|Pan American Games|
Official logo of the Games
|Abbreviation||Pan Am Games|
|First event||1951 Pan American Games in Buenos Aires, Argentina|
|Occur every||four years|
|Last event||2019 Pan American Games in Lima, Peru|
|Next event||2023 Pan American Games in Santiago, Chile|
|Purpose||Multi-sport event for nations on the American continents|
The Pan American Games (also known colloquially as the Pan Am Games) is a major sporting event in the Americas featuring summer sports, in which thousands of athletes participate in a variety of competitions. The competition is held among athletes from nations of the Americas, every four years in the year before the Summer Olympic Games. The only Winter Pan American Games were held in 1990. In 2021, there will be a Junior Pan American Games for young athletes.The Pan American Sports Organization (PASO) is the governing body of the Pan American Games movement, whose structure and actions are defined by the Olympic Charter.
The XVIII Pan American Games were held in Lima from July 26–August 11, 2019; the XIX Pan American Games will be held in Santiago between 20 October-5 November, 2023. Since the XV Pan American Games in 2007, host cities are contracted to manage both the Pan American and the Parapan American Games,in which athletes with physical disabilities compete with one another. The Parapan American Games are held immediately following the Pan American Games.
The Pan American Games Movement consists of international sports federations (IFs), National Olympic Committees (NOCs) that are recognized by PASO, and organizing committees for each specific Pan American Games. As the decision-making body, PASO is responsible for choosing the host city for each Pan American Games. The host city is responsible for organizing and funding a celebration of the Games consistent with the Olympic Charter (since PASO is affiliated with the IOC, the Olympic Charter) and rules. The Pan American Games program, consisting of the sports to be contested at the Games, is determined by PASO. The celebration of the Games encompasses many rituals and symbols, such as the flag and torch, and the opening and closing ceremonies. Over 5,000 athletes compete at the Pan American Games in 36 sports and nearly 400 events. The first, second, and third-place finishers in each event receive gold, silver, and bronze medals, respectively.
The idea of holding a Pan American Games was first raised at the 1932 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles, where Latin American representatives of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) suggested that a competition among all the countries in the Americas should be created.The first event called the Pan American Games took place in Dallas in 1937 as part of the Greater Texas & Pan-American Exposition, but it attracted so little attention it has never counted in the records of the competition.
At the first Pan American Sports Congress, held in Buenos Aires in 1940, the participants decided that the first games should be held in Buenos Aires in 1942. The plans had to be postponed because of World War II. A second Pan American Sports Congress held in London during the 1948 Summer Olympics reconfirmed Buenos Aires as the choice of host city for the inaugural games, which were held in 1951. The games offered 18 sports.Countries that were part of the Commonwealth of Nations such as Canada did not compete at the first Pan American Games. The second games were held in Mexico City, Mexico. Competitions started on March 12 and included 2,583 athletes from 22 countries, competing in 17 sports. The Pan American Games have been held subsequently every four years.
While the inaugural 1951 Games hosted 2,513 participants representing 14 nations, the most recent 2015 Pan American Games involved 6,132 competitors from 41 countries.During the games most athletes and officials are housed in the Pan American Games village. This village is intended to be a self-contained home for all the participants. It is furnished with cafeterias, health clinics, and locations for religious expression.
PASO allows nations to compete that do not meet the strict requirements for political sovereignty that other international organizations demand. As a result, colonies and dependencies are permitted to set up their own National Olympic Committees. Examples of this include territories such as Puerto Rico and Bermuda which compete as separate nations despite being legally under the jurisdiction of another power.
There have been attempts to hold Winter Pan American Games throughout the history of the games, but these have had little success.An initial attempt to hold winter events was made by the organizers of the 1951 Pan American Games in Buenos Aires, who planned to stage winter events later in the year but dropped the idea due to lack of interest. Reliable winter snow in the Americas is limited to two countries, the United States and Canada. Andean winter weather is often fickle, and higher elevation areas in South America with annual snow often lack the infrastructure to host major sporting events. Another difficulty is that the Americas cover two hemispheres, which creates scheduling issues related to reverse seasons.
Lake Placid, New York tried to organize Winter Games in 1959 but, again, not enough countries expressed interest. The plans were eventually cancelled.
