President of Peru

Last updated
President of the Republic of Peru
Presidente de la República del Perú
Gran Sello de la Republica del Peru.svg
Presidential Standard of Peru.svg
Presidential Standard
Martin Vizcarra Cornejo (cropped).png
Incumbent
Martín Vizcarra

since March 23, 2018
Residence Government Palace
Appointer Direct popular election
Term length Five years
Not eligible for re-election immediately
Inaugural holder José de San Martín (de facto)
José de la Riva Agüero (first to bear the title)
FormationFebruary 28, 1823
Deputy Vice President of Peru
Website www.presidencia.gob.pe
Gran Sello de la Republica del Peru.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Peru
Constitution
Flag of Peru.svg Peruportal

The President of Peru (Spanish : Presidente del Perú) officially called the President of the Republic of Peru (Spanish : Presidente de la República del Perú) is the head of state and head of government of Peru and represents the republic in official international matters. Presidents de facto who assumed power through political coups are also included in this list.

Spanish language Romance language

Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in the Americas and Spain. It is a global language and the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese.

A head of state is the public persona who officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state. Depending on the country's form of government and separation of powers, the head of state may be a ceremonial figurehead or concurrently the head of government. In a parliamentary system the head of state is the de jure leader of the nation, and there is a separate de facto leader, often with the title of prime minister. In contrast, a semi-presidential system has both heads of state and government as the leaders de facto of the nation.

Head of government is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments. The term "head of government" is often differentiated from the term "head of state", as they may be separate positions, individuals, or roles depending on the country.

The last directly elected President of Peru was Pedro Pablo Kuczynski, from July 28, 2016 to March 21, 2018, when he resigned from office. Following the traditional constitutional succession, First Vice President Martín Vizcarra, former governor of Moquegua, Minister of Transportation, and Ambassador to Canada, succeeded him in office as the 67th President of Peru, on 23 March 2018.

Pedro Pablo Kuczynski President of Peru (2016-2018)

Pedro Pablo Kuczynski Godard, better known simply as PPK, is a Peruvian economist, politician and public administrator who served as the 66th President of Peru. He was previously the Prime Minister of Peru from 2005 to 2006. His administration ended on 23 March 2018, following his address to the nation two days earlier, announcing his resignation.

Martín Vizcarra president of Perú

Martín Alberto Vizcarra Cornejo is a Peruvian engineer and politician who is the 67th and current President of Peru. Vizcarra previously served as Governor of the Moquegua department (2011–2014), Minister of Transport and Communications of Peru (2016–2017), and Ambassador of Peru to Canada (2017–2018).

The last coup d'état was performed by Alberto Fujimori in 1992, who is now imprisoned for human rights violations and corruption.

Alberto Fujimori 44th, 45th, and 46th President of Peru

Alberto Fujimori Fujimori is a Peruvian former politician who served as the President of Peru from 28 July 1990 to 22 November 2000. His government is credited with the creation of Fujimorism, defeating the Shining Path insurgency and restoring Peru's macroeconomic stability. Fujimori ended his presidency by fleeing Peru for Japan amid a major scandal involving corruption and human rights violations. Even amid his prosecution in 2008 for crimes against humanity relating to his presidency, two-thirds of Peruvians polled voiced approval for his leadership in that period.

Presidential term and transitions

Ordinarily, presidents are elected for five-year terms, with no opportunity for immediate reelection. A former president can run again after being out of office for a full term. [1] The change of government takes place on July 28, which is the date of independence from Spain and thus a national holiday.

The current Peruvian Constitution of 1993 establishes in its article 113 that the Presidency of the Republic is vacated by:

  1. Death of the President of the Republic.
  2. His permanent moral or physical disability, declared by Congress.
  3. Acceptance of his resignation by Congress.
  4. Leaving the national territory without permission of the Congress or not returning to it within the established period.
  5. Dismissal, after having been sanctioned for any of the infractions mentioned in Article 117 of the Constitution.

Four presidents of Peru have resigned: Guillermo Billinghurst (forced resignation), Andrés Avelino Cáceres, Alberto Fujimori, and Pedro Pablo Kuczynski.

Guillermo Billinghurst President of Peru

Guillermo Enrique Billinghurst Angulo was a Peruvian politician who served as the 31st President of Peru. He succeeded Augusto B. Leguía, from 1912 to 1914. Billinghurst was of English descent. The surname Billinghurst is a locational name 'of Billinghurst' a parish in Sussex, England.

