X Games

Last updated

X Games
X Games logo.svg
Sport Extreme sports
Founded1995
Inaugural season Extreme Games
TV partner(s) ESPN
ESPN2
ESPN3 (live stream)
ABC
Eurosport
ESPN Latin America
ESPN Brasil
Trans7
CTV
TSN
RDS
Official website XGames.com

The X Games is an annual extreme sports event hosted, produced, and broadcast by ESPN. Coverage is also shown on ESPN's sister network, ABC. The inaugural X Games were held during the summer of 1995 in Providence and Newport, Rhode Island. Participants compete to win bronze, silver, and gold medals, as well as prize money.

Extreme sport class of sport

Action sports, adventure sports or extreme sports are activities perceived as involving a high degree of risk. These activities often involve speed, height, a high level of physical exertion and highly specialized gear.

ESPN is a U.S.-based pay television sports channel owned by ESPN Inc., owned jointly by The Walt Disney Company (80%) and Hearst Communications (20%). The company was founded in 1979 by Bill Rasmussen along with his son Scott Rasmussen and Ed Egan.

ESPN on ABC is the brand used for sports event and documentary programming televised on the American Broadcasting Company (ABC) in the United States. Officially, the broadcast network retains its own sports division; however, for all practical purposes, ABC's sports division has been merged into ESPN Inc., the parent subsidiary of cable sports network ESPN that is majority owned by ABC's corporate parent, The Walt Disney Company, in partnership with the Hearst Communications.

Contents

The competition often features new tricks such as Tony Hawk's 900 in skateboarding, Travis Pastrana's double backflip in freestyle motocross, Heath Frisby's first ever snowmobile front flip in Snowmobile Best Trick, and Torstein Horgmo's first landed triple cork in a snowboard competition. Concurrent with competition is the "X Fest" sports and music festival, which offers live music, athlete autograph sessions, and interactive elements.

Tony Hawk American skateboarder and actor

Anthony Frank Hawk is an American professional skateboarder, actor and owner of the skateboard company Birdhouse. Hawk is well known for completing the first documented 900 and for his licensed video game titles, published by Activision, and is widely considered to be one of the most successful and influential pioneers of modern vertical skateboarding.

Skateboarding action sport on skateboards

Skateboarding is an action sport which involves riding and performing tricks using a skateboard, as well as a recreational activity, an art form, an entertainment industry job, and a method of transportation. Skateboarding has been shaped and influenced by many skateboarders throughout the years. A 2009 report found that the skateboarding market is worth an estimated $4.8 billion in annual revenue with 11.08 million active skateboarders in the world. In 2016, it was announced that skateboarding will be represented at the 2020 Summer Olympics in Tokyo.

Travis Pastrana American stock car and rally driver, motocross rider and extreme sports competitor

Travis Alan Pastrana is an American professional motorsports competitor and stunt performer who has won championships and X Games gold medals in several events, including supercross, motocross, freestyle motocross, and rally racing. He runs a show called Nitro Circus, and previously competed in the NASCAR Nationwide Series for Roush Fenway Racing the Global RallyCross Championship for Subaru Rally Team USA, and the Monster Jam circuit, in his own Pastrana 199 truck.

The X Games gained media exposure due to their big name sponsors, top-tier athletes, and consistent fan attendance. As the Journal of Sport Management (2006) explains, Generation X and Generation Y are the two demographics most highly valued by marketers. This creates a broad approach on marketing towards that certain demographic, which is why the X Games marketing and economic outlook is so "out of the box". According to a 2008 report by ESPN, in 1997, the Winter X Games inaugural year, 38,000 spectators attended the four-day event. In 1998, the attendance dropped to 25,000 spectators. But just two years later, a record attendance of 83,500 people attended the Winter X Games' East Coast debut. The X Games and Winter X Games continue to grow with the popularity of action sports and the athletes who compete in them.

Generation X is the demographic cohort following the baby boomers and preceding the Millennials. Demographers and researchers typically use birth years ranging from the early-to-mid 1960s to the early 1980s.

As part of the X Games, there have been performances by various rock bands over the years, as well as a DJ being on-site at all events. The X Games have made it a point since its founding to stage an eco-friendly event. Such measures include using biodiesel fuel in their vehicles and organizing recycling campaigns. [1]

Biodiesel vegetable oil- or animal fat-based diesel fuel

Biodiesel refers to a vegetable oil- or animal fat-based diesel fuel consisting of long-chain alkyl esters. Biodiesel is typically made by chemically reacting lipids with an alcohol producing fatty acid esters.