In 1988, members of PASO voted to hold the first Pan American Winter Games at Las Leñas, Argentina in September 1989. It was further agreed that Winter Games would be held every four years. Lack of snow however, forced the postponement of the games until September 16–22, 1990 – the Slalom, Giant Slalom, and Super G were staged. The United States and Canada won all 18 medals.when only eight countries sent 97 athletes to Las Leñas. Of that total, 76 were from just three countries: Argentina, Canada, and the United States. Weather was unseasonably warm and again there was little snow, so only three Alpine Skiing events
PASO awarded the second Pan American Winter Games to Santiago, Chile for 1993. The United States warned that it would not take part unless a full schedule of events was held. The Santiago organizing committee eventually gave up on planning the Games after the United States Olympic Committee declined to participate, and the idea has not been revived since.
On January 16, 2019 PASO announced the creation of the Junior Pan American Games. This event, inspired by the Youth Olympic Games, is exclusive for athletes who are under 21 years of age, with less requirements on infrastructure and cost.
For the first edition of the games, Panam Sports accepted candidate cities until January 31. Cali, Colombia, Santa Ana, El Salvador and Monterrey, Mexico were accepted as candidate cities.Cali, Colombia was chosen as the host city at the Executive Committee in San José, Costa Rica on March 27, 2019.
The Pan American Games Movement encompasses a number of national and international sporting organizations and federations, recognized media partners, athletes, officials, judges, and every other person and institution that agrees to abide by the rules of the Olympic Charter (which is the same as PASO's charter).As the umbrella organization of the Olympic Movement, PASO is responsible for selecting the host city, overseeing the planning of the Pan American Games, updating and approving the sports program, and negotiating sponsorship and broadcasting rights.
The Pan American Games Movement is made of three major elements:
Spanish and English are the official languages of the Pan American Games Movement. The other language used at each Pan American Games is the language of the host country. For example: at the 2007 Pan American Games who was held in Brazil, the first language was Brazilian Portuguese. Every proclamation (such as the announcement of each country during the parade of nations in the opening ceremony) is spoken in these three languages or the main two depending on whether the host country is an English or Spanish speaking country.
The Pan American Games Movement uses symbols to represent the ideals embodied in the Pan American Games charter. The Pan American Sports Organization flag displays the PASO logo on a white background. To highlight the close association between the International Olympic Committee and the Pan Am Games, the Olympic Rings were added to the flag in 1988. The flag has been hoisted during each celebration of the Games.The flag was hoisted while the Olympic Hymn was played until the 2007 Games. In 2011 Games, the new anthem was played for the first time. The anthem itself was composed in 2008.
Similar to the Olympic flame, the Pan American Games flame is lit well before the Games are to commence. The flame was lit for the first games in Olympia, Greece. For subsequent games, the torch has been lit by Aztec people in ancient temples, first in the Cerro de la Estrella and later in the Pyramid of the Sun at the Teotihuacan Pyramids.The only exception was for the São Paulo games in 1963, when the torch was lit in Brasília by the indigenous Guaraní people. An Aztec then lights the torch of the first relay bearer, thus initiating the Pan American Games torch relay that will carry the flame to the host city's main stadium, where it plays an important role in the opening ceremony. Since 2011, the flame is required to be held during the games in the stadium which will host the athletics competition. If the Opening ceremony and athletics competition will be held in different stadiums, the flame will be required to move from one stadium to the other. Exceptions occurred in the 1987, 1999 and 2007 Games, each of which had only one cauldron.
The Pan American Games mascot, an animal or human figure representing the cultural heritage of the host country, was introduced in 1979 in San Juan, Puerto Rico.It has played an important part on the Games identity and promotion. The mascot of the most recent Pan American Games, in Lima, was Milco, an Inca statue.
List of Games mascots:
As mandated by the Olympic Charter, various elements frame the opening ceremony of the Pan American Games. million, with much of the cost incurred in the artistic segment.The ceremony typically starts with the hoisting of the host country's flag and a performance of its national anthem. The host nation then presents artistic displays of music, singing, dance, and theater representative of its culture and history. The artistic presentations have grown in scale and complexity as successive hosts attempt to provide a ceremony that outlasts its predecessor's in terms of memorability. The opening ceremony of the Guadalajara Games reportedly cost $20
After the artistic portion of the ceremony, the athletes parade into the stadium grouped by nation. Argentina is traditionally the first nation to enter in order to honor the origins of the Pan American Games, similar to how Greece enters first in the Olympic Games as the originator. Nations usually then enter the stadium alphabetically according to the Spanish language. During the 1995 Pan American Games, which was hosted in Mar del Plata, Argentina, the Argentine flag entered the stadium first, while the country's delegation entered last (similar to what happened with Greece in the 2004 Summer Olympics). Speeches are given, formally opening the Games. Finally, the Pan American Games torch is brought into the stadium and passed on until it reaches the final torch carrier—often a well-known and successful athlete from the host nation—who lights the Pan American Games flame in the stadium's cauldron.
