Time in Australia

Last updated

Time in Australia
Standard
DST
Zone
State(s)
UTC+08:00 (year round)
Western
WA
UTC+09:30 (year round)
Central
NT
UTC+09:30
UTC+10:30
Central
SA
UTC+10:00 (year round)
Eastern
QLD
UTC+10:00
UTC+11:00
Eastern
NSW, TAS, VIC, ACT Australia-states-timezones.png
Time in Australia
StandardDSTZoneState(s)
UTC+08:00 (year round)WesternWA
UTC+09:30 (year round)CentralNT
UTC+09:30 UTC+10:30 CentralSA
UTC+10:00 (year round)EasternQLD
UTC+10:00 UTC+11:00 EasternNSW, TAS, VIC, ACT

Australia uses three main time zones: Australian Western Standard Time (AWST; UTC+08:00), Australian Central Standard Time (ACST; UTC+09:30), and Australian Eastern Standard Time (AEST; UTC+10:00). [1] Time is regulated by the individual state governments, [2] some of which observe daylight saving time (DST). Australia's external territories observe different time zones.

Contents

Standard time was introduced in the 1890s when all of the Australian colonies adopted it. Before the switch to standard time zones, each local city or town was free to determine its local time, called local mean time. Now, Western Australia uses Western Standard Time; South Australia and the Northern Territory use Central Standard Time; while New South Wales, Queensland, Tasmania, Victoria, Jervis Bay Territory, and the Australian Capital Territory use Eastern Standard Time.

Daylight saving time (+1 hour) is used in states in the south and south-east—South Australia, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, and the ACT. It is not currently used in Western Australia, the Northern Territory or Queensland.

Norfolk Island has NFT (UTC+11:00; 1 hour ahead of AEST) and during summer has NFDT (UTC+12:00; 1 hour ahead of AEDT).

History

The standardisation of time in Australia began in 1892, when surveyors from the six colonies in Australia met in Melbourne for the Intercolonial Conference of Surveyors. The delegates accepted the recommendation of the 1884 International Meridian Conference to adopt Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) as the basis for standard time.

The colonies enacted time zone legislation, which took effect in February 1895. The clocks were set ahead of GMT by 8 hours in Western Australia; by 9 hours in South Australia (and the Northern Territory, which it governed); and by 10 hours in Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, and Tasmania. The three time zones became known as Western Standard Time, Central Standard Time, and Eastern Standard Time. Broken Hill in the far west of New South Wales also adopted Central Standard Time due to it being connected by rail to Adelaide but not Sydney at the time. [3]

In May 1899, South Australia advanced Central Standard Time by thirty minutes (see above) after lobbying by businesses who wanted to be closer to Melbourne time and cricketers and footballers who wanted more daylight to practice in the evenings [3] disregarding the common international practice of setting one-hour intervals between adjacent time zones.[ why? ]Attempts to correct these oddities in 1986 and 1994 were rejected.[ citation needed ]

When the Northern Territory was separated from South Australia and placed under the jurisdiction of the Federal Government, that Territory kept Central Standard Time. Likewise, when the ACT and Jervis Bay Territory were broken off from New South Wales, they retained Eastern Standard Time.

Since 1899, the only major changes in Australian time zones have been setting of clocks half an hour later than Eastern time (GMT plus 10:30) on the territory of Lord Howe Island, and Norfolk Island changing from UTC+11:30 to UTC+11:00 on 4 October 2015. [4]

When abbreviating "Australian Central Time" and "Australian Eastern Time", in domestic contexts the leading "Australian" may be omitted; however, the prefix "A" is often used to avoid ambiguity with the time zone abbreviations "CST" and "EST" referring to the Central and Eastern Time Zones in North America. [ citation needed ]

Civil time and legislation

Though the governments of the states and territories have the power to legislate variations in time, the standard time within each of these is set related to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) as determined by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures and set by section 8AA of the National Measurement Act of 1960 [5] of the Commonwealth.

Australia has kept a version of the UTC atomic time scale since the 1990s, but Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) remained the formal basis for the standard times of all of the states until 2005. In November 2004, the state and territory attorneys-general endorsed a proposal from the Australian National Measurement Institute to adopt UTC as the standard of all Australian standard times, thereby eliminating the effects of slight variations in the rate of rotation of the Earth that are inherent in mean solar time. All states have adopted the UTC standard, starting on 1 September 2005.