Andrés Avelino Cáceres politician

Andrés Avelino Cáceres Dorregaray served as the President of Peru three times during the 19th century, from 1881 to 1882 as the 34th President of Peru, then from 1886 to 1890 as the 36th President of Peru, and again from 1894 to 1895 as the 38th President of Peru. In Peru, he is considered a national hero for leading the resistance to Chilean occupation during the War of the Pacific (1879–1883), where he fought as a General in the Peruvian Army.

History

During its more than 190 years of independence, Peru has been ruled by the military leaders who fought for independence, the leaders of the War of the Pacific, representatives of the aristocracy, and democratically elected leaders. Also, the history of the presidency has involved civil wars, coups and violence. More than once, several individuals claimed the right to be president at the same time.

War of the Pacific South American war (1879–1884) involving Chile against Peru and Bolivia

The War of the Pacific, also known as the Saltpeter War and by multiple other names was a war between Chile and a Bolivian-Peruvian alliance. It lasted from 1879 to 1884, and was fought over Chilean claims on coastal Bolivian territory in the Atacama Desert. The war ended with victory for Chile, which gained a significant amount of resource-rich territory from Peru and Bolivia. Chile's army took Bolivia's nitrate rich coastal region and Peru was defeated by Chile's navy.

Different titles have been used, such as "Protector of Peru" (used by José de San Martín), and "Supreme Protector" (by Andrés de Santa Cruz).

The following table contains a list of the individuals who have served as President of Peru.

List of Presidents of Peru

Protectorate of Peru (1821–1822)

The Protectorate of Peru existed from August 3, 1821 until September 20, 1822.

No.Protector
(Birth–Death)
Term of officePolitical PartyForm of entryTitle
1 Jose de San Martin (retrato, c.1828).jpg José de San Martín
(1778–1850)
August 3, 1821 – September 20, 1822 Independent Proclaimed by open cabildo in LimaProtector of Peru

Republic of Peru (1821/1822–1836)

The Republic of Peru was declared on July 28, 1821 but it was constituted on September 20, 1822. It existed until August 11, 1836.

No.President
(Birth–Death)
Term of officePolitical PartyForm of entryTitle
LunaPizarro1.jpg Francisco Xavier de Luna Pizarro
(1780–1855)
September 20, 1822 – September 22, 1822 Independent Interim officeholder, by resignation of San Martin (as President of the First Constituent Congress of Peru)Interim President
LaMar1.jpg Government Junta: September 22, 1822 – February 27, 1823 Independent Elected by the Congress from among its membersSupreme Governing Board of Peru
Jose Bernardo de Tagle by Jose Gil de Castro.jpg José Bernardo de Tagle y Portocarrero, Marqués de Torre Tagle
(1779–1825)
February 27, 1823 – February 28, 1823 Independent Designated by the Congress after the Balconcillo mutinyInterim President
1 Jose de la Riva Aguero Sanchez Boquete.JPG José de la Riva Agüero y Sánchez Boquete
(1783–1853)
February 28, 1823 – June 23, 1823 Independent Ratified by the Congress after being imposed by the Balconcillo mutinyConstitutional President
Francisco Valdivieso.jpg Francisco Valdivieso y PradaJune 23, 1823 – July 17, 1823 Independent Elected provisionally by the Congress to exercise power on areas not affected by the war, while Sucre assumed "military power"Interim Head of the Government
Antonio Jose de Sucre (portrait) 1795-1830.jpg Antonio José de Sucre y Alcalá
(1795–1830)
June 23, 1823 – July 17, 1823 Independent Elected provisionally by the Congress to exercise "military power"Supreme Military Chief
Jose Bernardo de Tagle by Jose Gil de Castro.jpg José Bernardo de Tagle y Portocarrero, Marqués de Torre Tagle
(1779–1825)
July 17, 1823 – August 16, 1823 Independent Elected by the Congress, delegated by SucreInterim President
2 Jose Bernardo de Tagle by Jose Gil de Castro.jpg José Bernardo de Tagle y Portocarrero, Marqués de Torre Tagle
(1779–1825)
August 16, 1823 – February 10, 1824 Independent Ratified by the Congress as President (according to the new Constitution)Constitutional President
Simon Bolivar.jpg Simón José Antonio de la Santísima Trinidad Bolívar y Palacios
(1783–1830)
February 10, 1824 – January 28, 1827 Independent Granted the supreme military and political authority by the Constitutional CongressLiberator
Andressantacruz2.jpg Government Junta:

Andrés de Santa Cruz y Calaumana
(1792–1865)

