|Youth Olympic Games|
The Youth Olympic Games (YOG) is an international multi-sport event for athletes between 14 and 18 years old,organized by the International Olympic Committee. The games are held every four years in staggered summer and winter events consistent with the current Olympic Games format, though in reverse order with Winter Games held in leap years instead of Summer Games. The first summer version was held in Singapore from 14 to 26 August 2010 while the first winter version was held in Innsbruck, Austria from 13 to 22 January 2012. The idea of such an event was introduced by Johann Rosenzopf from Austria in 1998. On 6 July 2007, International Olympic Committee (IOC) members at the 119th IOC session in Guatemala City approved the creation of a youth version of the Olympic Games, with the intention of sharing the costs of hosting the event between the IOC and the host city, whereas the travelling costs of athletes and coaches were to be paid by the IOC. These Games will also feature cultural exchange programs and opportunities for participants to meet Olympic athletes.
Several other Olympic events for youth, like the European Youth Olympic Festival held every other year with summer and winter versions, and the Australian Youth Olympic Festival, have proven successful. The Youth Games are modelled after these sporting events.The YOG are also a successor to the discontinued World Youth Games.
The Summer Youth Olympic Games of Singapore in 2010 and Nanjing in 2014 each played host to 3600 athletes and lasted 13 days, whereas the Winter YOG of Innsbruck in 2012 had 1059 athletes and Lillehammer in 2016 had 1100 athletes and lasted 10 days. Even though this exceeded initial estimates,the YOG are still both smaller in size as well as shorter than their senior equivalents. The most recent Summer YOG was the 2018 Summer Youth Olympic Games of Buenos Aires. The most recent Winter YOG was the 2020 Winter Youth Olympic Games of Lausanne. The next Summer YOG to take place will be the 2026 Summer Youth Olympics of Dakar while the 2024 Winter Youth Olympics will take place in Gangwon, South Korea.
The concept of the Youth Olympic Games came from Austrian industrial manager Johann Rosenzopf in 1998.This was in response to growing global concerns about childhood obesity and the dropping participation of youth in sport activities, especially amongst youth in developed nations. It was further recognized that a youth version of the Olympic Games would help foster participations in the Olympic Games. Despite these reasons for having an Olympic event for young people, the IOC's response of holding a purely sporting event was negative. IOC delegates wanted the event to be as much about cultural education and exchange as it was about sports, which is why the Culture and Education Program (CEP) was developed as a component of each celebration of the Games. Jacques Rogge, IOC President, formally announced plans for the Youth Olympic Games at the 119th IOC session in Guatemala City on 6 July 2007. There are several goals for the YOG, and four of them include bringing together the world's best young athletes, offering an introduction into Olympism, innovating in educating and debating Olympic values. The city of Singapore was announced as the host of the inaugural Summer Youth Olympics on 21 February 2008. On 12 December 2008 the IOC announced that Innsbruck, host of the 1964 and 1976 Winter Olympics, would be the host of the inaugural Winter Youth Olympics in 2012.
The scale of the Youth Olympic Games is smaller than that of the Olympics, which is intentional and allows for smaller cities to host an Olympic event. Potential host cities are required to keep all events within the same city and no new sports venues should be built.Exceptions to this building moratorium include a media centre, amphitheatre facilities for classes and workshops, and a village for coaches and athletes. This village is to be the heart of the Games for the athletes, and the hub of activity. No new or unique transportation systems are required as all athletes and coaches will be transported by shuttles. According to bid procedures, the track and field stadium for the opening and closing ceremonies must hold 10,000 people, and a city must have a 2,500-seat aquatics facility (for Summer editions).
The original estimated costs for running the Games were US$30 million for the Summer and $15 million to $20 million for Winter Games, these costs do not include infrastructure improvements for venue construction. The IOC has stipulated that costs for infrastructure and venues is to be paid by the host city. The IOC will pay travel costs to the host city and room and board for the athletes and judges, estimated at $11 million. The funding will come from IOC funds and not revenues. The budgets for the final two bids for the inaugural Summer Games as submitted by the IOC came in at $90 million, much higher than the estimated costs. The cost of the first games in Singapore escalated to an estimated S$387 million ($284 million). Sponsors have been slow to sign on for the YOG, due to the fact that it is a new initiative and corporations are not sure what level of exposure they will get. The budget for the inaugural Winter Games to be held in Innsbruck has been estimated at $22.5 million, which does not include infrastructure improvements and venue construction.