In Victoria, South Australia, Tasmania and the ACT, the starting and ending dates of daylight saving times are officially determined by proclamations, declarations, or regulation made by the State Governor or by the responsible minister. Such instruments may be valid for only the current year, and so this section generally only refers to the legislation. In New South Wales and Western Australia, the starting and ending dates, if any, are to be set by legislation.

Western Standard Time (AWST) – UTC+08:00

Central Standard Time (ACST) – UTC+09:30

Eastern Standard Time (AEST) – UTC+10:00

Time offsets during standard time Australia-Timezones-Standard.png
Time offsets during standard time
Time offsets during daylight-saving time (from Southern Hemisphere spring until autumn) Australia-Timezones-Daylight.png
Time offsets during daylight-saving time (from Southern Hemisphere spring until autumn)

Daylight saving time (DST)

A vox pop from the ABC in Tasmania when DST was introduced in the 1970s

The choice of whether to use DST is a matter for the governments of the individual states and territories. However, during World War I and World War II all states and territories used daylight saving time (DST). In 1968 Tasmania became the first state to use DST in peacetime, followed in 1971 by New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, and the Australian Capital Territory. Western Australia and the Northern Territory did not adopt it. Queensland abandoned DST in 1972. Queensland and Western Australia have occasionally used DST during the past 40 years during trial periods.

The main DST zones are the following:

During the usual periods of DST, the three standard time zones in Australia become five zones. This includes the areas that do not observe DST: Western Australia (UTC plus 08:00), the Northern Territory (UTC plus 09:30), and Queensland (UTC plus 10:00).

The change to and from DST takes place at 02:00 local standard time the appropriate Sunday. Until 2008, DST usually began on the last Sunday in October, and ended on the last Sunday in March. However, Tasmania, given its latitude further south, began DST earlier, on the first Sunday in October, and ended it later, on the first Sunday of April.

On 12 April 2007, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, and the ACT agreed to common beginning and ending dates for DST from 2008. DST in these states and South Australia began on the first Sunday in October and ended on the first Sunday in April. Western Australia was then the only state to use DST from the last Sunday in October to the last Sunday in March, but it abolished DST in 2009. [16]

State/territoryStart of DSTEnd of DST
Western Australia
N/A
Queensland
Northern Territory
South Australiafirst Sunday in Octoberfirst Sunday in April [17]
New South Wales
Australian Capital Territory
Jervis Bay Territory
Victoria
Tasmania

Anomalies

Road sign near Broken Hill Central time zone sign.jpg
Road sign near Broken Hill
Yancowinna County in New South Wales Yancowinna NSW.PNG
Yancowinna County in New South Wales

The town of Broken Hill (specified as Yancowinna County), is in far western New South Wales. Unlike the rest of New South Wales, Broken Hill (and the surrounding region) observes Australian Central Standard Time (UTC+09:30), a time zone it shares with South Australia and the Northern Territory. [18]

Lord Howe Island, part of the state of New South Wales but 600 kilometres (370 miles) east of the Australian mainland in the Pacific Ocean, uses UTC+10:30 during the winter months (30 minutes ahead of the eastern states), but advances to UTC+11:00 in summer (the same time as the rest of New South Wales).

A compromise between Western and Central time (UTC+08:45, without DST), unofficially known as Central Western Standard Time, is used in one area in the southeastern corner of Western Australia and one roadhouse in South Australia. Towns east of Caiguna on the Eyre Highway (including Eucla, [19] Cocklebiddy, Madura, Mundrabilla and Border Village, just over the border into South Australia), follow "CWT" instead of Western Australian time. The total population of that area is estimated at 200 people. [20] This area did not change when South Australia introduced DST. During the Western Australian trial of DST from 2006 to 2009, this area also sets its clocks ahead one hour during summer. This time zone is not officially recognised, but is marked by official road signs.

The Indian Pacific train has its own time zone—a so-called "train time" when travelling between Kalgoorlie, Western Australia and Port Augusta, South Australia—which was at UTC plus 9:00 hours during November 2005 when DST was observed in the eastern and southern states. [21] [22]

External territories

Australia's external territories follow different time zones.