The X Games has never carried out drug tests on competitors, which has been criticized by the World Anti-Doping Agency director general David Howman and the International Olympic Committee president Thomas Bach. [2] [3] [4]

A drug test is a technical analysis of a biological specimen, for example urine, hair, blood, breath, sweat, and/or oral fluid/saliva—to determine the presence or absence of specified parent drugs or their metabolites. Major applications of drug testing include detection of the presence of performance enhancing steroids in sport, employers and parole/probation officers screening for drugs prohibited by law and police officers testing for the presence and concentration of alcohol (ethanol) in the blood commonly referred to as BAC. BAC tests are typically administered via a breathalyzer while urinalysis is used for the vast majority of drug testing in sports and the workplace. Numerous other methods with varying degrees of accuracy, sensitivity, and detection periods exist.

The World Anti-Doping Agency is a foundation initiated by the International Olympic Committee based in Canada to promote, coordinate and monitor the fight against drugs in sports. The agency's key activities include scientific research, education, development of anti-doping capacities, and monitoring of the World Anti-Doping Code, whose provisions are enforced by the UNESCO International Convention against Doping in Sport. The aims of the Council of Europe Anti-Doping Convention and the United States Anti-Doping Agency are also closely aligned with those of WADA.

International Olympic Committee Non-governmental ruling body of the Olympic Movement

The International Olympic Committee is a non-governmental sports organisation based in Lausanne, Switzerland. Created by Pierre de Coubertin and Demetrios Vikelas in 1894, it is the authority responsible for organising the modern Summer and Winter Olympic Games.

Winter X Games

Variation of X Games logo, used for Winter X Games Winter X Games logo.svg
Variation of X Games logo, used for Winter X Games

The Winter X Games VIII in 2002 was the first time an X Games event was televised live and also had coverage by ESPN's flagship news program, SportsCenter . Viewership across the three networks that carried coverage of the event – ABC Sports, ESPN, and ESPN2  – exceeded 2001's household average by 30% according to Nielsen Media Research. The event also reached record highs in several demographic categories. To accommodate the first-time live coverage, nighttime competitions were added, resulting in record attendance for the Aspen/Snowmass venue in Colorado.

SportsCenter (SC) is a daily sports news television program that serves as the flagship program of American cable and satellite television network ESPN. The show covers various sports teams and athletes from around the world and often shows highlights of sports from the (previous) day. Originally broadcast only once per day, SportsCenter now has up to twelve airings each day, excluding overnight repeats. The show often covers the major sports in the U.S. including basketball, hockey, football, and baseball. SportsCenter is also known for its recaps after sports events and its in-depth analysis by different anchors and popular figures like Stephen A. Smith and Scott Van Pelt. The show continues to be the flagship show for ESPN and leads the way in sports broadcasting and entertainment.

ESPN2 is an American pay television network that is owned by ESPN Inc., a joint venture between The Walt Disney Company and the Hearst Communications.

Aspen, Colorado Town in Colorado, United States

Aspen is the home rule municipality that is the county seat and the most populous municipality of Pitkin County, Colorado, United States. Its population was 6,658 at the 2010 United States Census. Aspen is in a remote area of the Rocky Mountains' Sawatch Range and Elk Mountains, along the Roaring Fork River at an elevation just below 8,000 feet (2,400 m) above sea level on the Western Slope, 11 miles (18 km) west of the Continental Divide.

The 2002 Winter X Games was a humungous year for ESPN and the X Games. It was the first year that the games were held in Aspen at Buttermilk Mountain. The Games continued to add new events including the ski slopestyle event, ski superpipe event, snowboarding, skateboarding etc. The most memorable incident of the 2002 Games was when the entire 2002 U.S. Olympic freestyle snowboarding team showed up to compete in the Winter X snowboard superpipe event, just weeks before the Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City. Also in 2002, ESPN announced the establishment of the X Games Global Championship. The Global Championship featured two distinct venues hosting competitions in summer and winter action sports simultaneously. It consisted of six teams of the world's top athletes, grouped together by their region of origin, to compete in the four-day event. The winter sports were held in Whistler Blackcomb Resort in British Columbia, and the events included snowboarding and skiing.