January 28, 1827 – June 9, 1827 Independent Elected by the Congress after the revolt that ended the Bolivarian regimePresident of the Government Junta
Manuel Salazar y Baquijano.jpg Manuel Salazar y Baquíjano
(1777–1850)
June 9, 1827 – August 22, 1827 Independent Vice President in charge of government (due to the arrival of La Mar from Guayaquil)Interim President
3 LaMar1.jpg José de la Mar Cortázar
(1778–1830)
9 June 1827 (22 August 1827) – 7 June 1829 (20 May 1828) Independent Elected by the CongressConstitutional President
Manuel Salazar y Baquijano.jpg Manuel Salazar y Baquíjano
(1777–1850)
May 20, 1828 – June 6, 1829 Independent Vice President in charge of government (due to the absence of La Mar during the Gran Colombia–Peru War)Interim President
Agutierrezf.png Antonio Gutiérrez de la Fuente
(1796–1878)
June 6, 1829 – September 1, 1829 Military Coup d'état (in charge until the Congress elected the provisional president)Commander-in-chief
Gamarra.jpg Agustín Gamarra Messia
(1785–1841)
September 1, 1829 – December 19, 1829 Independent Elected by the CongressProvisional President
Agutierrezf.png Antonio Gutiérrez de la Fuente
(1796–1878)
September 21, 1829 – November 25, 1829 Military Provisional Vice President in charge of the government (due to trip of Gamarra on the occasion of the peace settlement with Gran Colombia)Commander-in-chief
4 Gamarra.jpg Agustín Gamarra Messia
(1785–1841)
December 19, 1829 – December 20, 1833 Independent Direct electionsConstitutional President
LunaPizarro1.jpg Francisco Xavier de Luna Pizarro
(1780–1855)
December 20, 1833 – December 21, 1833 Independent President of the National Convention (Constituent Congress) (in charge until the provisional president elected by the Congress took office)Interim President
Luis Jose de Orbegoso y Moncada.jpg Luis José de Orbegoso y Moncada
(1795–1847)
December 21, 1833 – August 11, 1836 Independent Elected by the National Convention (Congress)Provisional President

Peru-Bolivian Confederation (1836–1839)

In 1836, the south of the country declared itself independent by creating the Republic of South Peru, while the north of the country became the Republic of North Peru. The two states confederated with the Republic of Bolivia to form the Peru–Bolivian Confederation on October 28, 1836. Marshal Andrés de Santa Cruz served as the Supreme Protector of the Confederation. Simultaneously, the actual control of each Republic remained in the hands of their respective presidents. The Peru-Bolivian Confederation dissolved on August 25, 1839.

No.Supreme Protector
(Birth–Death)
Term of officePolitical PartyTitle
1 Andressantacruz2.jpg Andrés de Santa Cruz y Calaumana
(1792–1865)
February 7, 1836 (October 28, 1836) – August 25, 1839 (February 20, 1839) Independent Supreme Protector of the Peru-Bolivian Confederation

Republic of North Peru (1836–1839)

The Republic of North Peru existed from August 11, 1836 until August 25, 1839.

No.President
(Birth–Death)
Term of officePolitical PartyTitle
1 Luis Jose de Orbegoso y Moncada.jpg Luis José de Orbegoso y Moncada
(1795–1847)
August 21, 1837 – July 30, 1838 Independent Constitutional President
2 Jose de la Riva Aguero Sanchez Boquete.JPG José de la Riva Agüero y Sánchez Boquete
(1783–1858)
August 1, 1838 – January 24, 1839 Independent Constitutional President

Republic of South Peru (1836–1839)

The Republic of South Peru existed from March 17, 1836 until August 25, 1839.

No.President
(Birth–Death)
Term of officePolitical PartyTitle
1 Ramon Herrera.png Ramón Herrera y Rodado
(1799–1882)
September 17, 1837 – October 12, 1838 Independent Constitutional President
2 Pio de Tristan.jpg Juan Pío de Tristán y Moscoso
(1773–1859)
October 12, 1838 – February 23, 1839 Independent Constitutional President

Republic of Peru (1839–present)

The Republic of Peru was reestablished on August 25, 1839.