The closing ceremony of the Pan American Games takes place after all sporting events have concluded. Flag-bearers from each participating country enter the stadium, followed by the athletes who enter together, without any national distinction.
Two national flags along with the flag of PASO are hoisted while the corresponding national anthems are played: the flag of the current host country and the flag of the country hosting the next Pan American Games.The president of the organizing committee and the president of PASO make their closing speeches, the Games are officially closed, and the Pan American Games family is invited to participate at the next Games. The Pan American flame is then extinguished. In what is known as the Antwerp Ceremony, the mayor of the city that organized the Games transfers a special Pan American Games flag to the president of PASO, who then passes it on to the mayor of the city hosting the next Games. After these compulsory elements, the next host nation briefly introduces itself with artistic displays of dance and theater representative of its culture. The closing ceremony includes a fifteen-minute presentation from the next host city.
At the conclusion of each event, medals are ceremoniously distributed to the first, second and third-place finishers. The participants stand a three-tiered podium while receiving their medals.After the medals are given out by an IOC or PASO member, the national flags of the three medalists are raised while the national anthem of the gold medalist's country plays. Volunteering citizens of the host country act as hosts during the medal ceremonies, as they aid the officials who present the medals and act as flag-bearers. For every Pan American Games event, the respective medal ceremony is held, at most, one day after the event's final. When athletics was scheduled for the last days, the men's marathon is held in the last day of the games, and the award ceremony is held before or during the closing ceremonies.
The athletes or teams who place first, second, or third in each event receive medals. The winners receive gold medals, while the runners-up receive silver medals and the third-place athletes are awarded bronze medals. In events contested by a single-elimination tournament (most notably boxing), third place might not be determined and both semifinal losers receive bronze medals. PASO does not keep statistics of medals won, but National Olympic Committees and the media record medal statistics as a measure of success.
The top ten nations all time at the Pan American Games (minus medals won at the Winter Pan American Games):
|Totals (10 nations)||4765||4551||5037||14353|
|Totals (2 nations)||6||6||6||18|
The host city for a Pan American Games is usually chosen six years ahead of their celebration. The process of selection is carried out in two phases that span a two-year period. The prospective host city applies to its country's Olympic Committee; if more than one city from the same country submits a proposal to its NOC, the national committee typically holds an internal selection, since only one city per NOC can be presented to the Pan American Sports Organization for consideration. Once the deadline for submission of proposals by the NOCs is reached, the first phase (Application) begins with the applicant cities asked to complete a questionnaire regarding several key criteria related to the organization of the Pan American Games Games.In this form, the applicants must give assurances that they will comply with the Olympic Charter and with any other regulations established by PASO's Executive Committee. The evaluation of the filled questionnaires by a specialized group provides PASO with an overview of each applicant's project and their potential to host the Games. On the basis of this technical evaluation, PASO's Executive Board selects the applicants that will proceed to the candidature stage.
Once the candidate cities are selected, they must submit to PASO a bigger and more detailed presentation of their project as part of a candidature file. Each city is thoroughly analyzed by an evaluation commission. This commission will visit the candidate cities, interviewing local officials and inspecting prospective venue sites, and submit a report on its findings one month before the PASO's final decision. During the interview process the candidate city must guarantee that it will be able to fund the Games.After the work of the evaluation commission, a list of candidates is presented to the General Session of PASO, which is assembled in a country that must not have a candidate city in the running. The members of PASO gathered in the Session have the final vote on the host city. Once elected, the host city bid committee (together with the NOC of the respective country) signs a Host City Contract with PASO, officially becoming a Pan American Games host nation and host city.
