. A business owner, operator, or any employee may be also subject to fines. [18]

A 2011 UC-Berkeley study looked at the 54 larger U.S. cities that enacted youth curfews between 1985 and 2002 and found that arrests of youths affected by curfew restrictions dropped almost 15% in the first year and approximately 10% in following years. [19] However, not all studies agree with the conclusion that youth curfew laws actually reduce crime, and many studies find no benefit or sometimes even the opposite. [20] [21] For example, one 2016 systematic review of 12 studies on the matter found that the effect on crime is close to zero, and can perhaps even backfire somewhat. [22]

There are also concerns about racial profiling. [23] In response to concerns about racial profiling, Montgomery County, Maryland passed a limited curfew, which would permit police officers to arrest juveniles in situations that appear threatening. [24]

Mall curfews

Many malls in the United States have policies that prohibit minors under a specified age from entering the mall after specified times, [25] unless they are accompanied by a parent or another adult or are working at the mall during curfew times. [26] Such policies are known as mall curfews. Malls that have policies prohibiting unaccompanied minors at any time are known as parental escort policies. [27]

Curfews for all

States and municipalities in the United States have occasionally enacted curfews on the population at large, often as a result of severely inclement weather or political unrest. Some such curfews require all citizens simply to refrain from driving. Others require all citizens to remain inside, with exceptions granted to those in important positions, such as elected officials, law enforcement personnel, first responders, health care workers, and the mass media.

In 2015, the city of Baltimore enacted a curfew on all citizens that lasted for five days and prohibited all citizens from going outdoors from 10 pm to 5 am with the exception of those traveling to or from work and those with medical emergencies. This was in response to the 2015 Baltimore protests.

However, unlike juvenile curfews, all-ages curfews have always been very limited in terms of both location and duration. That is, they are temporary and restricted to very specific areas, and generally only implemented during states of emergency, then subsequently lifted or allowed to sunset.

See also

People

Notes

  1. "curfew - definition of curfew in English from the Oxford dictionary". oxforddictionaries.com.
  2. "Curfew - Define Curfew at Dictionary.com". Dictionary.com.
  3. "curfew". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  4. Bailey's Dictionary, fifth edition 1731
  5. "Pub and club curfew extended". Greenock Telegraph.
  6. Shenker, Jack; Beaumont, Peter; Jones, Sam (28 January 2011). "Egypt (News),Middle East and North Africa (News) MENA,World news,Hosni Mubarak,Mohamed ElBaradei,Africa (News)". The Guardian. London.
  7. Parks, Cara (29 January 2011). "Massive Egyptian Prison Break Frees 700 Inmates". Huffington Post.
  8. "Suez Canal residents defy President Morsi's curfew". ahram.org.eg.
  9. Matt Bradley (29 January 2013). "Egyptians Defy President's Curfew, as Unrest Spreads". WSJ.
  10. https://www.althingi.is/lagas/nuna/2002080.html "Child Protection", 2002 no. 80 May 10th
  11. "BBC NEWS - UK - England - Wear - Late night youth curfew a success". bbc.co.uk.
  12. "Court Judgment on Government's 'Anti-Yob'/ Anti-Child Policy". liberty-human-rights.org.uk.
  13. "St. Peter's Shared Church Chertsey". stpeterschertsey.org.uk.
  14. "peak district local history, customs, wildlife, transport - Peakland Heritage". peaklandheritage.org.uk.
  15. Curfews in the State of New York
  16. Curfew put in place for all US troops in South Korea, Stars and Stripes, 2011, retrieved 12 February 2012
  17. "Town of Myersville, MD Curfew". ecode360.com.
  18. "Curfews » City of Faribault, MN". faribault.org. Archived from the original on 2012-05-09.
  19. ""Impact of Juvenile Curfew Laws on Arrests of Youth and Adults" at Journalist's Resource.org".
  20. https://jjie.org/2013/10/14/op-ed-why-dont-youth-curfews-work/ OP-ED: Why Don’t Youth Curfews Work?, Mike Males | October 14, 2013
  21. https://www.brookings.edu/opinions/repealing-juvenile-curfew-laws-could-make-cities-safer/ Repealing juvenile curfew laws could make cities safer Jennifer L. DoleacTuesday, December 29, 2015
  22. https://www.themarshallproject.org/2018/07/31/the-curfew-myth The Curfew Myth, Ivonne Roman
  23. "New Orleans curfew data: 93 percent of curfew arrestees are black". NOLA.com.
  24. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-05-14. Retrieved 2013-05-20.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  25. "Upscale Mall Enforces Teen Curfew & Dress Code". cbslocal.com.
  26. "Code of Conduct - NorthPark Center". northparkcenter.com.
  27. "Parental Escort Policy". mallofamerica.com.

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