Hollywood Bowl

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Hollywood Bowl
Hollywood bowl and sign.jpg
Hollywood Bowl in 2005 (with Hollywood Sign in background)
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Hollywood Bowl
Location within the Los Angeles metropolitan area
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Hollywood Bowl
Hollywood Bowl (California)
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Hollywood Bowl
Hollywood Bowl (the United States)
Location Los Angeles, California
Coordinates 34°06′46″N118°20′20″W / 34.11278°N 118.33889°W / 34.11278; -118.33889 Coordinates: 34°06′46″N118°20′20″W / 34.11278°N 118.33889°W / 34.11278; -118.33889
Public transit LAMetroLogo.svg Hollywood/Highland LACMTA Circle Red Line.svg  
Owner County of Los Angeles
Operator Los Angeles Philharmonic Association
TypeOutdoor Amphitheater
Seating typeSeats
Capacity 17,500
Construction
OpenedJuly 11, 1922
Renovated2003–2004
Website
Hollywood Bowl

The Hollywood Bowl is an amphitheater in the Hollywood Hills neighborhood of Los Angeles, California. It was named one of the 10 best live music venues in America by Rolling Stone Magazine in 2018. [1]

Hollywood Hills Neighborhood of Los Angeles in California, United States

The Hollywood Hills is a hillside neighborhood of the same name in the central region of the city of Los Angeles, California.

Contents

The Hollywood Bowl is known for its band shell, a distinctive set of concentric arches that graced the site from 1929 through 2003, before being replaced with a larger one beginning in the 2004 season. The shell is set against the backdrop of the Hollywood Hills and the famous Hollywood Sign to the northeast.

Shell (theater) theater

In theater, a shell is a curved, hard surface designed to reflect sound towards an audience.

Arch Curved structure that spans a space and may support a load

An arch is a vertical curved structure that spans an elevated space and may or may not support the weight above it, or in case of a horizontal arch like an arch dam, the hydrostatic pressure against it.

Hollywood Sign sign reading "HOLLYWOOD" located in Los Angeles, California, United States

The Hollywood Sign is an American landmark and cultural icon overlooking Hollywood, Los Angeles, California. It is situated on Mount Lee, in the Hollywood Hills area of the Santa Monica Mountains.

The "bowl" refers to the shape of the concave hillside the amphitheater is carved into. The Bowl is owned by the County of Los Angeles and is the home of the Hollywood Bowl Orchestra, the summer home of the Los Angeles Philharmonic, and the host venue to hundreds of musical events each year. [2] [ citation needed ]

Los Angeles County, California County in California, United States

Los Angeles County, officially the County of Los Angeles, in the Los Angeles metropolitan area of the U.S. state of California, is the most populous county in the United States, with more than 10 million inhabitants as of 2018. As such, it is the largest non–state level government entity in the United States. Its population is larger than that of 41 individual U.S. states. It is the third-largest metropolitan economy in the world, with a Nominal GDP of over $700 billion—larger than the GDPs of Belgium, Norway, and Taiwan. It has 88 incorporated cities and many unincorporated areas and, at 4,083 square miles (10,570 km2), it is larger than the combined areas of Delaware and Rhode Island. The county is home to more than one-quarter of California residents and is one of the most ethnically diverse counties in the U.S. Its county seat, Los Angeles, is also California's most populous city and the nation's second largest city with about 4 million people.

The Hollywood Bowl Orchestra (HBO) is a symphony orchestra which is managed by the Los Angeles Philharmonic Association and plays the vast majority of its performances at the Hollywood Bowl.

The Los Angeles Philharmonic is an American orchestra based in Los Angeles, California. It has a regular season of concerts from October through June at the Walt Disney Concert Hall, and a summer season at the Hollywood Bowl from July through September. Gustavo Dudamel is the Music Director, Esa-Pekka Salonen is Conductor Laureate, and Zubin Mehta is Conductor Emeritus.

It is located at 2301 North Highland Avenue, west of the (former) French Village, [3] [4] north of Hollywood Boulevard and the Hollywood/Highland subway station, and south of Route 101.

Highland Avenue (Los Angeles) street in Hollywood, United States of America

Highland Avenue is a north/south road in Los Angeles. It is a major thoroughfare that runs from Cahuenga Boulevard and the US 101 Freeway in Hollywood from the north end to Olympic Boulevard in Mid-City Los Angeles on the south end. Highland then is a small residential street from Olympic Boulevard south to Adams Boulevard. For through access, Highland swerves west into Edgewood Place which accesses La Brea Avenue.