No.President
(Birth–Death)
Term of officePolitical PartyForm of entryTitle
5 Gamarra.jpg Agustín Gamarra Messia
(1785–1841)
August 25, 1838 – August 15, 1839 Military Proclaimed by open cabildo in LimaPresident of the Republic
August 15, 1839 – July 10, 1840Appointed by the General Congress of HuancayoProvisional President
July 10, 1840 – November 18, 1841 (†)Direct electionsConstitutional President
Manuel Menendez.jpg Manuel Menéndez Gorozabel
(1793–1847)
November 18, 1841 – August 16, 1842 Independent Constitutional succession (as Vice President)Provisional President
Juan Crisostomo Torrico.jpg Juan Crisóstomo Torrico González
(1808–1875)
August 16, 1842 – August 20, 1842 Military Self-proclamationCommander-in-chief
Juan Bautista de Lavalle.jpg Juan Bautista de Lavalle y ZugastiAugust 20, 1842 – October 20, 1842 Independent Took over the government as President of the Council of MinistersInterim President
6 Francisco Vidal 1.jpg Juan Francisco de Vidal La Hoz
(1800–1863)
October 20, 1842 – March 15, 1843 Military Self-proclamation (assumed the power after defeating Torrico in the battle of Agua Santa)President of the Republic
Figuerola.jpg Justo Figuerola de Estrada
(1771–1854)
March 15, 1843 – March 19, 1843 Independent Provisional President
Eleuterio AramburúMarch 19, 1843 – March 21, 1843 Military Took over the government as commander of the garrison of LimaInterim President
Jose Rufino Echenique.jpg José Rufino Echenique
(1808–1887)
March 21, 1843 – March 27, 1843 Military Took over the government as Prefect of LimaInterim President
President Pezet.jpg Juan Antonio Pezet
(1809–1879)
March 27, 1843 – April 7, 1843 Military Assumed the power on behalf of VivancoInterim President
Manuel Ignacio de Vivanco 2.jpg Manuel Ignacio de Vivanco Iturralde
(1806–1873)
April 7, 1843 – June 17, 1844 Military Self-proclamationSupreme Director of the Republic
Domingo Nieto.jpg Domingo Nieto y Márquez
(1803–1844)
September 3, 1843 – February 17, 1844 (†) Military Self-proclamation (starting the constitutionalist revolution against Vivanco)President of the Supreme Provisional Governing Junta
RamonCastilla.jpg Ramón Castilla y Marquesado
(1797–1867)
February 17, 1844 – December 11, 1844 Military Replaced Nieto as President of the JuntaPresident of the Supreme Provisional Governing Junta
Domingo Elias.jpg Domingo Elías Carbajo
(1805–1867)
November 30, 1843 – June 17, 1844 Independent Assumed the power on behalf of Vivanco (as Prefect of Lima)Interim President
June 17, 1844 – August 10, 1844Self-proclamation in Lima (ignoring the authority of Vivanco)Commander-in-chief
Figuerola.jpg Justo Figuerola de Estrada
(1771–1854)
August 10, 1844 – October 7, 1844 Independent Provisional President
Manuel Menendez.jpg Manuel Menéndez Gorozabel
(1793–1847)
October 7, 1844 – April 20, 1845 Independent Transitional constitutional succession (as First Vice-President of the Council of State)Provisional President
7 RamonCastilla.jpg Ramón Castilla y Marquesado
(1797–1867)
April 20, 1845 – April 20, 1851 Military Direct electionsConstitutional President of the Republic
(the first President of Peru to complete his full term of office)
8 Jose Rufino Echenique.jpg José Rufino Echenique Benavente
(1808–1887)
April 20, 1851 – January 5, 1855 Military Direct electionsConstitutional President of the Republic
RamonCastilla.jpg Ramón Castilla y Marquesado
(1797–1867)
February 1854 – January 5, 1855 Military Self-proclamation (in southern and central parts of the country)Interim President
Jose Miguel Medina.jpg José Miguel MedinaJuly 17, 1854 – January 5, 1855 Military Assumed the power on behalf of Echenique (as President of the Council of State)Head of the Executive Branch
RamonCastilla.jpg Ramón Castilla y Marquesado
(1797–1867)
January 5, 1855 – October 24, 1857 Military Self-proclamation (assumed the power after defeating Echenique in the battle of La Palma)Provisional President of the Republic
Jose Maria Raygada.jpg José Maria Raygada y Gallo
(1795–1859)
April 2, 1857 – July 28, 1858 Military Took over the government as President of the Council of MinistersCommander-in-chief
Miguelsanroman.png Miguel de San Román y Meza
(1802–1863)
July 28, 1858 – October 24, 1858 Military Assumed the power on behalf of Castilla (as President of the Council of Ministers)Commander-in-chief
10 RamonCastilla.jpg Ramón Castilla y Marquesado
(1797–1867)
October 24, 1858 – October 24, 1862 Military Direct electionsConstitutional President of the Republic
Juan Manuel del Mar.JPG Juan Manuel del Mar
(1805–1862)
September 29, 1859 – March 21, 1860 Independent Assumed the power on behalf of Castilla (as Vice President)Head of the Executive Branch