TerritoryStandardDST
Heard and McDonald Islands UTC+05:00 no DST
Cocos (Keeling) Islands CCT UTC+06:30 no DST
Christmas Island CXT UTC+07:00 no DST
Norfolk Island NFT/NFDT UTC+11:00 UTC+12:00
Australian Antarctic TerritoryMawson UTC+05:00 no DST
Australian Antarctic TerritoryDavis UTC+07:00 no DST
Australian Antarctic TerritoryCasey UTC+08:00 no DST

Special events

In 2000, all of the eastern jurisdictions that normally observe DST—New South Wales, Victoria, the ACT, and Tasmania—began DST early because of the Summer Olympic Games held in Sydney. These jurisdictions moved to DST on 27 August 2000. South Australians did not change their clocks until the usual date, which was 29 October 2000.

In 2006, all of the states that followed DST (the above states and South Australia) delayed their return to Standard Times by one week, because of the 2006 Commonwealth Games held in Melbourne in March. DST ended on 2 April 2006.

National times

There are situations in which a nationwide time is in effect. In the case of business activities, a national time can be used. For example, a prospectus for the issue of stock in a company would usually set the closing time for offers at some location (e.g. Sydney) as the time when offers must be received, regardless of the source of the offer. Similarly, tenders for their sale of stock usually set out the time at a given location by which they must be received to be considered. Another example is the Australian Stock Exchange which operates on Eastern Standard Time.

On the other hand, Federal legislation yields to state-regulated standard times in many diverse situations. For example, it yields in setting the normal working times of Federal employees, the recognition of public holidays, etc. The Federal government also relies on local times for Federal elections, so that the polls in Western Australia close two or three hours after those in the eastern states. Also, documents to be filed in a Federal Court may be filed based on the local time. The effect of this is that if there had been a failure to file a legal document on time in an eastern State, that document can sometimes still be filed (within two hours) in Western Australia.

IANA time zone database

The 13 zones for Australia as given by zone.tab of the IANA time zone database. Columns marked * are from the zone.tab.

no.c.c.*coordinates*TZ*comments*standard timedaylight saving time
1 AU −3133+15905 Australia/Lord_Howe Lord Howe Island UTC+10:30 UTC+11:00 (half-hour difference only)
2 AU −5430+15857 Antarctica/Macquarie Macquarie Island UTC+11:00 -
3 AU −4253+14719 Australia/Hobart Tasmania UTC+10:00 UTC+11:00
4 AU Australia/Currie UTC+10:00 UTC+11:00
5 AU −3749+14458 Australia/Melbourne Victoria UTC+10:00 UTC+11:00
6 AU −3352+15113 Australia/Sydney New South Wales (most areas) UTC+10:00 UTC+11:00
7 AU −3157+14127 Australia/Broken_Hill New South Wales (Yancowinna) UTC+09:30 UTC+10:30
8 AU −2728+15302 Australia/Brisbane Queensland (most areas) UTC+10:00 -
9 AU −2016+14900 Australia/Lindeman Queensland (Whitsunday Islands) UTC+10:00 -
10 AU −3455+13835 Australia/Adelaide South Australia UTC+09:30 UTC+10:30
11 AU −1228+13050 Australia/Darwin Northern Territory UTC+09:30 -
12 AU −3157+11551 Australia/Perth Western Australia (most areas) UTC+08:00 -
13 AU −3143+12852 Australia/Eucla Western Australia (Eucla) UTC+08:45 -
14 NF −2903+16758 Pacific/Norfolk UTC+11:00 UTC+12:00

Debate, trials and referendums

Queensland

Queensland has had a particularly involved debate over daylight saving time, with public opinion geographically divided. A referendum on DST was held in 1992, following a three-year trial (1989/90–1991/92), and was defeated with a 54.5 per cent negative vote. [23] The referendum result displayed a distinct trend—that public opinion on DST in Queensland is geographically divided, with the negative vote being strongest in northern and western districts, while the positive vote being strongest in the southeastern region (e.g. in Brisbane). [24] The holiday islands (Hayman, Lindeman, Hamilton) continued to observed DST in defiance of the Standard Time Act (The "Australia/Lindeman" Timezone in TZ database is based on this). However the practice was abandoned 2 years later in 1995. DST has not been used in any part of QLD since.