The Pan American Games have been hosted by 16 cities in 11 countries. Mexico and Canada have hosted three Pan American Games each, more than any other nation. Among cities, only Winnipeg and Mexico City have played host to the Pan American Games more than once, each hosting twice.
|Edition||Year||Host City||Host Nation||Opened by||Start Date||End Date||Nations||Competitors||Sports||Events||Top Placed Team|
|I||1951||Buenos Aires||President Juan Domingo Perón||February 25||March 9||21||2,513||18||140|
|II||1955||Mexico City||President Adolfo Ruiz Cortines||March 12||March 26||22||2,583||17||146|
|III||1959||Chicago||Milton S. Eisenhower||August 27||September 7||25||2,263||15||166|
|IV||1963||São Paulo||Adhemar de Barros||April 20||5 May||22||1,665||19||160|
|V||1967||Winnipeg||Prince Philip||July 23||August 6||29||2,361||19||169|
|VI||1971||Cali||President Misael Pastrana Borrero||July 30||August 13||32||2,935||17||164|
|VII||1975||Mexico City||President Luis Echeverría||October 12||October 26||33||3,146||19||190|
|VIII||1979||San Juan||Carlos Romero Barceló||July 1||July 15||34||3,700||21||249|
|IX||1983||Caracas||President Luis Herrera Campins||August 14||August 29||36||3,426||22||249|
|X||1987||Indianapolis||Vice-President George H. W. Bush||August 7||August 23||38||4,360||27||296|
|XI||1991||Havana||President Fidel Castro||August 2||August 18||39||4,519||28||331|
|XII||1995||Mar del Plata||President Carlos Menem||March 12||March 26||42||5,144||34||408|
|XIII||1999||Winnipeg||Governor General Roméo LeBlanc||July 23||August 8||42||5,083||33||330|
|XIV||2003||Santo Domingo||President Hipólito Mejía||August 1||August 17||42||5,223||34||338|
|XV||2007||Rio de Janeiro||Carlos Arthur Nuzman||July 13||July 29||42||5,633||33||331|
|XVI||2011||Guadalajara||President Felipe Calderón||October 14||October 30||42||5,996||36||361|
|XVII||2015||Toronto||Governor General David Johnston||July 10||July 26||41||6,132||36||364|
|XVIII||2019||Lima||President Martín Vizcarra||July 26||August 11||41||6,668||39||419|
|XIX||2023||Santiago||October 20||November 5||TBD||TBD||TBD||TBD||TBD|
All 41 countries whose National Olympic Committee is recognized by the Pan American Sports Organization compete at the Pan American Games.
The modern Olympic Games or Olympics are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions. The Olympic Games are considered the world's foremost sports competition with more than 200 nations participating. The Olympic Games are held every four years, alternating between the Summer and Winter Games every two years in the four-year period.
The 1980 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXII Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event held in Moscow, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union from 19 July to 3 August. A total of 5,179 athletes representing 80 National Olympic Committees (NOCs) participated in 203 events in 22 sports. They were the first Games to be staged in a communist nation.
The 1954 Asian Games, officially known as the Second Asian Games – Manila 1954 was a multi-sport event held in Manila, Philippines, from May 1 to 9, 1954. A total of 970 athletes from 19 Asian National Olympic Committees (NOCs) competed in 76 events from eight sports. The number of participating NOCs and athletes were larger than the previous Asian Games held in New Delhi in 1951. This edition of the games has a different twist where it did not implement a medal tally system to determine the overall champion but a pointing system. The pointing system is a complex system where each athlete were given points according to their achievement like position in athletics or in swimming. In the end the pointing system showed to be worthless as it simply ranked the nations the same way in the medal tally system. The pointing system was not implemented in future games ever since. Jorge B. Vargas was the head of the Philippine Amateur Athletic Federation and the Manila Asian Games Organizing Committee. With the second-place finish of the Philippines, only around 9,000 spectators attended the closing ceremony at the Rizal Memorial Stadium. The events were broadcast on radio live at DZRH and DZAQ-TV ABS-3 on delayed telecast.
The sixth Pan American Games were held in Cali, Colombia, from July 30 to August 13, 1971. A total of 2,935 athletes from 32 countries participated in seventeen sports.
The 14th Pan American Games were held in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, from August 1 to 17, 2003. The successful bid for the games was made in the mid-1990s, when Dominican Republic had one of the highest growth rates in Latin America.
The 2007 Pan American Games, officially known as the XV Pan American Games, were a major continental multi-sport event that took place in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from July 13 to 29, 2007. A total of 5,633 athletes from 42 National Olympic Committees (NOCs) competed in 332 events in 34 sports and in 47 disciplines. During the Games, 95 new Pan American records were set; 2,196 medals were awarded; 1,262 doping control tests were performed and about 15,000 volunteers participated in the organization of the event, which was an Olympic qualification for 13 International Federations (IFs).