11 Miguelsanroman.png Miguel de San Román y Meza
(1802–1863)
October 24, 1862 – April 3, 1863 (†) Military Direct electionsConstitutional President of the Republic
RamonCastilla.jpg Ramón Castilla y Marquesado
(1797–1867)
April 3, 1863 – April 9, 1863 Military Self-proclamationHead of the Executive Branch
Pedro Diez Canseco 2.jpg Pedro Diez Canseco Corbacho
(1815–1893)
April 9, 1863 – August 5, 1863 Military Provisional succession (as Second Vice President)Commander-in-chief
12 President Pezet.jpg Juan Antonio Pezet Rodríguez
(1809–1879)
August 5, 1863 – November 6, 1865 Military Constitutional succession (as First Vice President)Constitutional President of the Republic
Pedro Diez Canseco 2.jpg Pedro Diez Canseco Corbacho
(1815–1893)
November 6, 1865 – November 28, 1865 Military Provisional president
13 Mariano Prado.jpg Mariano Ignacio Prado Ochoa
(1825–1901)
November 28, 1865 – February 15, 1867 Military Self-proclamationCommander-in-chief of the Republic
February 15, 1867 – August 31, 1867Designated by CongressProvisional President of the Republic
August 31, 1867 – January 5, 1868Designated by Congress and direct electionsConstitutional President of the Republic
Luis La Puerta.jpg Luis La Puerta de Mendoza
(1811–1896)
October 12, 1867 – January 8, 1868 Military Assumed the power on behalf of Prado (as President of the Council of Ministers)Head of the Executive Branch
Pedro Diez Canseco 2.jpg Pedro Diez Canseco Corbacho
(1815–1893)
September 23, 1867 – January 7, 1868 Military Self-proclamation in ArequipaHead of the Executive Branch
Antonio Gutierrez de la Fuente.jpg Antonio Gutiérrez de la Fuente
(1796–1878)
January 7, 1868 – January 8, 1868 Military Presidential designation (as President of the Council of Ministers)Provisional president
Francisco Diez Canseco.jpg Francisco Diez Canseco
(1821–1884)
January 8, 1868 – January 22, 1868 Military Head of the Government
Pedro Diez Canseco 2.jpg Pedro Diez Canseco Corbacho
(1815–1893)
January 22, 1868 – August 2, 1868 Military Constitutional succession (recognized in Cabildo Abierto de Lima)Provisional president
14 Balta1.jpg José Balta y Montero
(1814–1872)
August 2, 1868 – July 22, 1872 (July 26, 1872 [†]) Military Direct electionsConstitutional President of the Republic
Tgutierrez.png Tomás Gutiérrez
(died 1872)
July 22, 1872 – July 26, 1872 (†) Military Coup d'étatSupreme Leader of the Republic
Francisco Diez Canseco.jpg Francisco Diez Canseco
(1821–1884)
July 26, 1872 – July 27, 1872 Military Provisional succession (as Second Vice President of Balta)Interim President
15 HerenciaZevallos.jpg Mariano Herencia Zevallos
(1820–1873)
July 27, 1872 – August 2, 1872 Military Constitutional succession (as First Vice President of Balta)Constitutional President of the Republic
16 Mpardol.png Manuel Pardo y Lavalle
(1834–1878)
August 2, 1872 – August 2, 1876 Civilista Party Direct electionsConstitutional President of the Republic
17 Mariano Prado.jpg Mariano Ignacio Prado Ochoa
(1825–1901)
August 2, 1876 – December 18, 1879 Civilista Party Direct electionsConstitutional President of the Republic
Luis La Puerta.jpg Luis La Puerta de Mendoza
(1811–1896)
May 16, 1879 – December 2, 1879 Civilista Party First Vice President (served on behalf of Prado)Head of the Executive Branch
December 18, 1879 – December 23, 1879Constitutional successionTransitional President of the Republic
Presidente Nicolas de Pierola.jpg Nicolás de Piérola Villena
(1839–1913)
December 23, 1879 – January 15, 1881 Independent Self-proclamationCommander-in-chief
July 29, 1881 – November 28, 1881Appointed by the National Assembly of AyacuchoProvisional President
Garcia Calderon.jpg Francisco García Calderón Landa
(1834–1905)
March 12, 1881 – July 10, 1881 Independent Elected by open cabildo in MagdalenaProvisional President of the Republic
July 10, 1881 – September 28, 1881 (November 6, 1881)Ratified by the Congress of Chorrillos
Lizardo Montero.jpg Lizardo Montero Flores
(1832–1905)
September 28, 1881 – October 28, 1883 Civilista Party Constitutional succession (oath before the Judicial Court of Cajamarca)Provisional President of the Republic
Miguel Iglesias colaboracionista con Chile.jpg Miguel Iglesias Pino de Arce
(1830–1909)
August 31, 1882 – December 30, 1882 Military Self-proclamation in Cajamarca (Grito de Montán)Commander-in-chief
December 30, 1882 – March 1, 1884Elected by the Assembly of the North (Cajamarca)Regenerating President
March 1, 1884 – December 3, 1885Ratified by the Constituent AssemblyProvisional President of the Republic
