Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum

Last updated

Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum
The Grand Old Lady
Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum logo.png
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November 2006 interior view
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Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum
Location in L.A. metro area
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Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum
Location in California
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Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum
Location in the United States
Address3911 South Figueroa Street
Location Los Angeles, California, U.S.
Coordinates 34°0′51″N118°17′16″W / 34.01417°N 118.28778°W / 34.01417; -118.28778 Coordinates: 34°0′51″N118°17′16″W / 34.01417°N 118.28778°W / 34.01417; -118.28778
Public transit LAMetroLogo.svg LACMTA Circle Expo Line.svg   Expo Park/USC
Expo/Vermont
Owner City of Los Angeles, County of Los Angeles, State of California
Operator University of Southern California
Capacity 78,500
93,607 (pre-2018)
[1] [2]
Surface Bermuda grass
Construction
Broke groundDecember 21, 1921
OpenedMay 1, 1923
Renovated1930, 1964, 1977–78, 1983, 1993, 1995, 2011, 2017–2019
Construction costUS$954,872.98 (original) [3] ($14 million in 2018 dollars [4] )
$954,869 (renovations by USC in 2010)
($1.1 million in 2018 dollars [4] )
$315 million (renovations by USC in 2018) [5] [6] [7]
Architect John and Donald Parkinson (original)
DLR Group (renovations)
General contractorEdwards, Widley & Dixon Company (original) [3]
Hunt & Hathaway Dinwiddie Construction Company (renovations)
Tenants
American football

USC Trojans (NCAA) (1923–present)
Los Angeles Rams (NFL) (1946–1979, 2016–present) [8]
Los Angeles Christmas Festival (NCAA) (1924)
UCLA Bruins (NCAA) (1933–1981)
Los Angeles Dons (AAFC) (1946–1949)
Pro Bowl (NFL) (1951–1972, 1979)
Los Angeles Chargers (AFL) (1960)
Los Angeles Raiders (NFL) (1982–1994)
Los Angeles Express (USFL) (1983–1985)
Los Angeles Dragons (SFL) (2000)
Los Angeles Xtreme (XFL) (2001)
Los Angeles Temptation (LFL) (2009–2011)

Contents

Baseball

Los Angeles Dodgers (MLB) (1958–1961)

Soccer
Los Angeles Wolves (USA) (1967)
Los Angeles Toros (NPSL) (1967)
Los Angeles Aztecs (NASL) (1977, 1981)
Website
www.lacoliseum.com
Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum
Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum (29167511626).jpg
The Peristyle plaza entrance to the Coliseum, including the two bronze Olympic statues
Area18 acres (7.3 ha)
Architectural style Art Moderne [9]
NRHP reference # 84003866 [10]
CHISL #960
Significant dates
Added to NRHPJuly 27, 1984
Designated NHLJuly 27, 1984 [11]

The Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum is an American outdoor sports stadium located in the Exposition Park neighborhood of Los Angeles, California, United States. Conceived as a hallmark of civic pride, the Coliseum was commissioned in 1921 as a memorial to L.A. veterans of World War I. Completed in 1923, it will be the first stadium to have hosted the Summer Olympics three times: 1932, 1984, and 2028. [12] It was declared a National Historic Landmark on July 27, 1984, the day before the opening ceremony of the 1984 Summer Olympics. [11]

Stadium Place or venue for (mostly) outdoor sports, concerts, or other events

A stadium is a place or venue for (mostly) outdoor sports, concerts, or other events and consists of a field or stage either partly or completely surrounded by a tiered structure designed to allow spectators to stand or sit and view the event.

Exposition Park, Los Angeles Neighborhood of Los Angeles in California, United States

The Exposition Park neighborhood of Los Angeles is in the south region of Los Angeles, California. It is home to Exposition Park, which includes the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, Banc of California Stadium, Exposition Rose Garden and three museums: the California African American Museum, the California Science Center and the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County. It is also home to a Science Center Academy.

1932 Summer Olympics games of the X Olympiad, celebrated in Los Angeles in 1932

The 1932 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the X Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event that was held from July 30 to August 14, 1932, in Los Angeles, California, United States.

The stadium serves as the home to the University of Southern California (USC) Trojans football team of the Pac-12 Conference. USC, which operates and manages the Coliseum, granted naming rights to United Airlines in January 2018; after concerns were raised by Coliseum Commission, the airline became title sponsor of the playing field, naming it United Airlines Field at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum. The stadium is located in Exposition Park, which is owned by the State of California, and across the street from USC. The Coliseum is jointly owned by the State of California, Los Angeles County, City of Los Angeles and is managed and operated by the Auxiliary Services Department of the University of Southern California. [13]

University of Southern California Private research university in Los Angeles, California, United States

The University of Southern California is a private research university in Los Angeles, California. Founded in 1880, it is the oldest private research university in California. For the 2018–19 academic year, there were 20,000 students enrolled in four-year undergraduate programs. USC also has 27,500 graduate and professional students in a number of different programs, including business, law, engineering, social work, occupational therapy, pharmacy, and medicine. It is the largest private employer in the city of Los Angeles, and generates $8 billion in economic impact on Los Angeles and California.

USC Trojans football American college football team at University of Southern California

The USC Trojans football program represent University of Southern California in the sport of American football. The Trojans compete in the Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) and the South Division of the Pac-12 Conference (Pac-12).

Pac-12 Conference American collegiate athletics conference

The Pac-12 Conference is a collegiate athletic conference that operates in the Western United States, participating in 24 sports at the NCAA Division I level. Its football teams compete in the Football Bowl Subdivision, the higher of two tiers of NCAA Division I football competition.

It is the temporary home of the Los Angeles Rams of the National Football League (NFL). The Coliseum was home to the Rams from 1946 to 1979, when they moved to Anaheim Stadium in Anaheim. The Coliseum is serving as their home stadium again until the completion of Los Angeles Stadium at Hollywood Park in Inglewood. The facility had a permanent seating capacity of 93,607 for USC football and Rams games, making it the largest football stadium in the Pac-12 Conference and the NFL. [14]

Los Angeles Rams National Football League franchise in Los Angeles, California

The Los Angeles Rams are a professional American football team based in Los Angeles, California, and compete in the National Football League's NFC West division. The franchise won three NFL championships, and is the only one to win championships representing three different cities. The Rams play their home games at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum.

National Football League Professional American football league

The National Football League (NFL) is a professional American football league consisting of 32 teams, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC). The NFL is one of the four major professional sports leagues in North America, and the highest professional level of American football in the world. The NFL's 17-week regular season runs from early September to late December, with each team playing 16 games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, six teams from each conference advance to the playoffs, a single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, which is usually held in the first Sunday in February, and is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC.