Since the late 1900s, there have been a number of petitions submitted to Legislative Assembly of Queensland, lobbying for the introduction of daylight saving time or for another referendum to be held. A petition in 2006 was signed by 62,232 people. [25] In response to these petitions, then Queensland Premier Peter Beattie commissioned research to find out if it should be re-introduced into Queensland. Around this time, Beattie predicted that daylight saving in Queensland would increase the rate of skin cancer in the state, an assertion for which there is no evidence, according to the Queensland Cancer Fund. [26]

In October 2007, the government-commissioned research was presented to the new Premier Anna Bligh, who ruled out holding a new referendum, despite the report indicating that 59 per cent of the residents of Queensland and 69 per cent of those in southeastern Queensland to be in favour of adopting daylight saving. [27]

In December 2008, the Daylight Saving for South East Queensland (DS4SEQ) political party was officially registered, to advocate for the use of a two-time-zone system for DST in Queensland, with most of the state (in land area) using standard time. This party contested the March 2009 Queensland State election with 32 candidates, and it received about one per cent of the statewide primary vote. [28]

In early 2010, the DS4SEQ political party approached the independent member, Peter Wellington, to introduce a private member's bill for DST. [29] Since Wellington agreed with the principles of the DS4SEQ proposal, specifically the dual-time-zone system, he drafted the Daylight Saving for South East Queensland Referendum Bill 2010 and he submitted this bill to Queensland Parliament on 14 April 2010. [30] Wellington has called for a referendum to be held at the next state election on the introduction of DST into southeastern Queensland under the dual-time-zone system.

In response to this bill, the Premier of Queensland, Anna Bligh, announced a community consultation process, which resulted in over 74,000 respondents participating, 64 per cent of whom voted in favour of a trial, and 63 per cent of whom were in favour of holding a referendum. [31] The decision announced by the Premier on 7 June 2010 was that her Government would not support the bill because rural Queenslanders were overwhelmingly opposed to DST. [32] The Bill was defeated in Queensland Parliament on 15 June 2011. [33] In 1971 the premier Joh Bjelke-Petersen had a one-year trial and a referendum which was soundly defeated.

Western Australia

Western Australia has also had a particularly involved debate over DST, with the issue being put to a referendum four times: in 1975, 1984, 1992, and 2009. All of these proposals to adopt DST were defeated. Voters registered a negative vote of 54.6 per cent in the 2009 referendum, the highest percentage for all four of these referendums. Each referendum followed a trial period during which the state observed DST. The first three followed a one-year trial, while the 2006 Western Australian Daylight Saving Bill (No. 2) 2006 instituted a trial of DST beginning on 3 December 2006, and lasting for three years.