Andres Avelino Caceres 3.jpg Andrés Avelino Cáceres Dorregaray
(1836–1923)
July 16, 1884 – August 3, 1885 Military Self-proclamation (central part of the country)Self-proclaimed President
Antarenas.png Antonio Arenas Merino
(1808–1891)
December 3, 1885 – June 3, 1886 Independent In charge of the Congress (as President of the Council of Ministers)President of the Provisional Government Junta
18 Andres Avelino Caceres 3.jpg Andrés Avelino Cáceres Dorregaray
(1836–1923)
June 3, 1886 – August 10, 1890 Constitutional Party Direct electionsConstitutional President of the Republic
19 Remigio Morales Bermudez 3.jpg Remigio Morales Bermúdez
(1836–1894)
August 10, 1890 – April 1, 1894 (†) Constitutional Party Direct elections Constitutional President of the Republic
Justiniano Borgono 2.jpg Justiniano Borgoño Castañeda
(1836–1921)
April 1, 1894 – August 10, 1894 Constitutional Party Constitutional succession (as Second Vice President)Transitional President of the Republic
20 Andres Avelino Caceres 3.jpg Andrés Avelino Cáceres Dorregaray
(1836–1923)
August 10, 1894 – March 20, 1895 Constitutional Party Direct elections Constitutional President of the Republic
Manuel Candamo.jpg Manuel Candamo Iriarte
(1841–1904)
March 20, 1895 – September 8, 1895 Independent Transitional designationPresident of the Provisional Government Junta
21 Presidente Nicolas de Pierola.jpg Nicolás de Piérola Villena
(1839–1913)
September 8, 1895 – September 8, 1899 Democratic Party Direct elections Constitutional President of the Republic
22 Eduardo Lopez de Romana 3.jpg Eduardo López de Romaña Alvizuri
(1847–1912)
September 8, 1899 – September 8, 1903 Civilista Party Direct elections Constitutional President of the Republic
23 Manuel Candamo.jpg Manuel Candamo Iriarte
(1841–1904)
September 8, 1903 – April 18, 1904 (May 7, 1904 [†]) Civilista Party Direct elections Constitutional President of the Republic
24 SerapioCalderon.jpg Serapio Calderón Lazo de la Vega
(1843–1922)
April 18, 1904 – May 7, 1904 Civilista Party Second Vice President (appointed due to the illness of Candamo)Head of the Executive Branch
May 7, 1904 – September 24, 1904Constitutional succession (sworn in following the death Candamo)Constitutional President of the Republic
25 Jose Pardo (1).jpg José Pardo y Barreda
(1864–1947)
September 24, 1904 – September 24, 1908 Civilista Party Direct elections Constitutional President of the Republic
26 Augusto B Leguia 1.jpg Augusto B. Leguía y Salcedo
(1863–1932)
September 24, 1908 – September 24, 1912
(1st term)
Civilista Party Direct elections Constitutional President of the Republic
27 Guillermo Billinghurst 3.jpg Guillermo Billinghurst Angulo
(1851–1915)
September 24, 1912 – February 4, 1914 Democratic Party Direct elections Constitutional President of the Republic
Oscar Benavides.jpg Óscar R. Benavides Larrea
(1876–1945)
February 4, 1914 – May 15, 1914 Military Coup d'étatPresident of the Government Junta
May 15, 1914 – August 18, 1915Ratified by CongressProvisional President of the Republic
28 Jose Pardo (1).jpg José Pardo y Barreda
(1864–1947)
August 18, 1915 – July 4, 1919 Civilista Party Direct electionsConstitutional President of the Republic
29 Augusto B Leguia 1.jpg Augusto B. Leguía y Salcedo
(1863–1932)
July 4, 1919 – October 12, 1919
(2nd term)
Democratic Reformist PartyCoup d'état after direct elections (already President-elect)Provisional President of the Republic
October 12, 1919 – October 12, 1924
(2nd term cont.)
Direct elections (before the coup d'etat)Constitutional President of the Republic
October 12, 1924 – October 12, 1929
(3rd term)
Direct electionsConstitutional President of the Republic
October 12, 1929 – August 25, 1930
(4th term)
Direct electionsConstitutional President of the Republic
Manuel Maria Ponce.jpg Manuel María Ponce Brousset
(1874–1966)
August 25, 1930 – August 27, 1930 Military Appointed President of the Military Junta constituted after the resignation of LeguíaPresident of the Military Junta
Sanchez Cerro.jpg Luis Miguel Sánchez Cerro
(1889–1933)
August 27, 1930 – March 1, 1931 Military Coup d'étatPresident of the Government Junta
Mariano Holguin.jpg Mariano Holguín Maldonado
(1860–1945)
March 1, 1931 – March 1, 1931 Independent Presidential designation (while the Government Junta elected a President of the Republic)President of the Assembly of Notables
Ricardo Leoncio Elias.jpg Ricardo Leoncio Elías Arias
(1874–1951)
March 1, 1931 – March 5, 1931 Military Transitional designation by Board of Notables (as President of the Supreme Court)President of the Provisional Board
Gustavo A Jimenez.jpg Gustavo A. Jiménez
(1886–1933)