Anaheim, California City in California, United States

Anaheim is a city in Orange County, California, part of the Los Angeles metropolitan area. As of the 2010 United States Census, the city had a population of 336,265, making it the most populous city in Orange County and the 10th-most populous city in California. Anaheim is the second-largest city in Orange County in terms of land area, and is known for being the home of the Disneyland Resort, the Anaheim Convention Center, and two major sports teams: the Anaheim Ducks ice hockey club and the Los Angeles Angels baseball team.

The stadium also was the temporary home of the Los Angeles Dodgers of Major League Baseball from 1958 to 1961 and was the host venue for games 3, 4, and 5 of the 1959 World Series. It was the site of the First AFL-NFL World Championship Game, later called Super Bowl I, and Super Bowl VII. Additionally, it has served as a home field for a number of other teams, including the Los Angeles Raiders of the NFL, and UCLA Bruins football.

Los Angeles Dodgers Baseball team and Major League Baseball franchise in Los Angeles, California, United States

The Los Angeles Dodgers are an American professional baseball team based in Los Angeles, California. The Dodgers compete in Major League Baseball (MLB) as a member club of the National League (NL) West division. Established in 1883 in Brooklyn, New York, the team moved to Los Angeles before the 1958 season. They played for four seasons at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum before moving to their current home of Dodger Stadium in 1962.

Major League Baseball Professional baseball league

Major League Baseball (MLB) is a professional baseball organization, and the oldest of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada. A total of 30 teams play in the National League (NL) and American League (AL), with 15 teams in each league. The NL and AL were formed as separate legal entities in 1876 and 1901 respectively. After cooperating but remaining legally separate entities beginning in 1903, the leagues merged into a single organization led by the Commissioner of Baseball in 2000. The organization also oversees Minor League Baseball, which comprises 256 teams affiliated with the Major League clubs. With the World Baseball Softball Confederation, MLB manages the international World Baseball Classic tournament.

1959 World Series 1959 Major League Baseball championship series

The 1959 World Series featured the National League champion Los Angeles Dodgers beating the American League champion Chicago White Sox, four games to two. Each of the three games played at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum drew record crowds, Game 5's attendance of 92,706 continues to be a World Series record to this day, and one which cannot feasibly be broken in any modern ballpark.

From 1959 to 2016, the Los Angeles Memorial Sports Arena was located adjacent to the Coliseum; the Sports Arena was closed in March 2016 and demolished. Banc of California Stadium, a soccer-specific stadium and home of Major League Soccer's Los Angeles FC, was constructed on the former Sports Arena site and opened in April 2018.

Los Angeles Memorial Sports Arena Former arena in California, United States

The Los Angeles Memorial Sports Arena was a multi-purpose arena at Exposition Park, in the University Park neighborhood of Los Angeles. It was located next to the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum and just south of the campus of the University of Southern California, which managed and operated both venues under a master lease agreement with the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum Commission. The arena was demolished in 2016 and replaced with Banc of California Stadium, home of Major League Soccer's Los Angeles FC which opened in 2018.

Banc of California Stadium soccer stadium in Los Angeles

Banc of California Stadium is a soccer-specific stadium in the Exposition Park neighborhood of Los Angeles, California. It is the home of Major League Soccer's Los Angeles FC. Opened on April 18, 2018, it was the first open-air stadium built in the City of Los Angeles since 1962. Constructed on the site of the former Los Angeles Memorial Sports Arena, it is located next to the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum and just south of the main campus of the University of Southern California. Los Angeles FC subleases the site from the University which has a master lease with the LA Memorial Coliseum Commission for operating and managing the Coliseum and stadium properties.

Soccer-specific stadium Type of sports stadium

Soccer-specific stadium is a term used mainly in the United States and Canada to refer to a sports stadium either purpose-built or fundamentally redesigned for soccer and whose primary function is to host soccer matches, as opposed to a multipurpose stadium which is for a variety of sports. A soccer-specific stadium may host other sporting events and concerts, but the design and purpose of a soccer-specific stadium is primarily for soccer. Some facilities have a permanent stage at one end of the stadium used for staging concerts.

USC began a major renovation of the stadium in early 2018. [15] During the renovation project the seating capacity will be 78,467 and will be 77,500 upon completion in 2019. [16] The $315 million project is scheduled to be completed by the 2019 football season and is the first major upgrade of the stadium in twenty years. [5] The project includes replacing the seating along with the addition of luxury boxes and club suites.

Operation

The Coliseum is primarily the home of the USC Trojans football team and the temporary home of the Los Angeles Rams (until their new stadium is completed). Most of USC's regular home games, especially the alternating games with rivals UCLA and Notre Dame, attract a capacity crowd. The current official capacity of the Coliseum is 78,467. [17] [18] USC's women lacrosse and soccer teams use the Coliseum for selected games, usually involving major opponents and televised games. [19] USC also rents the Coliseum to various events, including international soccer games, musical concerts and other large outdoor events. [20]

USC

The Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum Commission, which consists of six voting members [21] appointed by the three ownership interests and meets on a monthly basis, provides public oversight of the master lease agreement with USC. Under the lease the University has day-to-day management and operation responsibility for both the Coliseum and Banc of California Stadium properties. [22] Up until 2013, USC had a series of mostly one- and two-year leases with the commission. [23] In July 2013, USC gained the master lease of the Coliseum, after the previously governing owner Coliseum Commission failed to deliver promised renovations. [24] The agreement required the University to make approximately $100 million in physical repairs to the Coliseum and in addition requires USC pay $1.3 million each year in rent to the State of California for the state owned land the Coliseum property occupies in Exposition Park, maintain the Coliseum's physical condition at the same standard used on the USC Campus, and assume all financial obligations for the operations and maintenance of the Coliseum and Banc of California Stadium Complex. [25] [26] [27] [28]

History

Planning

The Coliseum under construction in 1922 LAColiseum-under-construction-1922.jpg
The Coliseum under construction in 1922