Over 200 countries and 3,600 athletes participated in the inaugural 2010 Youth Summer Olympics. years, 16–17 years, and 17–18 years. The athlete's age is determined by how old he or she is by 31 December of the year they are participating in the YOG. Qualification to participate in the Youth Olympics is determined by the IOC in conjunction with the International Sport Federations (ISF) for the various sports on the program. To ensure that all nations are represented at the YOG the IOC instituted the concept of Universality Places. A certain number of spots in each event are to be left open for athletes from under-represented nations regardless of qualifying marks. This is to ensure that every nation will be able to send at least four athletes to each Youth Olympic Games. For team tournaments one team per continent will be allowed to compete along with a sixth team either representing the host nation or as proposed by the IF with IOC approval. There is a cap of two teams (one boys' and one girls') per nation. Finally, no nation may enter more than 70 athletes in individual sports.Participants are placed in the following age groups: 14–15
37 sports from 2010 to 2026 Olympic program at one point to another. Twenty-seven sports were introduced in the 2010 Games. Two new sports were introduced in 2014 Games, which were beach volleyball (replacing volleyball) and field hockey. In the 2018 Games, six sports were introduced: beach handball (replacing handball), breakdancing, futsal (replacing football), karate, roller speed skating and sport climbing. 28 core sports are expected to feature in the 2026 Games, being confirmed in 2019.
16 sports, 46 disciplines in the Winter Youth Olympics between the 2012 Games to the 2020 Games. In the 2012 Games at Innsbruck and the 2016 Games at Lillehammer, there were only 15 sports. In the next Games which was at the 2020 Games at Lausanne, there will be a new sport added which is ski mountaineering.
Education and culture are also key components for the Youth edition. Not only does the education/culture aspect apply to athletes and participants, but also youth around the world and inhabitants of the host city and surrounding regions. To this end, a Culture and Education Program (CEP) will be featured at each Games.The first CEP at the 2010 Singapore Games featured events that fostered cooperation amongst athletes of different nations. It had classes on topics ranging from health and fitness to the environment and career planning. Local students from Singapore made booths at the World Culture Village that represented each of the 205 participating National Olympic Committee. The Chat with Champions sessions were the most popular portion of the program. Participants were invited to hear inspirational talks given by former and current Olympic athletes.
Also part of the CEP is the Young Ambassadors Programme, Young Reporters Programme and Athlete Role Models.Under the Young Ambassadors Programme, a group of youths aged 18 to 25 years old are nominated by the NOCs to help promote the YOG in their regions and communities, and encourage the athletes to participate in the CEP programmes.
The Young Reporters Programmeprovides journalism students or those who have recently started their journalism careers a cross-platform journalist-training programme and on-the-job experience during the YOG. Young Reporters, between the ages of 18 and 24, are selected by the Continental Associations of National Olympic Committees and will represent each of the five continents.
Acting as mentors to help support and advise young Olympians are the Athlete Role Models, who are typically active or recently retired Olympians nominated by the IFs, such as Japanese wrestler Kaori Icho,Italian Simone Farina and Namibian Frank Fredericks.
Emphasis on exchange goes beyond the CEP. Another unique feature of the Youth Olympic Games is mixed-gender and mixed-national teams. Triathlon relays, fencing, table tennis, archery and mixed swimming relays are a few of the sports in which athletes from different nations and mixed genders can compete together.YOG organizers are also using social media such as Facebook, Flikr, and Twitter as key platforms for engaging young athletes before, during, and after each celebration of the Games. Multi-lingual, multi-cultural, and multi-age requirements are the targets of the program, which stress the themes of "Learning to know, learning to be, learning to do, and learning to live together".
In early November 2007, Athens, Bangkok, Singapore, Moscow, and Turin were selected by the IOC as the five candidate cities to host the inaugural Youth Olympic Games.In January 2008, the candidates were further pared down to just Moscow and Singapore. Finally, on 21 February 2008, Singapore was declared host of the inaugural Youth Olympic Games 2010 via live telecast from Lausanne, Switzerland, winning by a tally of 53 votes to 44 for Moscow.