March 5, 1931 – March 11, 1931 Military Coup d'étatPresident of the Transitory Government Board
Samanez Ocampo.jpg David Samanez Ocampo y Sobrino
(1866–1947)
March 11, 1931 – December 8, 1931 Independent Transitional designation by Assembly of NotablesPresident of the Government Junta
30 Sanchez Cerro.jpg Luis Miguel Sánchez Cerro
(1889–1933)
December 8, 1931 – April 30, 1933 (†) Revolutionary Union Direct elections Constitutional President of the Republic
31 Oscar Benavides.jpg Oscar R. Benavides Larrea
(1876–1945)
April 30, 1933 – December 8, 1939 Military Designated by the Constituent AssemblyConstitutional President of the Republic
32 Manuel Prado Ugarteche.jpg Manuel Prado y Ugarteche
(1889–1967)
December 8, 1939 – July 28, 1945 Independent Direct elections Constitutional President of the Republic
33 Jose Luis Bustamante y Rivero.jpg José Luis Bustamante y Rivero
(1894–1989)
July 28, 1945 – October 29, 1948 National Democratic Front Direct elections Constitutional President of the Republic
Gral.Manuel A. Odria.jpg Manuel A. Odría
(1896–1974)
October 29, 1948 – May 31, 1950 Military Coup d'état
Zenon Noriega.jpg Zenón Noriega Agüero
(1900–1957)
May 31, 1950 – July 28, 1950 Military Provisional designationProvisional President
34 Gral.Manuel A. Odria.jpg Manuel A. Odría Amoretti
(1896–1974)
July 28, 1950 – July 28, 1956 Odriíst National Union Direct elections (only candidate)Constitutional President of the Republic
35 President Don Manuel Prado.JPG Manuel Prado y Ugarteche
(1889–1967)
July 28, 1956 – July 18, 1962 Pradist Democratic Movement Direct elections Constitutional President of the Republic
R. Perez Godoy.jpg Ricardo Pérez Godoy
(1905–1982)
July 18, 1962 – March 3, 1963 Military Coup d'étatPresident of the Military Government Junta
Nicolás Lindley López
(1908–1995)
March 3, 1963 – July 28, 1963 Military Coup d'étatPresident of the Military Government Junta
36 Fernando Belaunde Terry 1980.jpg Fernando Belaúnde Terry
(1912–2002)
July 28, 1963 – October 3, 1968 Popular Action Direct elections Constitutional President of the Republic
Juan Velasco Alvarado.jpg Juan Velasco Alvarado
(1910–1977)
October 3, 1968 – August 30, 1975 Military Coup d'étatPresident of the Revolutionary Government of the Armed Forces
F. Morales Bermudez.jpg Francisco Morales Bermúdez Cerrutti
(1921–)
August 30, 1975 – July 28, 1980 Military Coup d'état President of the Revolutionary Government of the Armed Forces
37 Fernando Belaunde Terry 1980.jpg Fernando Belaúnde Terry
(1912–2002)
July 28, 1980 – July 28, 1985 Popular Action Direct elections Constitutional President of the Republic
38 Garciaalan09112006-1.jpg Alan García Pérez
(1949–)
July 28, 1985 – July 28, 1990 American Popular Revolutionary Alliance Direct elections Constitutional President of the Republic
39 Al Fujimori.jpg Alberto Fujimori Fujimori
(1938–)
July 28, 1990 – April 5, 1992
(1st term)
Cambio 90 Direct elections Constitutional President of the Republic
April 5, 1992 – January 9, 1993
(1st term cont.)
Self-coup. Dissolved the CongressPresident of the Government of Emergency and National Reconstruction
January 9, 1993 – July 28, 1995
(1st term cont.)
Ratified by the Democratic Constituent Congress Constitutional President of the Republic
July 28, 1995 – July 28, 2000
(2nd term)
Cambio 90Sí Cumple Direct elections Constitutional President of the Republic
(39)July 28, 2000 – November 21, 2000
(3rd term)
Sí Cumple Direct elections Constitutional President of the Republic
40 VPC May 2003.jpg Valentín Paniagua Corazao
(1936–2006)
November 22, 2000 – July 28, 2001 Popular Action Constitutional succession (as President of the Congress)Constitutional President of the Republic
41 Alejandro Toledo (8682).jpg Alejandro Toledo Manrique
(1946–)
July 28, 2001 – July 28, 2006 Possible Peru Direct elections Constitutional President of the Republic
42 Garciaalan09112006-1.jpg Alan García Pérez
(1949–)
July 28, 2006 - July 28, 2011 American Popular Revolutionary Alliance Direct elections Constitutional President of the Republic
43 Ollanta Humala 2014.jpg Ollanta Humala Tasso
(1962–)
July 28, 2011 – July 28, 2016 Peruvian Nationalist Party Direct elections Constitutional President of the Republic
44 Pedro Pablo Kuczynski 2016 (cropped).jpg Pedro Pablo Kuczynski Godard
(1938–)
July 28, 2016 – March 21, 2018 Peruvians for Change Direct elections Constitutional President of the Republic
45 Martin Vizcarra Cornejo (cropped).png Martín Vizcarra Cornejo
(1963–)
March 23, 2018 – present Peruvians for Change Constitutional succession (as First Vice President)Constitutional President of the Republic