The Coliseum was commissioned in 1921 as a memorial to L.A. veterans of World War I (rededicated to all United States veterans of World War I in 1968). [29] The official ground breaking ceremony took place on December 21, 1921 with construction being completed in just over 16 months, on May 1, 1923. [30] Designed by John and Donald Parkinson, the original bowl's initial construction costs were $954,873. When the Coliseum opened in 1923, it was the largest stadium in Los Angeles with a capacity of 75,144. In 1930, however, with the Olympics due in two years, the stadium was extended upward to seventy-nine rows seats with two tiers of tunnels, expanding the seating capacity to 101,574. The now-signature Olympic torch was added. For a time it was known as Olympic Stadium. The Olympic cauldron torch which burned through both Games remains above the peristyle at the east end of the stadium as a reminder of this, as do the Olympic rings symbols over one of the main entrances. The football field runs east to west with the press box on the south side of the stadium. The current jumbotrons to each side of the peristyle were installed in 2017 and replaced a scoreboard and video screen that towered over the peristyle dating back to 1983; they replaced a smaller scoreboard above the center arch installed in 1972, which in turn supplanted the 1937 model, one of the first all-electric scoreboards in the nation. Over the years new light towers have been placed along the north and south rims. The large analog clock and thermometer over the office windows at either end of the peristyle were installed in 1955. In the mid-and late 1950s the press box was renovated and the "Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum" lettering and Olympic rings, lighted at night, were added to the eastern face of the peristyle tower. Between the double peristyle arches at the east end is the Coliseum's "Court of Honor"—plaques recognizing many of the memorable events and participants in Coliseum history, including a full list of 1932 and 1984 Olympic gold medalists. (The complete roster of honorees can be seen below).

Renovations

For many years the Coliseum was capable of seating over 100,000 spectators. In 1964 the stadium underwent its first major renovation in over three decades. Most of the original pale green wood-and-metal bench seating was replaced by individual theater-type chairs of dark red, beige, and yellow; these seats remained until 2018, though the yellow color was eliminated in the 1970s. The seating capacity was reduced to approximately 93,000.

The Coliseum was problematic as an NFL venue. At various times in its history, it was either the largest or one of the largest stadiums in the NFL. While this allowed the Rams and Raiders to set many NFL attendance records, it also made it extremely difficult to sell out. The NFL amended its blackout rule to allow games to be televised locally if they were sold out 72 hours before kickoff. However, due to the Coliseum's large size, Rams (and later Raiders) games were often blacked out in Southern California even in the teams' best years.

Partly due to this, from 1964 to the late 1970s it was common practice to shift the playing field to the closed end of the stadium and install end zone bleachers in front of the peristyle, limiting further the number of seats available for sale. For USC UCLA and USC-University of Notre Dame games, which often attracted crowds upward of 90,000, the bleachers were moved eastward and the field was re-marked in its original position. When a larger east grandstand was installed in 1977–1978 at the behest of Rams owner Carroll Rosenbloom, the capacity was just 71,500. With the upcoming 1984 Summer Olympic Games, a new track was installed and the playing field permanently placed inside it. However, the combination of the stadium's large, relatively shallow design, along with the presence of the track between the playing field and the stands, meant that some of the original end zone seats were as far from the field by the equivalent length of another football field. To address these and other problems, the Coliseum underwent a $15 million renovation before the 1993 football season which included the following: [1]

Additionally, for Raiders home games, tarpaulins were placed over seldom-sold sections, reducing seating capacity to approximately 65,000. The changes were anticipated to be the first of a multi-stage renovation designed by HNTB that would have turned the Coliseum into a split-bowl stadium with two levels of mezzanine suites (the peristyle end would have been left as is). However, after the 1994 Northridge earthquake, the $93 million was required from government agencies (including the Federal Emergency Management Agency) to repair earthquake damage, and the renovations demanded by the Raiders were put on hold indefinitely. The Raiders then redirected their efforts toward a proposed stadium at Hollywood Park in Inglewood before electing to move back to the Oakland–Alameda County Coliseum prior to the 1995 NFL season. The last element of the Northridge earthquake repairs was the replacement of the condemned press box with a new press box in 1995.

New videoboard

In August 2011, construction began on the Coliseum's west end on a new 6,000 square-foot high-definition video scoreboard, accompanying the existing video scoreboard on the peristyle (east end) of the stadium. [32] The video scoreboard officially went into operation on September 3, 2011, at USC football's home opener versus the University of Minnesota, with the game being televised on ABC.

2018–2019 Renovation project

After USC took over the Coliseum master lease in 2013, they began making plans for a major renovations needed and as stipulated in the master lease agreement. On October 29, 2015, the University of Southern California unveiled an estimated $270-million project for a massive renovation and restoration the Coliseum. [33] The upgrades included: replacing all seats in the stadium, construction of a larger and modern press box (that contains new box suites, premium lounges, a viewing deck, V.I.P. section and introduction of LED ribbon boards), adding new aisles and widening some seats, a new sound system, restoration and renaming of the Peristyle to the Julia and George Argyros Plaza, stadium wide Wi-Fi, two new High-definition video jumbotrons and scoreboard, new concession stands, upgraded entry concourses, new interior and exterior lighting, modernization of plumbing and electrical systems, and a reduction in capacity of about 16,000 seats, with the final total at approximately 78,500 seats. [34]

The plans were met with mixed reactions from the public. [35] The Los Angeles 2028 Olympic bid committee contemplated additional renovations to support its bid. [36]

On Monday, January 8, 2018, the University began the project to renovate and improve the Coliseum. The project, which is solely funded by the University, is scheduled to be completed by the 2019 football season and is the first major upgrade of the stadium in twenty years. [37] [15] The project budget increased from the initial estimate of $270 million to $315 million mainly due to the tight construction schedule. [5] [7]

Naming rights

On January 29, 2018, United Airlines, Inc. became the stadium's first naming rights partner. [2] [12] [38] Originally, Memorial Coliseum was to be retained in the name of the stadium by the condition of the Coliseum Commission's requirement in its master lease agreement with the University. [39] However, veterans groups and the new president of the Coliseum Commission raised concern about the new name, [40] while United Airlines did not approve of any change from United Airlines Memorial Coliseum and suggested that they were willing to step away from the deal. [41]

USC suggested on March 29, 2019 the name United Airlines Field at Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum instead of the planned United Airlines Memorial Coliseum. Although United Airlines also did not support this and considered withdrawal, [42] the two parties agreed to the name on June 7. [5]

Notable events

1920s

In 1923, Pomona College and USC played in the inaugural game at the Coliseum on October 6, [43] with the Trojans prevailing 23–7. Situated just across the street from Exposition Park, USC agreed to play all its home games at the Coliseum, a circumstance that contributed to the decision to build the arena.