On 2 September 2008 IOC announced that the executive board had shortlisted four cities among the candidates to host the first Winter Youth Olympic Games in 2012. The four candidate cities were Harbin, Innsbruck, Kuopio, and Lillehammer.IOC president Jacques Rogge appointed Pernilla Wiberg to chair the commission which analysed the projects. As with the Summer Games, the list was then shortened to two finalists, Innsbruck and Kuopio, in November 2008. On 12 December 2008, it was announced that Innsbruck beat Kuopio to host the games. Nanjing, China was selected by the IOC over Poznan, Poland to be the host-city of the 2014 Youth Olympics. The election was held on 10 February 2010, two days before the start of the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver. Lillehammer, Norway hosted the 2016 Winter Youth Olympics.
|Edition||Year||Host City||Host Nation||Opened by||Start Date||End Date||Nations||Competitors||Sports||Events||Top of the medal table||Ref.|
|I||2010||Singapore||Singapore||President S. R. Nathan||14 August||26 August||204||3,524||26||201||China (CHN)|
|II||2014||Nanjing||China||President Xi Jinping||16 August||28 August||203||3,579||28||222||China (CHN)|
|III||2018||Buenos Aires||Argentina||President Mauricio Macri||6 October||18 October||206||3,997||32||239||Russia (RUS)|
|IV||2026||Dakar||Senegal||22 October||9 November||Future event||35||244||Future event|
|V||2030||TBD||TBD||Future event||Future event|
|Edition||Year||Host City||Host Nation||Opened by||Start Date||End Date||Nations||Competitors||Sports||Events||Top of the medal table||Ref.|
|I||2012||Innsbruck||Austria||President Heinz Fischer||13 January||22 January||69||1,059||7||63||Germany (GER)|
|II||2016||Lillehammer||Norway||King Harald V||12 February||21 February||71||1,100||7||70||United States (USA)|
|III||2020||Lausanne||Switzerland||President Simonetta Sommaruga||9 January||22 January||79||1,872||8||81||Russia (RUS)|
|IV||2024||Gangwon||South Korea||19 January||2 February||Future event||Future event|
|4||South Korea (KOR)||37||23||21||81|
|5||United States (USA)||34||31||31||96|
|Totals (127 nations)||882||872||938||2692|
The Winter Olympic Games is a major international multi-sport event held once every four years for sports practiced on snow and ice. The first Winter Olympic Games, the 1924 Winter Olympics, were held in Chamonix, France. The modern Olympic Games were inspired by the ancient Olympic Games, which were held in Olympia, Greece, from the 8th century BC to the 4th century AD. Baron Pierre de Coubertin founded the International Olympic Committee (IOC) in 1894, leading to the first modern Summer Olympic Games in Athens, Greece in 1896. The IOC is the governing body of the Olympic Movement, with the Olympic Charter defining its structure and authority.
The 2010 Summer Youth Olympics, officially known as the I Summer Youth Olympic Games, was the inaugural edition of the Youth Olympic Games (YOG), an Olympic Games-based event for young athletes. Held in Singapore from 14 to 26 August 2010, it was the first International Olympic Committee–sanctioned event held in Singapore. The Games featured about 3,600 athletes aged 14–18 from 204 nations, who competed in 201 events in 26 sports. No official medal tables were published, but the most successful nation was China, followed by Russia. Most unique features of the YOG, such as mixed-NOCs teams and the Culture and Education Programme (CEP), made their debut at the 2010 Games.
The 2012 Winter Youth Olympics (YOG) was an international youth multi-sport event featuring winter events that was planned to complement the Olympic Games. It will feature athletes between the ages of 14 and 18.
The 2012 Winter Youth Olympic Games, officially known as the I Winter Youth Olympic Games (YOG), were an international multi-sport event for youths that took place in Innsbruck, on 13–22 January 2012. They were the inaugural Winter Youth Olympics, a major sports and cultural festival celebrated in the tradition of the Olympic Games. Approximately 1100 athletes from 70 countries competed. The decision for Innsbruck to host the Games was announced on 12 December 2008 after mail voting by 105 International Olympic Committee (IOC) members. Innsbruck is the first city to host three winter Olympic events, having previously hosted the 1964 Winter Olympics and the 1976 Winter Olympics.