Hollywood Boulevard street in Hollywood, Los Angeles, California, United States

Hollywood Boulevard is a major east–west street in Los Angeles, California. It begins in the west as a winding residential street at Sunset Plaza Drive in the Hollywood Hills West district. After crossing Laurel Canyon Boulevard, it proceeds due east as a major thoroughfare through Hollywood, Little Armenia and Thai Town to Vermont Avenue. It then runs southeast to its eastern terminus at Sunset Boulevard in the Los Feliz district. Parts of the boulevard are popular tourist destinations, primarily the fifteen blocks between La Brea Avenue east to Gower Street where the Hollywood Walk of Fame is primarily located.

Hollywood Freeway freeway in California

The Hollywood Freeway is one of the principal freeways of Los Angeles, California and one of the busiest in the United States. It is the principal route through the Cahuenga Pass, the primary shortcut between the Los Angeles Basin and the San Fernando Valley. It is considered one of the most important freeways in the history of Los Angeles and instrumental in the development of the San Fernando Valley. It is the second oldest freeway in Los Angeles. From its southern end at the Four Level Interchange to its intersection with the Ventura Freeway in the southeastern San Fernando Valley, it is signed as part of U.S. Route 101. It is then signed as State Route 170 north to its terminus at the Golden State Freeway.

History

Discovery and founding

The site of the Hollywood Bowl was chosen in 1919 by William Reed and his son H. Ellis Reed,[4] who were dispatched to find a suitable location for outdoor performances by the members of the newly formed Theatre Arts Alliance headed by Christine Wetherill Stevenson. The Reeds selected a natural amphitheater, a shaded canyon and popular picnic spot known as 'Daisy Dell' in Bolton Canyon which was chosen for its natural acoustics and its proximity to downtown Hollywood.[5] The Community Park and Art Association, then headed by F.W. Blanchard, was the first organization to begin the building the Bowl.

Christine Wetherill Stevenson American philanthropist

Christine Wetherill Stevenson was an heiress of the Pittsburgh Paint Company. Her dream was to build her own open-air theatre and hold her own plays.

One of the earliest performances at the Bowl was Hollywood High School’s Performance of Shakespeare’s Twelfth Night. The Women’s World Peace Concert was held on November 11, 1921. On November 11, 1921 the first Sunrise Service took place at the bowl, in one of its first major events. [5] With the building of the first actual stage, consisting of little more than wooden platforms in and canvas, The Bowl officially opened on July 11, 1922. [6] [ citation needed ]

Community Function

The Bowl began as a community space rather than a privately owned establishment. Proceeds from the early events at the Bowl went to financing the construction of new elements of the bowl such as a stage and seating in 1922 and 1923 respectively. In 1924, a backdrop to the stage was added. [7]

During the early years of the Bowl’s existence, concert tickets were kept at the lowest available price of 25 cents using the slogan popular prices will prevail, coined by F.W. Blanchard. While serving as the venue for concerts by the Los Angeles Philharmonic, the Bowl also served as a community space, being used for Easter services, the Hollywood Community Chorus, as well as Young Artists Nights where younger musicians could perform well known classical music. Children were also invited to perform at community events with the Los Angeles Philharmonic and the Hollywood Community Chorus, beginning with Sibelius’ Finlandia in 1921. [8]

The Bowl was home to much more than western music, hosting a variety of Native American tribal events, as well as international music ensembles. [8] [ citation needed ]

In 1924, the land was deeded to the County of Los Angeles. [6] [ citation needed ]

Women in the Bowl

Many of the key influential figures in the founding of the Hollywood Bowl were women, most notably the pianist Artie Mason Carter, whose connections with the Los Angeles arts patrons were vital in the early days of the Bowls existence. Christine Wetherill Stevenson and Marie Rankin Clarke, who both donated $21,000 to purchase the land on which the bowl was built. E.J. Wakeman, Leiland Atherton Irish, Harriet Clay Penman, and composers Gertrude Ross and Carrie Jacobs Bond all contributed to the Bowl through fundraising drives. [9]

Band shells

Lloyd Wright designed the second and third band shells. [10] The original 1926 shell, designed by the Allied Architects group, was considered unacceptable both visually and acoustically. Wright's 1927 shell had a pyramidal shape and a design reminiscent of southwest American Indian architecture. Its acoustics generally were regarded as the best of any shell in Bowl history. But its appearance was considered too avant-garde, or perhaps only ugly, and it was demolished at the end of the season. His 1928 wooden shell had the now-familiar concentric ring motif, covered a 120-degree arc, and was designed to be easily dismantled. Unfortunately it was neglected and ruined by water damage.