From 1928 through 1981, the UCLA Bruins also played home games at the Coliseum. When USC and UCLA played each other, the "home" team (USC in odd-numbered years, UCLA in even), occupied the north sideline and bench, and its band and rooters sat on the north side of the stadium; the "visiting" team and its contingent took to the south (press box) side of the stadium. Excepting the mid-1950s and 1983–2007, the two teams have worn their home jerseys for the rivalry games for the Victory Bell; this tradition was renewed in 2008, even though the two schools now play at different stadiums. UCLA moved to the Rose Bowl in Pasadena in 1982.

1930s–1940s

1932 Summer Olympics at the Coliseum Ceremonie d'ouverture des Xe JO, a Los Angeles.jpg
1932 Summer Olympics at the Coliseum

In 1932, the Coliseum hosted the 1932 Summer Olympic Games; the first of two Olympic Games hosted at the stadium. The Coliseum served as the site of the field hockey, gymnastics, the show jumping part of the equestrian, and the track and field events along with the opening and closing ceremonies. [44] The 1932 games marked the introduction of the Olympic Village as well as the victory podium. [11]

The former Cleveland Rams of the National Football League relocated to the Coliseum in 1946, becoming the Los Angeles Rams; but the team later relocated again, first to Anaheim in 1980, then to St. Louis, Missouri in 1995 only to move back to Los Angeles in 2016. The Los Angeles Dons of the All-America Football Conference played in the Coliseum from 1946 to 1949, when the Dons franchise merged with its NFL cousins just before the two leagues merged. [45]

The Coliseum hosted the NCAA Men's Division I Outdoor Track and Field Championships in 1934, 1939, 1949 and 1955.

1950s–1960s

Among other sporting events held at the Coliseum over the years were games of Major League Baseball, which were held at the Coliseum when the Brooklyn Dodgers of the National League relocated to the West Coast in 1958. The Dodgers played here until Dodger Stadium was completed in time for the 1962 season. Even allowing for its temporary status, the Coliseum was extremely ill-suited for baseball due to the fundamentally different sizes and shapes of football and baseball fields. A baseball field requires roughly 2.5 times more area than a football gridiron, but the playing surface was just barely large enough to accommodate a baseball diamond. As a result, foul territory was almost nonexistent down the first base line, but was very expansive down the third base line with a very large backstop for the catcher. Sight lines also left much to be desired; some seats were as far as 710 feet (216 m) from the plate. Also, from baseball's point of view, the locker rooms were huge, because they were designed for football (not baseball) teams.

In order to shoehorn even an approximation of a baseball field onto the playing surface, the left-field fence was set at only 251 feet (77 m) from the plate. This seemed likely to ensure that there would be many "Chinese home runs", as such short shots were called at the time, and sportswriters began jokingly referring to the improvised park as "O'Malley's Chinese Theatre" [46] or "The House that Charlie Chan Built", drawing protests from the Chinese American community in the Los Angeles area. [47] They also expressed concern that cherished home run records, especially Babe Ruth's 1927 seasonal mark of 60, might easily fall as a result of 250-foot pop flies going over the left-field fence. Sports Illustrated titled a critical editorial "Every Sixth Hit a Homer!" [46] Players, too, complained, with Milwaukee Braves' ace Warren Spahn calling for a rule that would require any home run to travel at least 300 feet (91 m) before it could be considered a home run. [48]

Baseball Commissioner Ford Frick ordered the Dodgers to erect a 42 feet (12.8 m) screen in left field to prevent pop flies from becoming home runs. Its cables, towers, wires and girders were in play. [49] The "short porch" in left field looked extremely attractive to batters. In the first week of play during the 1959 season, the media's worst preseason fears seemed to be realized when 24 home runs were hit in the Coliseum, three of them by Chicago Cubs outfielder Lee Walls, not especially distinguished as a hitter. But pitchers soon adapted, throwing outside to right-handed hitters, requiring them to pull the bat hard if they wanted to hit toward left. Perhaps no player took better advantage than Dodgers outfielder Wally Moon, who figured out how to hit high fly balls that dropped almost vertically just behind the screen. By season's end, he had hit 19 homers, all but 5 of them in the Coliseum. In recognition, such homers were dubbed "Moon Shots." [48]

Nonetheless, the number of home runs alarmed Frick enough that he ordered the Dodgers to build a second screen in the stands, 333 ft (101 m) from the plate. A ball would have had to clear both screens to be a home run; if it cleared the first, it would have been a ground-rule double. However, the Dodgers discovered that the earthquake safety provisions of the Los Angeles building code forbade construction of a second screen. [48]

Unable to compel the Dodgers to fix the situation, the major leagues passed a note to Rule 1.04 stating that any stadium constructed after June 1, 1958, must provide a minimum distance of 325 feet (99 m) down each foul line. Also, when the expansion Los Angeles Angels joined the American League for 1961, Frick rejected their original request to use the Coliseum as a temporary facility. [50] This rule was revoked (or perhaps, simply ignored) when the Baltimore Orioles launched the "Retro Ballpark" era in 1993, with the opening of Camden Yards. With a right field corner of only 318 feet, this fell short. However, baseball fans heartily welcomed the "new/old" style, and all new ballparks since then have been allowed to set their own distances.

The Coliseum during the 1959 World Series. LA Coliseum 1959 World Series.jpg
The Coliseum during the 1959 World Series.

Late that season, the screen figured in the National League pennant race. The Braves were playing the Dodgers in the Coliseum on September 15, 1959, and Joe Adcock hit a ball that cleared the screen but hit a steel girder behind it and got stuck in the mesh. According to the ground rules, this should have been a home run. However, the umpires ruled it a ground-rule double. Then the fans shook the screen, causing the ball to fall into the seats. The umpires changed the call to a homer, only to change their minds again and rule it a ground-rule double. [49] Adcock was left stranded on second. The game was tied at the end of nine innings and the Dodgers won it in the tenth inning. [51] At the end of the regular season, the Dodgers and Braves finished in a tie. The Dodgers won the ensuing playoff and went on to win the World Series.

Although less than ideal for baseball due to its poor sight lines and short dimensions (left field at 251 feet [mentioned above] and power alleys at 320 feet (98 m)) it was ideally suited for large paying crowds. Each of the three games of the 1959 World Series played there drew over 92,000 fans, with game 5 drawing 92,706, a record unlikely to be seriously threatened anytime soon, given the smaller seating capacities of today's baseball parks. A May 1959 exhibition game between the Dodgers and the New York Yankees in honor of legendary catcher Roy Campanella drew 93,103, the largest crowd ever to see a baseball game in the Western Hemisphere until an exhibition game in 2008 between the Los Angeles Dodgers and the Boston Red Sox to mark the 50th anniversary of MLB in Los Angeles. The Coliseum also hosted the second 1959 MLB All-Star Game.