See also

Notes

  1. "Official Australian government website". australia.gov.au. Retrieved 25 June 2010.
  2. Daylight Saving in New South Wales Lawlink NSW. Retrieved 28 January 2012
  3. 1 2 "THE NEW STANDARD TIME". The Advertiser . Adelaide. 1 May 1899. p. 4. Retrieved 6 February 2015 via National Library of Australia.
  4. Hardgrave, Gary (3 September 2015). "Norfolk Island standard time changes 4 October 2015" (Press release). Administrator of Norfolk Island . Retrieved 4 October 2015.
  5. "slp.wa.gov" (PDF). Retrieved 20 September 2011.
  6. "South Australian Legislation". Legislation.sa.gov.au. Retrieved 25 June 2010.
  7. "South Australian Legislation". Legislation.sa.gov.au. Retrieved 25 June 2010.
  8. "STANDARD TIME ACT 2005". Notes.nt.gov.au. Archived from the original on 31 August 2006. Retrieved 25 June 2010.
  9. "legislation.qld.gov" (PDF). Retrieved 20 September 2011.
  10. "Standard Time Act 1987 No 149". Legislation.nsw.gov.au. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
  11. "ACT legislation register – Standard Time and Summer Time Act 1972 – main page". Legislation.act.gov.au. Retrieved 25 June 2010.
  12. "Summer Time Act 1972". 31 May 2012. Retrieved 9 October 2020.
  13. "STANDARD TIME ACT 1895". 23 August 1895. Archived from the original on 7 September 2007. Retrieved 23 October 2012.
  14. "Legislation View Page". Thelaw.tas.gov.au. Retrieved 25 June 2010.
  15. "Daylight Saving Time – Implementation". Bom.gov.au. Retrieved 25 June 2010.
  16. "Daylight Saving in Victoria (Victoria Online)". Vic.gov.au. 21 September 2006. Retrieved 25 June 2010.
  17. "Time zones and daylight saving". Australia.gov.au. Retrieved 7 September 2020.
  18. Arrow, Bettina (16 December 2016). "Busy year wraps up for quarantine inspectors on Western Australia's border". Australia: ABC News. Retrieved 8 March 2017.
  19. "Border sign". Confluence.org. Retrieved 25 June 2010.
  20. Harbaugh, Harold (2008). Alone Near Alice: Australia's Outback. USA: iUniverse. p. 1. ISBN   9780595533862. On its four-day journey across this Continent/Country, somewhere in the middle of the Nullarbor Plain, the Indian pacific train creates its own time zone for scheduling purposes.
  21. Perry, Dan. "The Indian Pacific Train to Perth". 1000 Days Between : Exploring the world, one day at a time. Retrieved 18 June 2018. Tomorrow we would switch our clocks to "Train Time", ninety minutes behind Adelaide. This unofficial time zone was needed because Australia's states were huge, and their time zones were synchronised with their biggest population centers.
  22. "1992 Queensland Daylight Saving Referendum" . Retrieved 25 July 2010.[ permanent dead link ]
  23. Queensland Parliamentary Library; Research Brief No 2010/22 – Mary Westcott (July 2010). "1992 Daylight Saving in Queensland" (PDF). pp. 15, 19. Retrieved 29 January 2011.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)[ permanent dead link ]
  24. "Daylight Saving Petition". Archived from the original on 10 June 2011. Retrieved 25 July 2010.
  25. "Daylight saving cancer claim disputed". The Sydney Morning Herald . 24 October 2006. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
  26. "Queensland Government-commissioned Daylight Saving Research" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 March 2011. Retrieved 25 July 2010.
  27. "Total Candidates Nominated for Election by Party – 2009 State Election". Electoral Commission of Queensland (ECQ). Archived from the original on 26 February 2011. Retrieved 19 June 2010.
  28. "The Political Mouse that Roared". 16 April 2010. Retrieved 19 June 2010.
  29. "Daylight Saving for South East Queensland Referendum Bill 2010" (PDF). 14 April 2010. Retrieved 25 July 2010.
  30. "Queensland Government Daylight Saving for South East Queensland survey" . Retrieved 25 July 2010.
  31. "Queensland Government Daylight Saving for South East Queensland decision" . Retrieved 25 July 2010.
  32. "Daylight saving silence 'deafening'". 16 June 2011. Retrieved 19 June 2011.

Related Research Articles

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Daylight saving time (DST), also known as daylight savings time or daylight time, and summer time, is the practice of advancing clocks during warmer months so that darkness falls at a later clock time. The typical implementation of DST is to set clocks forward by one hour in the spring and set clocks back by one hour in autumn to return to standard time. As a result, there is one 23-hour day in late winter or early spring and one 25-hour day in the autumn.

Japan Standard Time

Japan Standard Time, or Japan Central Standard Time, is the standard time zone in Japan, 9 hours ahead of UTC. There is no daylight saving time, though its introduction has been debated several times. During World War II, it was often called Tokyo Standard Time.

Central Time Zone Time zone in North America

The North American Central Time Zone (CT) is a time zone in parts of Canada, the United States, Mexico, Central America, some Caribbean Islands, and part of the Eastern Pacific Ocean.

Eastern Time Zone Time zone observing UTC−05:00 during standard time and UTC−04:00 during daylight saving time

The Eastern Time Zone (ET) is a time zone encompassing part or all of 23 states in the eastern part of the United States, parts of eastern Canada, the state of Quintana Roo in Mexico, Panama and Colombia, mainland Ecuador, Peru, and a small portion of westernmost Brazil in South America, along with certain Caribbean and Atlantic islands.

Mountain Time Zone Time zone of North America

The Mountain Time Zone of North America keeps time by subtracting seven hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) when standard time (UTC−07:00) is in effect, and by subtracting six hours during daylight saving time (UTC−06:00). The clock time in this zone is based on the mean solar time at the 105th meridian west of the Greenwich Observatory. In the United States, the exact specification for the location of time zones and the dividing lines between zones is set forth in the Code of Federal Regulations at 49 CFR 71.

Pacific Time Zone North American time zone

The Pacific Time Zone (PT) is a time zone encompassing parts of western Canada, the western United States, and western Mexico. Places in this zone observe standard time by subtracting eight hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC−08:00). During daylight saving time, a time offset of UTC−07:00 is used.