The Hollywood Bowl's 1980s-2003 appearance, with the acoustic fiberglass spheres. Hollywood Bowl (cropped).jpg
The Hollywood Bowl's 1980s-2003 appearance, with the acoustic fiberglass spheres.

For the 1929 season, the Allied Architects built the shell that stood until 2003, using a transite skin over a metal frame. Its acoustics, though not nearly as good as those of the Lloyd Wright shells, were deemed satisfactory at first, and its clean lines and white, semicircular arches were copied for music shells elsewhere. As the acoustics deteriorated, various measures were used to mitigate the problems, starting in the 1970s with an inner shell made from large cardboard tubes (of the sort used as forms for round concrete pillars), which were replaced in the early 1980s by large fiberglass spheres (both designed by Frank Gehry [11] ) that remained until 2003. These dampened out the unfavorable acoustics, but required massive use of electronic amplification to reach the full audience, particularly since the background noise level had risen sharply since the 1920s. The appearance underwent other, purely visual, changes as well, including the addition of a broad outer arch (forming a proscenium) where it had once had only a narrow rim, and a reflecting pool in front of the stage that lasted from 1953 till 1972. [12] Sculptor George Stanley, designer of the Oscar statuette, designed the Muse Fountain which has stood outside the Hollywood Bowl's main entrance since 1940. [13] [14]

The Hollywood Bowl in 2004, during construction of the new shell Hollywood Bowl USGS (cropped).jpg
The Hollywood Bowl in 2004, during construction of the new shell
Hollywood Bowl re-opening night, 2005 Hollywood Bowl 2005.jpg
Hollywood Bowl re-opening night, 2005

Shortly after the end of the 2003 summer season the 1929 shell was replaced with a new, somewhat larger, acoustically improved shell, which had its debut in the 2004 summer season. Preservationists fiercely opposed the demolition for many years, citing the shell's storied history. However, even when it was built, the 1929 shell was (at least acoustically) only the third-best shell in the Bowl's history, behind its two immediate predecessors. By the late 1970s, the Hollywood Bowl became an acoustic liability because of continued hardening of its transite skin. The new shell incorporates design elements of not only the 1929 shell, but of both the Lloyd Wright shells. During the 2004 summer season, the sound steadily improved, as engineers learned to work with its live acoustics. [15]

The current sound reinforcement system is a line-array configuration of multiple loudspeaker enclosures hung vertically in a curved manner, with the lower enclosures facing the front sections, and the upper enclosures angled towards the rear sections. It is manufactured by L'Acoustics, and includes state-of-the-art audio processing allowing each individual loudspeaker enclosure to be "tuned" and directed towards the near-precise location of the listener, regardless of where in the venue they are sitting. This results in the audience in the rear sections hearing the same audio, at the same level, as in the front sections. This electronic processing includes sound level, frequency equalization, occasional special effects, and time delay (sound passes through wire much faster than through air, therefore the sound coming from the speakers must be delayed, allowing the actual sound from the stage to "catch up" so both sources reach the listeners' ears simultaneously). The system is maintained by Rat Sound Systems, the same company that has provided audio for the Coachella Festival, since its inception. [16] [17] [ original research? ]

The 2004 shell incorporates the prominent front arch of the 1926 shell, the broad profile of the 1928 shell, and the unadorned white finish (and most of the general lines) of the 1929 shell. In addition, the ring-shaped structure hung within the shell, supporting lights and acoustic clouds, echoes a somewhat similar structure hung within the 1927 shell. During the 2004 season, because the back wall was not yet finished, a white curtain was hung at the back; beginning with the 2005 season, the curtain was removed to reveal a finished back wall. The architectural design for the shell was developed by the Los Angeles-based architectural practice Hodgetts and Fung, with the structural concept developed by the local office of Arup.

At the same time the new shell was being constructed the bowl received four new video screens and towers. During most concerts, three remotely operated cameras in the shell, and a fourth, manually operated camera among the box seats, provide the audience with close-up views of the musicians.