Timeline

Martín VizcarraPedro Pablo KuczynskiOllanta HumalaAlejandro ToledoValentín PaniaguaAlberto FujimoriAlan GarcíaFrancisco Morales BermúdezJuan Velasco AlvaradoFernando Belaúnde TerryNicolás Lindley LópezRicardo Pérez GodoyZenón Noriega AgüeroManuel A. OdríaJosé Luis Bustamante y RiveroManuel Prado y UgartecheDavid Samanez OcampoGustavo JiménezRicardo Leoncio Elías AriasMariano Holguín MaldonadoLuis Miguel Sánchez CerroManuel María Ponce BroussetÓscar R. BenavidesGuillermo BillinghurstAugusto B. LeguíaJosé Pardo y BarredaSerapio CalderónEduardo López de RomañaManuel CandamoJustiniano BorgoñoRemigio Morales BermúdezAntonio ArenasAndrés Avelino CáceresMiguel IglesiasLizardo Montero FloresFrancisco García CalderónNicolás de PiérolaManuel PardoMariano Herencia ZevallosTomás GutiérrezJosé BaltaFrancisco Diez CansecoLuis La PuertaMariano Ignacio PradoPedro Diez CansecoJuan Manuel del MarMiguel de San Román y MezaJosé Maria Raygada y GalloJosé Miguel MedinaDomingo ElíasRamón CastillaDomingo NietoManuel Ignacio de VivancoJuan Antonio PezetJosé Rufino EcheniqueEleuterio AramburúJusto FiguerolaJuan Francisco de VidalJuan Bautista de Lavalle y ZugastiJuan Crisóstomo TorricoManuel MenéndezLuis José de OrbegosoAgustín GamarraAntonio Gutiérrez de la FuenteAndrés de Santa CruzSimón BolívarAntonio José de SucreFrancisco Valdivieso y PradaJosé de la Riva AgüeroJosé Bernardo de Tagle y Portocarrero, Marquis of Torre TagleManuel Salazar y BaquíjanoFelipe Antonio AlvaradoJosé de la MarFrancisco Xavier de Luna PizarroJosé de San MartínPresident of Peru

The Living Presidents of Peru

There are currently (since 2018) six living former presidents of Peru. In order of office they are:

Titles and styles

The President of the Republic of Peru is the Head of the Peruvian State, Head of the Peruvian Government and the Supreme Commander of the Peruvian Armed Forces.

The official style is:

His/Her Excellency [name of the president]

Common usages include:

El Presidente de la Republica / The President of the Republic

Line of succession

Names of incumbents as of 2018.

President of the Republic: Martín Alberto Vizcarra Cornejo

1- Vice President of the Republic: Mercedes Rosalba Aráoz Fernández

2- President of Congress: Daniel Enrique Salaverry Villa

3- First Vice President of Congress: Leyla Felícita Chihuán Ramos

4- Second Vice President of Congress: Segundo Leocadio Tapia Bernal

5- Third Vice President of Congress: Yeni Vilcatoma de la Cruz

See also

Notes

  1. "Political Constitution of Peru, Article 112" (PDF).

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