The 2011 Pan American Games, officially the XVI Pan American Games, was an international multi-sport event that was held from October 14–30, 2011, in Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico. Some events were held in the nearby cities of Ciudad Guzmán, Puerto Vallarta, Lagos de Moreno and Tapalpa. It was the largest multi-sport event of 2011, with approximately 6,000 athletes from 42 nations participating in 36 sports. Both the Pan American and Parapan American Games were organized by the Guadalajara 2011 Organizing Committee (COPAG). The 2011 Pan American Games were the third Pan American Games hosted by Mexico and the first held in the state of Jalisco. Previously, Mexico hosted the 1955 Pan American Games and the 1975 Pan American Games, both in Mexico City. The 2011 Parapan American Games were held 20 days after the Pan American Games have ended.
The Pan American Sports Organization is an international organization which represents the current 41 National Olympic Committees of North America, South America, Central America and the Caribbean.
The 2007 Pan American Games, officially known as the XV Pan American Games, were a continental multi-sport event held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from July 13 to July 29, 2007. At the Games, 5,633 athletes selected from 42 National Olympic Committees (NOCs) participated in 332 events in 34 sports divided into 47 disciplines. According to the Rio de Janeiro Organizing Committee for the Pan American Games, 2,196 medals were awarded for every winning athlete, including individuals from teams, during 334 awards ceremonies.
The 2011 Pan Arab Games also known as the 12th Pan Arab Games took place in Doha, Qatar from December 6 to 23, 2011. This was the first time that the country had hosted the multi-sport event. Khalifa International Stadium was the main venue for the competition.
The 2014 Summer Youth Olympic Games, officially known as II Summer Youth Olympic Games, were the second Summer Youth Olympic Games, an international sports, education and cultural festival for teenagers, held from 16 to 28 August 2014 in Nanjing, China. These were the second Olympic Games held in China after the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, making it the first country to host both regular and Youth Olympics.
The 2019 Pan American Games, officially the XVIII Pan American Games and commonly known as the Lima 2019 Pan-Am Games or Lima 2019, were a multi-sport event governed by the Panam Sports Organization, was held in Lima, Peru from July 26 to August 11, 2019, with preliminary rounds in certain events having begun on July 24, 2019.
The opening ceremony of the 2011 Pan American Games took place on October 14, 2011, beginning at 20:00 CDT at Omnilife Stadium in Zapopan, a suburb of Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico. The opening ceremony was directed and produced by Five Currents, which also produced the ceremonies at the 2002 Winter Olympics and the 2007 Pan American Games.
The 2011 Pan American Games medal table is a list of National Olympic Committees (NOCs) ranked by the number of gold medals won by their athletes during the 2011 Pan American Games, held in Guadalajara, capital of the Mexican state of Jalisco, from October 14 to October 30, 2011. Approximately 6,000 athletes from 41 NOCs participated in 361 events in 36 sports.
The Closing Ceremony of the 2011 Pan American Games took place on October 30, 2011, beginning at 6:00 pm CST at Omnilife Stadium in Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico.
During the Parade of Nations at the 2011 Pan American Games opening ceremony, held beginning at 18:00 CDT on February 14, 2011, 42 athletes bearing the flags of their respective nations led their national delegations as they paraded into Omnilife Stadium in the host city of Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico.
Four cities submitted bids to host the 2019 Pan American Games and Parapan games that were recognized by the Pan American Sports Organization (PASO), all four of which made the PASO Executive Committee's shortlist. PASO selected a host city for the 2019 Pan American Games at the Westin Harbour Castle Hotel in Toronto, Canada on October 11, 2013, which Lima won. The other shortlisted cities were Santiago, Chile, La Punta, Argentina, and Ciudad Bolívar, Venezuela.
Grenada competed at the 2015 Pan American Games in Toronto, Ontario, Canada from July 10 to 26, 2015.
The 2015 Pan American Games medal table is a list of National Olympic Committees (NOCs) ranked by the number of gold medals won by their athletes during the 2015 Pan American Games, held in Toronto, Canada from July 10 to 26, 2015. Approximately 6,132 athletes from 41 NOCs participated in 364 events in 36 sports and 51 disciplines.
The 2015 Pan American Games Parade of Nations occurred at the 2015 Pan American Games opening ceremony, held beginning at 18:45 Eastern Daylight Time (UTC−4) on July 10, 2015. 41 athletes bearing the flags of their respective nations led their national delegations as they paraded into Pan Am Ceremonies Venue in the host city of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
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