The Coliseum was also the site of John F. Kennedy's memorable acceptance speech at the 1960 Democratic National Convention. [52] It was during that speech that Kennedy first used the term "the New Frontier".

Super Bowl I - Los Angeles Coliseum SuperBowl I - Los Angeles Coliseum.jpg
Super Bowl I – Los Angeles Coliseum

The Rams hosted the 1949, 1951, and 1955 NFL championship games at the Coliseum. The Coliseum was the site of the very first NFL-AFL Championship Game in January 1967, an event since renamed the Super Bowl. It also hosted the Super Bowl in 1973, but future Super Bowls in the Los Angeles region would instead be hosted at the Rose Bowl, which has never had an NFL tenant. The venue was also the site of the NFL Pro Bowl from 1951 to 1972 and again in 1979.

In 1960, the American Football League's Los Angeles Chargers played at the Coliseum before relocating to San Diego the next year; the team moved back to its original home in 2017.

The United States men's national soccer team played its first match as the stadium in 1965, losing to Mexico in a 1966 World Cup qualifier. Also, the Los Angeles Wolves of the United Soccer Association played their home games in the Coliseum for one year (1967) before moving to the Rose Bowl.

1970s–1980s

In July 1972, the Coliseum hosted the "Super Bowl" of Motocross. The event was the first motocross race held inside a stadium. [53] It has evolved into the AMA Supercross championship held in stadiums across the United States and Canada.

On August 20, 1972, Wattstax, also known as the "Black-Woodstock", took place in the Coliseum. Over 100,000 Black residents of Los Angeles attended this concert for African American pride. Later, in 1973, a documentary was released about the concert.

In 1973, Evel Knievel used the entire distance of the stadium to jump 50 stacked cars at the stadium. Knievel launched his motorcycle from atop one end of the Coliseum, jumping the cars in the center of the field, and stopping high atop the other end. The jump was filmed by ABC Wide World of Sports. [54] Also in 1973, the Coliseum was host to Super Bowl VII which saw the AFC champion Miami Dolphins (17–0) defeat the NFC champion Washington Redskins (13–4), 14–7, and become the only team in NFL history to attain an undefeated season and postseason.

The Los Angeles Rams played their home games in the Coliseum until 1979, when they moved to Anaheim prior to the 1980 NFL Season. They hosted the NFC Championship Game in 1975 & 1978 in which they lost both times to the Dallas Cowboys by lopsided margins.

The Los Angeles Aztecs of the North American Soccer League used the Coliseum as their home ground in both the 1977 and 1981 seasons.

The Coliseum was also home to the USFL's Los Angeles Express between 1983 and 1985. In this capacity, the stadium also is the site of the longest professional American football game in history; a triple-overtime game on June 30, 1984 (a few weeks before the start of the 1984 Summer Olympics) between the Express and the Michigan Panthers, which was decided on a 24-yard game-winning touchdown by Mel Gray of the Express, 3:33 into the third overtime to give Los Angeles a 27–21 win. Until 2012, this game marked the only time in the history of pro football that there was more than one kickoff in overtime play in the same game. [55]

In 1982, the former Oakland Raiders moved in. The same year, UCLA decided to move out, relocating its home games to the Rose Bowl in Pasadena.

The Opening Ceremony of the 1984 Summer Olympics on July 28, 1984 Olympic Torch Tower of the Los Angeles Coliseum.jpg
The Opening Ceremony of the 1984 Summer Olympics on July 28, 1984

The Coliseum was also the site of the 1982 Speedway World Final, held for the first and, to this day, only time in the USA. The event saw Newport Beach native Bruce Penhall retain the title he had won in front of 92,500 fans at London's Wembley Stadium in 1981. An estimated 40,000 fans were at the Coliseum to see Penhall retain his title before announcing his retirement from motorcycle speedway to take up an acting role on the NBC drama series CHiPs .

Los Angeles hosted the 1984 Summer Olympics, and the Coliseum became the first stadium to host the Summer Olympic Games twice; again serving as the primary track and field venue and site of the opening and closing ceremonies. [56]

The Coliseum played host to the 2-day California World Music Festival on April 7–8, 1979. [57]

The Rolling Stones played at the stadium on their 1981 Tattoo You tour (October 9 & 11), [58] supported by George Thorogood, J. Geils Band, and a relatively unknown newcomer called Prince.

Soccer players Ricardo Bochini and Diego Maradona at the Coliseum, where the Argentine representative played v Mexico in May 1985 Bochini maradona coliseum.jpg
Soccer players Ricardo Bochini and Diego Maradona at the Coliseum, where the Argentine representative played v Mexico in May 1985

The Argentina national soccer team played a friendly match v Mexico on May 14, 1985, [59] as part of Argentina tour on North America prior to the 1986 FIFA World Cup that would be win by the squad managed by Carlos Bilardo.

Bruce Springsteen & The E Street Band concluded their Born in the U.S.A. Tour, with four consecutive concerts on September 27, 29–30 and October 2, 1985. These shows were recorded and eight songs from the show of September 30 appear on their box set, entitled Live 1975–85 . The September 27 show was released through Springsteen's website on April 5, 2019.

U2 played at the stadium on leg 3 of their breakout Joshua Tree tour in 1987 with two consecutive nights, November 17 and 18, 1987. They later returned on their Pop Mart tour, June 21, 1997.

Los Angeles natives Mötley Crüe played at the stadium on December 13, 1987 during the second leg of their "Girls, Girls, Girls" World Tour with fellow heavy metal and Los Angeles-based band Guns N' Roses as the opening act. Mötley Crüe at the time was one of the most popular and successful musical acts on the planet, while Guns N' Roses was one of the largest up-and-coming acts. Guns N' Roses would later return for four shows in October 1989 as the opening act for The Rolling Stones, then again on September 27, 1992 on their infamous co-headlining tour with Metallica.

The stadium played host to The Monsters of Rock Festival Tour, featuring Van Halen, Scorpions, Dokken, Metallica and Kingdom Come, on July 24, 1988. A second show was planned to take place on the 23rd, but was later canceled.

The stadium also played host to Amnesty International's Human Rights Now! Benefit Concert on September 21, 1988. The show was headlined by Sting and Peter Gabriel and also featured Bruce Springsteen & The E Street Band, Tracy Chapman, Youssou N'Dour and Joan Baez.