Singapore will host the inaugural 2010 Youth Olympic Games (YOG). According to the Singapore National Olympic Council (SNOC), Singapore's concept fully embraces the Olympic values, with fully integrated Sports, Education and Culture programmes to engage and inspire young people. As a diverse community with many languages and cultures, Singapore is 'united and committed as a country', in its enthusiasm to host the 2010 Youth Olympic Games.
The 2014 Summer Youth Olympic Games, officially known as II Summer Youth Olympic Games, were the second Summer Youth Olympic Games, an international sports, education and cultural festival for teenagers, held from 16 to 28 August 2014 in Nanjing, Jiangsu, China. These were the second Olympic Games held in China after the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, making it the first country to host both regular and Youth Olympics.
The 2016 Winter Youth Olympics, officially known as the II Winter Youth Olympic Games, took place in and around Lillehammer, Norway, between 12 February and 21 February 2016. They were the fourth Youth Olympic Games and the second winter edition. Lillehammer was awarded the games on 7 December 2011 as the only candidate. The games reused venues from the 1994 Winter Olympics; this made Lillehammer the first city to host both regular and Youth Olympics. In addition to Lillehammer, sports were contested in Hamar, Gjøvik and Øyer.
The 2018 Summer Youth Olympics, officially known as the III Summer Youth Olympic Games, and commonly known as Buenos Aires 2018, were an international sports, cultural, and educational event held in Buenos Aires, Argentina between 6 and 18 October 2018. They were the first Youth Olympic Games held outside of Eurasia, and the first Summer Games held outside of Asia and the first to be held in the Western and Southern hemispheres. It was the second Olympic Games held in South America after the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
The 2010 Summer Youth Olympics, officially known as the Singapore 2010 Youth Olympic Games (YOG), were an international multi-sport event held in Singapore from 14 to 26 August 2010. The event was the inaugural Youth Olympic Games, and it saw 3,531 athletes between 14 and 18 years of age competing in 201 events in 26 sports. This medal table ranks the 204 participating National Olympic Committees (NOCs) by the number of gold medals won by their athletes. The Kuwait Olympic Committee was suspended by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) prior to the Games, but Kuwaiti athletes were allowed to participate and the country is listed in the table, bearing the Olympic flag.
Lillehammer 2016 was the successful bid by the city of Lillehammer and the Norwegian Olympic and Paralympic Committee and Confederation of Sports for the 2016 Winter Youth Olympics. Lillehammer was the only bidder for the games and were awarded the games on December 7, 2011.
A total of six bids were initially submitted for the 2022 Winter Olympics. Four of the bids were subsequently withdrawn by 1 October 2014, citing either the high costs of hosting the Games or the lack of local support, leaving Almaty, Kazakhstan and Beijing, China as the only two remaining candidate cities. Beijing was then elected as the host city at the 128th IOC Session in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, on 31 July 2015.
The bidding for the 2014 Summer Youth Olympics Games began on 2 February 2009, with cities presented their candidature files. In the competition to host the inaugural Youth Olympic Games in 2014, the IOC list three cities in December 2009. Guadalajara officially withdrew the bid on 22 January 2010, two weeks after the release of the IOC evaluation commission's report and less than three weeks before the final vote in Vancouver.
Bids were due by 28 November 2013, the candidates cities were selected on 5 December 2014 and Lausanne was elected host city on 31 July 2015.
A total of seven bids were initially submitted for the 2026 Winter Olympics. Four of the bids were subsequently withdrawn after entering the candidature stage, leaving Milan–Cortina d'Ampezzo, Italy and Stockholm–Åre, Sweden as the only two remaining candidate bids. Milan–Cortina d'Ampezzo was elected as the host city at the 134th IOC Session in Lausanne, Switzerland, on 24 June 2019.
An all-time medal table for all Youth Olympic Games (YOG) from 2010 to 2018 is tabulated below. This is a summary of medal tables published by IOC on every YOG edition. A total of 126 nations have won at least one medal in the Youth Olympic Games, 124 in the Summer Games and 33 in the Winter Games.
The 2030 Summer Youth Olympics, officially known as the V Summer Youth Olympic Games will be the fifth edition of the Summer Youth Olympics, an international sports, education and cultural festival for teenagers, in a city designated by the International Olympic Committee (IOC).
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