Hollywood Bowl Orchestra(s)

The Hollywood Bowl has had several house orchestras. A "Bowl Orchestra" performed in 1925, and a "Hollywood Bowl Orchestra" made a live recording in 1928. Later, the "Hollywood Bowl Symphony Orchestra" recorded made several classical recordings under music director Leopold Stokowski from 1945 to 1946, and released a number of recordings on the Capitol Records label in the 1950s and 1960s.

The Hollywood Bowl Orchestra was re-launched by the Los Angeles Philharmonic Association in 1991 under principal conductor John Mauceri, who retired in 2006. [18]

Early Conductors

The first appointed conductor of the Bowl ensemble was Emil Oberhoffer, who served for one year.[ citation needed ] Oberhoffer was proceeded by Alfred Hertz for two years.[ citation needed ] In 1925 Fritz Reiner migrated to the orchestra from the Cincinnati Symphony. Reiner was supplanted by Sir Henry Wood several years later.[ citation needed ]

Performances

The first season at the Hollywood Bowl began on July 11, 1922, with conductor Alfred Hertz and the Los Angeles Philharmonic. [2] [ citation needed ]

Aerial photograph showing the seating in front of the Hollywood Bowl Hollywood Bowl USGS 2010.jpg
Aerial photograph showing the seating in front of the Hollywood Bowl

In 1945, Leopold Stokowski formed the Hollywood Bowl Symphony Orchestra, drawing its players from among members of the Los Angeles Philharmonic and various film studios orchestras. He made a number of 78 rpm recordings with them for RCA Victor during his two seasons there (1945–46) before returning to New York. The Hollywood Bowl Symphony's name was retained for a series of Capitol LPs made in the 1950s under such conductors as Felix Slatkin and Carmen Dragon.[ citation needed ]

In 1951, a financial crisis closed the Hollywood Bowl during its summer season. Dorothy Chandler chaired a committee that organized a series of fundraising concerts that was able to reopen it. [19]

The film-and-orchestra concert Bugs Bunny on Broadway, subsequently called "Bugs Bunny at the Symphony," has played the Hollywood Bowl a record 21 times—19 times with the Los Angeles Phiharmonic, and twice with the Hollywood Bowl Orchestra, all conducted by George Daugherty. In September 2003, "Bugs Bunny On Broadway" was the final Los Angeles Philharmonic concert to be performed in the 1929 shell before its demolition started the following day, making way for the new shell.

Public Figures – include President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Mickey Rooney and Edward G. Robinson, Fonteyn and Nureyev, Nelson Eddy and Jeanette MacDonald, Simon and Garfunkel, and Abbott and Costello.

DancersMikhail Baryshnikov has danced there, as did Fred Astaire.

MusiciansAl Jolson, Judy Garland, Billie Holiday, Louis Armstrong, Art Tatum, Buddy Rich, Harry "Sweets" Edison, Nat "King" Cole, Oscar Peterson, Ella Fitzgerald, [20] Carrie Underwood, The Doors, Van Halen, Rod Stewart, José José, Kylie Minogue, Elton John, Alicia Keys, Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers as well as various other Jazz and non-Jazz musicians have headlined star-studded shows at the Bowl. [21]

1920s

1930s

Playboy Jazz Festival hosted in the Hollywood Bowl 2007 Playboy Jazz Festival 2007.jpg
Playboy Jazz Festival hosted in the Hollywood Bowl 2007
July 4th Fireworks Spectacular at the Hollywood Bowl 2010 Hollywoodbowlfireworks.jpg
July 4th Fireworks Spectacular at the Hollywood Bowl 2010