The Winter X Games are held in January or February (usually in January) and the Summer X Games are usually held in August, both in the United States. The location of the Winter X Games is in Aspen, Colorado, through 2019, while the location for the Summer X Games has been in Los Angeles, changing to Austin, Texas, in June 2014. The X Games also has international competitions and demos around the world that are held at varying times throughout the year. The games are shown live on television.

The Winter X Games are, as described by ESPN (2008), a competition compiled of the greatest winter action sport athletes from around the world competing on an annual basis. The competition has day and evening events including skiing, snowboarding and snowmobiling. The first Winter X Games took place at Mountain Resort in Big Bear Lake, California, in 1997. The following two years, the Games were held at Crested Butte Mountain Resort in Colorado. The two years following that, the Games were held in Mount Snow, Vermont. Since 2002, the Winter X Games have been held at Aspen's Buttermilk Mountain and will continue to be until 2024, according to ESPN.

During 2015's Winter X Games, ESPN used camera drones to capture aerial views of the athlete's runs. This was a first for ESPN. [5]

Global expansion

X Games Asia have been held annually since 1998.

In May 2003, the X Games held the Global Championships, a special event where five continents competed in 11 disciplines. The event was held in two locations: the Alamodome in San Antonio, Texas, and Whistler, British Columbia. [6] [7] The final team results, in order, were the United States, Europe, Australia, Asia, and South America.

In May 2011, ESPN held a bid to select three host cities in addition to Los Angeles, Aspen, and Tignes, France, to form a six-event calendar for the next three years beginning in 2013. [8] In May 2012, the selected cities were announced: Barcelona, Spain; Munich, Germany; and Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil. [9] The two European cities have hosted the Summer Olympic Games in the past, whereas Brazil has provided several X Games competitors. [10] Despite previous plans for a three-year run, ESPN opted to cancel the global expansion after 2013. [11] [12] Since 2010, Winter X Games Europe have been held in Tignes. In 2018, the X Games also had events in Oslo, Norway in May and Sydney, Australia in late October. Also in 2019 there will be a winter and summer event in China.

Events

Current Summer

Current Winter

Past Summer

Past Winter

History

Brian Deegan at X Games 17 in Los Angeles competing in the Moto X Step Up event. Brian Deegan jumping at X Games 17 in Los Angeles.jpg
Brian Deegan at X Games 17 in Los Angeles competing in the Moto X Step Up event.

Summarized from ESPN.com [13]

Summer X Games

Winter X Games

Host

Year Summer Winter Asia Europe (Summer) Europe (Winter) Latin AmericaOceania
1995 Flag of the United States.svg Newport, Rhode Island Flag of the United States.svg Stowe, Vermont
1996 Flag of the United States.svg Newport, Rhode Island Flag of the United States.svg Stowe, Vermont
1997 Flag of the United States.svg San Diego, California Flag of the United States.svg Big Bear Lake, California
1998 Flag of the United States.svg San Diego, California Flag of the United States.svg Crested Butte, Colorado Flag of Thailand.svg Phuket
1999 Flag of the United States.svg San Francisco, California Flag of the United States.svg Crested Butte, Colorado Flag of Thailand.svg Phuket
2000 Flag of the United States.svg San Francisco, California Flag of the United States.svg Mount Snow, Vermont Flag of Thailand.svg Phuket
2001 Flag of the United States.svg Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Flag of the United States.svg Mount Snow, Vermont Flag of Thailand.svg Phuket
2002 Flag of the United States.svg Philadelphia Flag of the United States.svg Aspen Flag of Malaysia.svg Kuala Lumpur
2003 Flag of the United States.svg Los Angeles Flag of the United States.svg Aspen Flag of Malaysia.svg Kuala Lumpur
2004 Flag of the United States.svg Los Angeles Flag of the United States.svg Aspen Flag of Malaysia.svg Kuala Lumpur
2005 Flag of the United States.svg Los Angeles Flag of the United States.svg Aspen Flag of South Korea.svg Seoul
2006 Flag of the United States.svg Los Angeles Flag of the United States.svg Aspen Flag of Malaysia.svg Kuala Lumpur
2007 Flag of the United States.svg Los Angeles Flag of the United States.svg Aspen Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Shanghai Flag of Mexico.svg Mexico City
2008 Flag of the United States.svg Los Angeles Flag of the United States.svg Aspen Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Shanghai Flag of Mexico.svg Mexico City
2009 Flag of the United States.svg Los Angeles Flag of the United States.svg Aspen Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Shanghai
2010 Flag of the United States.svg Los Angeles Flag of the United States.svg Aspen Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Shanghai Flag of France.svg Tignes
2011 Flag of the United States.svg Los Angeles Flag of the United States.svg Aspen Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Shanghai Flag of France.svg Tignes
2012 Flag of the United States.svg Los Angeles Flag of the United States.svg Aspen Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Shanghai Flag of France.svg Tignes
2013 Flag of the United States.svg Los Angeles Flag of the United States.svg Aspen Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Shanghai Flag of Spain.svg Barcelona
Flag of Germany.svg Munich
Flag of France.svg Tignes Flag of Brazil.svg Foz do Iguaçu
2014 Flag of the United States.svg Austin, Texas Flag of the United States.svg Aspen Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Shanghai
2015 Flag of the United States.svg Austin Flag of the United States.svg Aspen Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Shanghai
2016 Flag of the United States.svg Austin Flag of the United States.svg Aspen Flag of Norway.svg Oslo [22]
2017 Flag of the United States.svg Minneapolis Flag of the United States.svg Aspen Flag of Norway.svg Hafjell [23]
2018 Flag of the United States.svg Minneapolis Flag of the United States.svg Aspen Flag of Norway.svg Oslo [24] Flag of Australia (converted).svg Sydney
2019 Flag of the United States.svg Minneapolis Flag of the United States.svg Aspen Flag of Norway.svg Oslo
2020 Flag of the United States.svg Minneapolis Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg Calgary
2021 Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg Calgary
2022 Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg Calgary