1990s–2000s

The Raiders began looking to move out of the Coliseum as early as 1986. In addition to the delays in renovating the stadium, they never drew well; even after they won Super Bowl XVIII in 1984, they had trouble filling it. The NFL scheduled all of the Raiders' appearances on Monday Night Football as road games since the Los Angeles market would have been blacked out due to the Coliseum not being sold out. Finally, in 1995, the Raiders left Los Angeles and returned to Oakland, leaving the Coliseum without a professional football tenant for the first time since the close of World War II.

The Legends Football League began as a halftime spectacular known as the Lingerie Bowl. The first 3 years (2004, 2005, 2006) were played at the Coliseum. From 2009 to 2011, a couple of Los Angeles Temptation games were played in the Coliseum. Beginning in 2015, the Temptation resumed playing at the Coliseum after 3 seasons at Citizens Business Bank Arena in Ontario.

The stadium hosted several matches, including the semi-finals and final, of the women's FIFA World Cup. The world's largest audience for a women's sporting event. The U.S. NWT beat China in a shoot-out. The 1991 CONCACAF Gold Cup soccer tournament was also held at the Coliseum. The United States national team beat Honduras in the final. The Coliseum also staged the final match of the Gold Cup in the 1996, 1998, and 2000 tournaments. In October 2000, United States played its last match at the stadium in a friendly versus Mexico. Since then, the team has preferred the Rose Bowl Stadium and Dignity Health Sports Park as home stadiums in the Greater Los Angeles.

The stadium hosted the K-1 Dynamite!! USA mixed martial arts event. The promoters claimed that 54,000 people attended the event, which would have set a new attendance record for a mixed martial arts event in the United States; however, other officials estimated the crowd between 20,000 and 30,000. [60]

In May 1959, the Dodgers had hosted an exhibition game against the reigning World Series champion New York Yankees at the Coliseum, a game which drew over 93,000 people. The Yankees won that game 6–2. As part of their west coast 50th anniversary celebration in 2008, the Dodgers again hosted an exhibition game against the reigning World Series Champions, the Boston Red Sox. [61] The middle game of a three-game set in Los Angeles, held on March 29, 2008, was also won by the visitors, by the relatively low score of 7–4, given the layout of the field – Red Sox catcher Jason Varitek had joked that he expected scores in the 80s.

As previously mentioned in the 1950s–1960s section, during 1958–1961, the distance from home plate to the left field foul pole was 251 feet (76.5 m) with a 42-foot (13 m) screen running across the close part of left field. Due to the intervening addition of another section of seating rimming the field, the 2008 grounds crew had much less space to work with, and the result was a left field foul line only 201 ft long (61.3 m), with a 60-foot (18 m) screen, which one Boston writer dubbed the "Screen Monster". [62] Even at that distance, 201 feet is also 49 ft (14.9 m) short of the minimum legal home-run distance. This being an exhibition game, balls hit over the 60 ft (18 m) temporary screen were still counted as home runs. There were only a couple of home runs over the screen, as pitchers adjusted (and Manny Ramirez did not play). [63] A diagram ( [64] ) illustrated the differences in the dimensions between 1959 and 2008:

2008 – LF 201 ft (61.3 m) – LCF 280 ft (85.3 m) – CF 380 ft (115.8 m) – RCF 352 ft (107.3 m) – RF 300 ft (91.4 m)
1959 – LF 251 ft (76.5 m) – LCF 320 ft (97.5 m) – CF 417 ft (127.1 m) – RCF 375 ft (114.3 m) – RF 300 ft (91.4 m)

A sellout crowd of 115,300 was announced, [65] which set a Guinness World Record for attendance at a baseball game, breaking the record set at a 1956 Summer Olympics baseball demonstration game between teams from the US and Australia at the Melbourne Cricket Ground.

The Coliseum formerly hosted the major U.S. electronic dance music festival Electric Daisy Carnival. It last hosted the event in 2010; following the drug-related death of an underage attendee at EDC that year, the festival's organizer Insomniac Events was blacklisted from hosting future events at the venue, and it subsequently moved to Las Vegas Motor Speedway beginning in 2011. [66] [67] [68] [69] [70]

In 2006, the Coliseum Commission focused on signing a long-term lease with USC; the school offered to purchase the facility from the state but was turned down. After some at-time contentious negotiations, with the university threatening in late 2007 to move its home stadium to the Rose Bowl, the two sides signed a 25-year lease in May 2008 giving the Coliseum Commission 8% of USC's ticket sales, approximately $1.5 million a year, but commits the agency to a list of renovations. [71]

In 2006, the Mexican group RBD held a concert during the RBD Tour USA for more than 70,000 people, the tickets sold out in less than 30 minutes. It was the highest attended event by a Mexican Musical group since Los Bukis' 1993 and 1996 concerts. Artists [72]

On June 23, 2008, the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum Commission announced they were putting the naming rights of the Coliseum on the market, predicting a deal valued at $6 million to $8 million a year. [71] The funds would go towards financing more than $100 million in renovations over the next decade, including a new video board, bathrooms, concession areas and locker rooms. [71] Additional seating was included in the renovation plans which increased the Coliseum's seating capacity to 93,607 in September 2008. [17] [18]

Panorama of Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum before renovations, with first game under the 2008 seating configuration: a capacity 93,607 crowd attends Ohio State at USC 2008-0913-USCOSU-Pan01.JPG
Panorama of Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum before renovations, with first game under the 2008 seating configuration: a capacity 93,607 crowd attends Ohio State at USC

On June 17, 2009, the Coliseum was the terminus for the Los Angeles Lakers 2009 NBA Championship victory parade. A crowd of over 90,000 attended the festivities, in addition to the throngs of supporters who lined the 2-mile parade route. The Coliseum peristyle was redesigned in purple and gold regalia to commemorate the team and the Lakers' court was transported from Staples Center to the Coliseum field to act as the stage. Past parades had ended at Staples Center, but due to the newly constructed L.A. Live complex, space was limited around the arena. [73]

2010s–present

On July 30, 2011, the LA Rising festival with Rage Against the Machine, Muse, Rise Against, Lauryn Hill, Immortal Technique and El Gran Silencio was hosted at the Coliseum.

On April 27, 2013, the stadium hosted the Stadium Super Trucks. [74]

On September 13, 2014, the Coliseum hosted the 5th-place game, 3rd-place game, and Final of the 2014 Copa Centroamericana in front of 41,969 spectators.