Time in the United States U.S. time zones

Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states, territories and other US possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time (DST) for approximately the spring, summer, and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and highly precise timekeeping services (clocks) are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) ; and the United States Naval Observatory (USNO). The clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations.

Time in New Zealand is divided by law into two standard time zones. The main islands use New Zealand Standard Time (NZST), 12 hours in advance of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) / military M (Mike), while the outlying Chatham Islands use Chatham Standard Time (CHAST), 12 hours 45 minutes in advance of UTC / military M^ (Mike-Three).

Atlantic Time Zone Time zone (UTC−04:00)

The Atlantic Time Zone is a geographical region that keeps standard time—called Atlantic Standard Time (AST)—by subtracting four hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), resulting in UTC−04:00. During part of the year, some portions of the zone observe daylight saving time, referred to as Atlantic Daylight Time (ADT), by moving their clocks forward one hour to result in UTC−03:00. The clock time in this zone is based on the mean solar time of the 60th meridian west of the Greenwich Observatory.

Moscow Time Time zone in western Russia (UTC+3)

Moscow Time is the time zone for the city of Moscow, Russia, and most of western Russia, including Saint Petersburg. It is the second-westernmost of the eleven time zones of Russia. It has been set to UTC+03:00 without DST since 26 October 2014; before that date it had been set to UTC+04:00 year-round on 27 March 2011.

UTC+10:00 Identifier for a time offset from UTC of +10

UTC+10:00 is an identifier for a time offset from UTC of +10:00. This time is used in:

UTC+11:00

UTC+11:00 is an identifier for a time offset from UTC of +11:00. This time is used in:

UTC+03:00 Identifier for a time offset from UTC of +3

UTC+03:00 is an identifier for a time offset from UTC of +03:00. In areas using this time offset, the time is three hours later than the Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). Following the ISO 8601 standard, a time with this offset would be written as, for example, 2019-02-08T23:36:06+03:00.

Time in Brazil Overview of the time zones used in Brazil

Time in Brazil is calculated using standard time, and the country is divided into four standard time zones: UTC−02:00, UTC−03:00, UTC−04:00 and UTC−05:00.

Time in Indonesia Three time zones spanning across the country

The Indonesian archipelago geographically stretches across four time zones from UTC+06:00 in Aceh to UTC+09:00 in Papua. However, the Indonesian government recognizes only three time zones in its territory:

Chamorro Time Zone

The Chamorro Time Zone, formerly the Guam Time Zone, is a United States time zone which observes standard time ten hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC+10:00). The clock time in this zone is based on the mean solar time of the 150th meridian east of the Greenwich Observatory.

Daylight saving time in the United States Practice of setting the clock forward by one hour

Daylight saving time in the United States is the practice of setting the clock forward by one hour when there is longer daylight during the day, so that evenings have more daylight and mornings have less. Most areas of the United States and Canada observe daylight saving time (DST), the exceptions being Arizona, Hawaii, and the overseas territories of American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, and the United States Virgin Islands. The Uniform Time Act of 1966 established the system of uniform daylight saving time throughout the US.

Daylight saving time in Australia Seasonal time zone adjustments

Each state and territory of Australia determines whether or not to use daylight saving time (DST). However, during World War I and World War II all states and territories had daylight saving by federal law, under the defence power in section 51 of the constitution. In 1968, Tasmania was the first state since the war to adopt daylight saving. In 1971, New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, and the Australian Capital Territory also adopted daylight saving, while Western Australia and the Northern Territory did not. Queensland abandoned daylight saving in 1972. Queensland and Western Australia have observed daylight saving over the past 40 years from time to time on a trial basis.

Parts of Australia, New Zealand, Fiji and Samoa are areas of Oceania that currently observe daylight saving time (DST).

Permanent standard time refers to the year-round observation of standard time. Likewise, permanent daylight saving time refers to the year-round observation of daylight saving time (DST). Both permanent standard time and permanent DST eliminate the practice of biannual clock changes, specifically the advancement of clocks by one hour from standard time to DST in spring and the retraction of clocks by one hour from DST to standard time in fall. In the United States, Arizona, Hawaii, and all territories observe permanent standard time. Observation of permanent DST is forbidden by the Uniform Time Act.

References