Related Research Articles

Bob Burnquist Brazilian skateboarder

Robert Dean Silva Burnquist is a Brazilian-American professional skateboarder who competed for Brazil throughout his career. In 2010, he became the first skateboarder to land a "fakie 900", making Burnquist the fifth person in history to successfully complete the 900 trick.

Mike Metzger is an American Freestyle Motocross (FMX) rider. In the 2002 X Games he won the Freestyle and Big Air events and got second place in Step Up, earning him an estimated $100,000 in three days. In 2003 he also got first place in Big Air. On May 4, 2006, at 9:26, Metzger completed "The Impossible Jump", doing a world record backflip over the fountains in front of Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, seen live on ESPN. He is the first person to complete a backflip over the fountains, and only the second person to ever successfully land that jump. The others to attempt the jump over Caesars Palace's fountains include Evel Knievel, Gary Wells, and Robbie Knievel, of which only Robbie landed successfully. Not only did Metzger complete this jump whilst performing a backflip, but he also set the record for distance, landing 125 feet from the takeoff ramp. Metzger recently has been doing freeride.

The 900 is a 2½-revolution aerial spin performed on a skateboard ramp. While airborne, the skateboarder makes two-and-a-half turns about their longitudinal axis, thereby facing down when coming down. It is considered one of skateboarding's most technically demanding tricks.

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X Games XIII (13) took place from August 2–5, 2007 in Los Angeles, California at the Staples Center and the Home Depot Center. It was broadcast on the ESPN networks, EXPN.com, and ABC.

X Games XV was the fifteenth annual X Games extreme sports event. It took place from July 30 - August 2, 2009, in Los Angeles, California, at the Staples Center and the Home Depot Center. It was broadcast on ESPN networks, ABC, and EXPN.com.

Winter X Games XIV were held from January 28 to January 31, 2010, in Aspen, Colorado. They were the 9th consecutive Winter X Games to be held in Aspen. The events were broadcast on ESPN.

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X Games XVI was an action sporting event which took place from July 29 – August 1, 2010 in Los Angeles, California at the Staples Center, L.A. Live and the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum. The games featured the sports of Motocross, skateboarding, BMX, and rallying.

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X Games XVII

X Games XVII was an action sporting event which took place from July 28 – 31, 2011 in Los Angeles, California. Venues for the event include the Staples Center, Nokia Theater, and other areas of L.A. Live. The games featured the sports of motocross, skateboarding, BMX, and rallying. X Games 17 was also the first ever X Games to feature Enduro X, which replaced Super X.

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References

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  2. WADA Statement on X Games in Norway – World Anti-Doping Agency, February 22, 2016
  3. ESPN pushing ahead with X Games Oslo despite criticism of drug-testing policy – Ben Fischer, Sports Business Daily, February 22, 2016
  4. Bach Blasts X Games Oslo for No Drug Testing – Around the Ring, February 21, 2016
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