In August 2015, the Coliseum hosted the Opening and Closing Ceremonies for the 2015 Special Olympics World Summer Games. [75]

Los Angeles Rams
Aerial view of the Coliseum in August 2017 with the Los Angeles Rams field LA Memorial Coliseum aerial view, August 2017.jpg
Aerial view of the Coliseum in August 2017 with the Los Angeles Rams field

On January 12, 2016, the NFL gave permission for the St. Louis Rams to relocate back to Los Angeles. The Rams resumed play at the Coliseum, while awaiting completion of the Los Angeles Stadium at Hollywood Park in Inglewood. [76] [77]

On August 13, 2016, the Coliseum hosted its first NFL game at the stadium since 1994, as the Rams hosted Dallas Cowboys at a preseason game to a crowd of 89,140 people. On September 18, 2016, the Coliseum hosted the first Rams regular season home game since 1979, against the Seattle Seahawks. On January 6, 2018, the Coliseum hosted its first Rams playoff game since the 1978 NFC Championship game, against the defending NFC champion Atlanta Falcons. On November 19, 2018, the Coliseum hosted its first Monday Night Football game since 1985, and the first Monday night game the Rams hosted at the Coliseum exact date 40 years later, with the Rams taking on the Kansas City Chiefs. That game, which was originally scheduled to be played at Estadio Azteca in Mexico City that night, was moved to the Coliseum due to poor field conditions at the former. The Rams won the game, 54-51, over the Chiefs in the highest-scoring game in Monday Night Football history.


International Soccer Matches

In September of 2018, the Coliseum held a International Friendly between Guatemala and Argentina.

DateCompetitionTeamResTeam
7 September 2018International FriendlyFlag of Guatemala.svg  Guatemala 0-3Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina

2028 Summer Olympics

Los Angeles would again host the Summer Olympics in 2028. Athletics will be held at the Coliseum during the 2028 Summer Olympics as well as the closing ceremony. [78] During the 131st IOC Session, the International Olympic Committee officially awarded the 2028 Summer Olympics to Los Angeles July 31, 2017. [79] [80] The Coliseum will be the first stadium to host events for three different Olympic games. [12]

Seating and attendance

An aerial view of the Coliseum LA Memorial Coliseum aerial.jpg
An aerial view of the Coliseum

Seating capacity*

*For college football

Source:Ballparks.com [81]

Attendance records

1963 Billy Graham Crusade

The largest gathering in the Coliseum's history was a Billy Graham crusade which took place on September 8, 1963 with 134,254 [82] in attendance, noted by the Coliseum's website as an all-time record. With the renovations of 1964, the capacity of the Coliseum was reduced to roughly 93,000 for future events.

Sporting events

College football

Records differ between the 2006 USC football media guide and 2006 UCLA football media guide. (This may be due to only keeping records for "home" games until the 1950s.) The USC Media guide lists the top five record crowds as:

  • 1. 104,953 — vs. Notre Dame 1947 (USC home game; Highest attendance for a football game in the Coliseum)
  • 2. 103,303 — vs. UCLA 1939 (USC home game)
  • 3. 103,000 — vs. USC 1945 (UCLA home game)
  • 4. 102,548 — vs. USC 1954 (UCLA home game)
  • 5. 102,050 — vs. UCLA 1947 (USC home game)

The UCLA Media guide does not list the 1939 game against USC, and only lists attendance for the second game in 1945 for Coliseum attendance records. These are the top three listed UCLA record Coliseum crowds:

  • 1. 102,548 — vs. USC 1954 (UCLA home game)
  • 2. 102,050 — vs. USC 1947 (UCLA home game)
  • 3. 100,333 — vs. USC 1945 (USC home game; 1945's second of two meetings)

The largest crowd to attend a USC football game against an opponent other than UCLA or Notre Dame was 96,130 for a November 10, 1951 contest with Stanford University. The largest attendance for a UCLA contest against a school other than USC was 92,962 for the November 1, 1946 game with Saint Mary's College of California.

National Football League

The Los Angeles Rams played the San Francisco 49ers before an NFL record attendance of 102,368 on November 10, 1957. This was a record paid attendance that stood until September 2009 at Cowboys Stadium, though the overall NFL regular season record was broken in a 2005 regular season game between the Arizona Cardinals and San Francisco 49ers at Azteca Stadium in Mexico City. [83] [84] Both records were broken on September 20, 2009 at the first regular season game at Cowboys Stadium in Arlington, Texas between the Dallas Cowboys and New York Giants.

In 1958 the Rams averaged 83,680 for their six home games, including 100,470 for the Chicago Bears and 100,202 for the Baltimore Colts.

In their 13 seasons in Los Angeles the Raiders on several occasions drew near-capacity crowds to the Coliseum. The largest were 91,505 for an October 25, 1992 game with the Dallas Cowboys, 91,494 for a September 29, 1991 contest with the San Francisco 49ers, and 90,380 on January 1, 1984 for a playoff game with the Pittsburgh Steelers.

The Coliseum hosted the first AFL-NFL World Championship Game, later called the Super Bowl. The January 15, 1967 game, pitting the Green Bay Packers against the Kansas City Chiefs, attracted 61,946 fans—a lower-than anticipated crowd (by comparison, a regular-season game between the Packers and Rams a month earlier drew 72,418). For Super Bowl VII in 1973, which matched the Miami Dolphins against the Washington Redskins, the attendance was a near-capacity 90,182, a record that would stand until Super Bowl XI at the Rose Bowl. The 1975 NFC Championship Game between the Los Angeles Rams and Dallas Cowboys had an attendance of 88,919, still the largest crowd for a conference championship game since the conference-title format began with the 1970 season. The 1983 AFC Championship Game between the Raiders and Seattle Seahawks attracted 88,734.

The Rams' first NFL game at the Coliseum since 1979, after spending fifteen years at Anaheim Stadium and then twenty-one seasons in St. Louis, a pre-season contest against the Cowboys on August 13, 2016, drew a crowd of 89,140. The team's first regular-season home game, on September 18 against the Seattle Seahawks, attracted 91,046—the largest attendance for a Rams game at the Coliseum since 1959.

Major League Baseball

Contemporary baseball guides listed the theoretical baseball seating capacity as 92,500. Thousands of east-end seats were very far from home plate, and were not sold unless needed. The largest regular season attendance was 78,672, the Dodgers' home debut in the Coliseum, against the San Francisco Giants on April 18, 1958.

The May 7, 1959, exhibition game between the Los Angeles Dodgers and the 1958 World Series Champion New York Yankees, in honor of disabled former Dodgers catcher Roy Campanella, drew 93,103, which was a Major League Baseball record prior to 2008.