1940s

1950s

1960s

1970s

1980s

1990s

2000s

2010s

Early Ballet and Opera

Ballet dancer Maud Allen performed during the production of symphony Pathetique by Tschaikowsky under the direction of Alfred Hertz in 1926. Ernest Belcher arranged a ballet scene for Bowl Dedication Night, and dancers from the Belcher Ballet School performed the Beautiful Galatea,Enchanted Hour, and Venesive Festival. In 1932, the Belcher’s ballet was performed in Greek Costumes as a dedication to the Olympic-Games Athletes. Alexis and Theodore Kosloff performed the ballet Scheherazade with dancers from Hollywood and the Klosloff Dancing School between 1930s. In 1932, Theodore Klosloff performed the Flower.Also in 1932, the ballet Chopiniana was performed. Ballet Dancers Ruth St. Denis and Ted Shawn performed solo dances under direction of Hertz in 1927. Ruth St. Denis and Ted Shawn raised there arms to point at the California Stars during the Russian Ballet sur le point at the Hollywood Bowl. In 1928, Andreas Pavley, a tenor, and Serge Oukrainsky, a ballet dancer, performed at the Hollywood Bowl. Oukrainsky performed in the ballet La Fete a Robinson alone after Pavley’s death. In 1929, Norma Gould brought her Los Angelas dancers to the bowl to perform during Schubert’s Unfinished Symphony and Tschaikowsky’s Nut-Cracker Suite. In August, 1930, Michio Ito brought five dancers to the Hollywood Bowl to perform in the Russian Ballet Prince Igor. In 1931, Adolph Bolm performed at the Bowl for Debussy’s Les Nuages. He also performed The Spirt factory. This was later called the Mechanical Ballet composed by Alaxander Mosolov. Dancers Elise Reiman and Robert Bell also performed in the Mechanical Ballet. [5]

In 1931, Los Angeles Grand opera performed segments of Marouf. Early Hollywood Bowl appearances of opera include: Carmen,Aida, and Shanewis. In 1929, a concertized form of the opera Carmen was performed by Alice Genytle, Paul Althouse and Alexander Kisselburgh. The same cast later performed moments from the opera Tannhauser. In 1932, Samson and Delilah was performed by Paul Althouse, local singers, the Belcher Ballet and the Civic Chorus in concert style. In 1927, Elsa Alsen performed Santuzza in Cavalleria. In 1934,  Nina Koshetz performed Carmen and Nelson Eddy sang Escamillio in the opera Carmen. Koshetz also sang the lead in Tschaikowsky’s Eugene Oregon. In the 1930s, Verdi’s Aida was performed by Dan Gridley, Clemence Gifford, Eleanor Woodforde and Richard Bonelli with the Los Angeles Philharmonic Orchestra. In 1935, Lohengrin was performed by Jeanette Vreeland performing Elsa and Dan Gridley performing Lonhengrin. [47]

Hollywood Bowl Museum

The Hollywood Bowl Museum is located at the bottom of Peppertree Lane. It was formally known as the Tea Room which opened in 1984. [48] In 1996, it was rebuilt as the Edmund D. Edelman Hollywood Bowl Museum. [49] It features many historical exhibits including: Summer Nights: Jazz at the Bowl, Hollywood Bowl: Music For Everyone, Postcards from the Bowl, Beatles at the Bowl, Concert Programs and Live from the Bowl. These exhibits feature vintage photographs, vintage sound equipment, newspaper clippings, postcards, live video recordings, and live audio recordings. [49] The Hollywood Bowl Museum also features memorabilia and artifacts about the history of the Hollywood Bowl and performances.The Hollywood Bowl Museum features memorabilia and artifacts about the history of the Hollywood Bowl and performances. The museum includes the Hollywood Bowl Hall of Fame, whose honorees include John Williams, Reba McEntire, Garth Brooks, Stevie Wonder, Brian Wilson, Henry Mancini, Sarah Chang, Bernadette Peters, Frank Sinatra and more. [50] The Hollywood Bowl Museum offers free admission, free self guided tour options, free guided tour options and educational programs.The educational program, Music Mobile, is a volunteer program and offers musical instrument lessons to students twice a year. [48] If the Hollywood Bowl Museum is closed visitors can walk through "The Bowl Walk" which features historical photographs of the Hollywood Bowl. [48]

Films

The Hollywood Bowl is featured in the following motion pictures:

Television

Hollywood Bowl Green Initiatives

"The Hollywood Bowl is the first amphitheater in California to be certified as an Audubon Society Cooperative Sanctuary." [53] Los Angeles Philharmonic Association and Los Angeles County are partners with the Hollywood Bowl and encourage recycling. The Hollywood Bowl has many recycling bins located throughout the venue. The Hollywood Bowl has also partnered with Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation authority since 1953 and provides the public with a green alternative to driving. Know Before You Go is provided as a detailed guide offering public transport information and free bike parking options. The Hollywood Bowl has waterless urinals and flush reducing toilets to preserve water as well as a satellite-based irrigation system to control water use. This irrigation system also provides water based on the needs of animal life. The Hollywood Bowl has stainless steel grates and water filters to keep its irrigation system clean. [53]

Animal Life

Plant-life

See also

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Further reading