All three Dodgers home games in the 1959 World Series with the Chicago White Sox exceeded 90,000 attendance. Game 5 drew 92,706 fans, a major league record for a non-exhibition game.

The attendance for the exhibition game on March 29, 2008, between the Boston Red Sox and the Los Angeles Dodgers, was 115,300, [85] setting a new Guinness World Record for attendance at a baseball game. The previous record of an estimated 114,000 was in the 1956 Summer Olympics at Melbourne Cricket Ground for an exhibition game between teams from branches of American Military Forces and Australia.

Soccer

Several factors allowed the city of Los Angeles and its metropolitan area to become the footballing central United States, both for local and international football . Including the common demographic factor in the area since the mid-twentieth century began to hold thousands and then millions, especially Mexican Latin American immigrants ; California leading the city's fondness for soccer called . To this incipient city footballing tradition dating back to 1902. Initially found joins football stadiums hosted a small area like Wrigley Field (Chicago Stadium homonymous) and Veterans Memorial Stadium, however the growing fondness for football, moved the dispute encounters the biggest stage in the city, the Memorial Coliseum.

The first official match in the competition that developed serious property was on March 7, 1965, corresponding to the qualifiers for the World Cup 1966 England between the U.S. and Mexico that ended with a tie at two goals.

Although the stadium represents the second most active venue in the history of the U.S. national team (after Robert F. Kennedy), it has played only 20 games in it, the last one in 2000.

However, the national team with increased activity in the Memorial Coliseum is Mexico, who has played 61 games in the building. Even the Los Angeles stage is the second stage where most capped the Mexican representative, only after its official seat Estadio Azteca, more than any other enclosure in his country and the United States. It was the mid-1980s when the Mexican national team began to adopt it as usual venue of their friendly games in the neighboring country, largely by population uniqueness of Los Angeles, which places it as the second-biggest city with Mexicans in the world.

Given its capacity and importance of the area in which it is located, it has been striking for different club and international matches, both friendly and official. While it is emphasizing the fact it had not been considered as the venue for the 1994 World Cup, awarded to its neighbor the Rose Bowl Stadium.

Although the stadium has never hosted the MLS Cup (final title game of Major League Soccer) or the end of the Lamar Hunt U.S. Open Cup (the tournament's oldest soccer country), it was the seat of the first final of a professional soccer tournament in the country, when it was the setting for the 1967 championship, organized by the United Soccer Association.

Sculpture and commemorations

A pair of life-sized bronze nude statues of male and female athletes atop a 20,000 pound (9,000 kg) post-and-lintel frame formed the Olympic Gateway created by Robert Graham for the 1984 games. The statues, modeled on water polo player Terry Schroeder [86] and long jumper from Guyana, Jennifer Inniss, who participated in the games, were noted for their anatomical accuracy. A decorative facade bearing the Olympic rings was erected in front of the peristyle for the 1984 games, and the structure remained in place through that year's football season. The stadium rim and tunnels were repainted in alternating pastel colors that were part of architect Jon Jerde's graphic design for the games; these colors remained until 1987.

"Court of Honor" plaques

"Commemorating outstanding persons or events, athletic or otherwise, that have had a definite impact upon the history, glory, and growth of the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum" [87]

Olympic Cauldron

The Olympic cauldron (also known as the Olympic Torch) was built for the stadium's two Olympic Games. It is still lit during USC football games and for Los Angeles Rams games, and other special occasions (e.g., when the Olympics are being held in another city).

In addition, the torch has been lit on the following historic occasions:

Due to its location near Hollywood, the Coliseum has been used in numerous commercials, TV programs, videogames and films over the years.

Films

Television

Video games

See also

People

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Events and tenants
Preceded by
Bovard Field
Home of the USC Trojans
1923–present
Succeeded by
current stadium
Preceded by
Moore Field (Vermont Avenue Campus)
Home of the UCLA Bruins
1928–1981
Succeeded by
Rose Bowl
Pasadena
Preceded by
Cleveland Stadium
Edward Jones Dome
Home of the Los Angeles Rams
1946–1979
2016–present
Succeeded by
Anaheim Stadium
Los Angeles Stadium at Hollywood Park (under construction)
Preceded by
Olympisch Stadion
Amsterdam
Summer Olympics
Main Venue (Olympic Stadium)

1932
Succeeded by
Olympiastadion
Berlin
Preceded by
Olympisch Stadion
Amsterdam
Olympic Athletics competitions
Main Venue

1932
Succeeded by
Olympiastadion
Berlin
Preceded by
Ebbets Field
Home of the Los Angeles Dodgers
1958–1961
Succeeded by
Dodger Stadium
Preceded by
first stadium
Home of the Los Angeles Chargers
1960
Succeeded by
Balboa Stadium
Preceded by
Oakland–Alameda County Coliseum
Home of the Los Angeles Raiders
1982–1994
Succeeded by
Oakland–Alameda County Coliseum
Preceded by
none
Tulane Stadium
Host of the Super Bowl
I 1967
VII 1973
Succeeded by
Orange Bowl
Rice Stadium
Preceded by
Forbes Field
Host of the MLB All-Star Game
1959 2nd Game
Succeeded by
Municipal Stadium
Preceded by
none
Tampa Stadium
Host of the NFL Pro Bowl
1950 – 1972
1979
Succeeded by
Texas Stadium
Aloha Stadium
Preceded by
Grand Arena
Moscow
Summer Olympics
Opening and Closing Ceremonies (Olympic Stadium)

1984
Succeeded by
Seoul Olympic Stadium
Seoul
Preceded by
Grand Arena
Moscow
Olympic Athletics competitions
Main Venue

1984
Succeeded by
Seoul Olympic Stadium
Seoul
Preceded by
None
CONCACAF Gold Cup
Final Venue

1991
Succeeded by
Estadio Azteca
Mexico City
Preceded by
Estadio Azteca
Mexico City
CONCACAF Gold Cup
Final Venue

1996, 1998, 2000
Succeeded by
Rose Bowl
Pasadena
Preceded by
Metropolitan Stadium
Texas Stadium
Host of NFC Championship Game
1976
1979
Succeeded by
Metropolitan Stadium
Tampa Stadium
Preceded by
Miami Orange Bowl
Host of AFC Championship Game
1984
Succeeded by
Miami Orange Bowl
Preceded by
Stade de France
Paris
Summer Olympics
Closing Ceremony (Olympic Stadium)

2028
Succeeded by
TBD