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|President of |
the Republic of Peru
Presidente de la República del Perú
|Residence||Palacio de Gobierno|
|Seat||Palacio de Gobierno|
|Appointer||Direct popular election|
|Term length||Five years|
Not eligible for re-election immediately
|Inaugural holder|| José de San Martín (de facto)|
José de la Riva Agüero (first to bear the title)
|Formation||February 28, 1823|
|Deputy||Vice President of Peru|
|This article is part of a series on the|
politics and government of
The President of Peru (Spanish : Presidente del Perú), officially called the President of the Republic of Peru (Spanish : Presidente de la República del Perú), is the head of state and head of government of Peru and represents the republic in official international matters. The president personifies the Republic of Peru, is the head of executive power, and is the supreme head of the Armed Forces and Police of Peru. His position corresponds to the highest magistracy in the country and to the highest ranking public official. Presidents de facto who assumed power through political coups are also included in this list.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Romance language that originated in the Iberian Peninsula and today has over 450 million native speakers in Spain and in the Americas. It is a global language and the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese.
A head of state is the public persona who officially embodies a state in its unity and legitimacy. Depending on the country's form of government and separation of powers, the head of state may be a ceremonial figurehead or concurrently the head of government and more.
The head of government is either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments. "Head of government" is often differentiated from "head of state", as they may be separate positions, individuals, or roles depending on the country.
The presidency of Peru can be held for a period of 5 years without immediate re-election. After a constitutional period, the president is allowed to be re-elected. A presidential inauguration is held every five years on July 28, in the Congress of Peru. The last directly elected President of Peru was Pedro Pablo Kuczynski, from 28 July 2016 to 21 March 2018, when he resigned from office. Following the traditional constitutional succession, First Vice President Martín Vizcarra, former governor of Moquegua, Minister of Transportation, and Ambassador to Canada, succeeded him in office as the 67th President of Peru, on 23 March 2018. The current President of Peru is disputed. On 30 September 2019, President Vizcarra dissolved the Congress of Peru. The Congress reacted by impeaching Vizcarra and removing the official from the office of the presidency, inaugurating Mercedes Aráoz, second vice-president of Peru, to the presidency at 9:10 PM. The current seat of the presidency is disputed.
Pedro Pablo Kuczynski Godard, better known simply as PPK, is a Peruvian economist, politician and public administrator who served as the 66th President of Peru from 2016 to 2018. He was previously the Prime Minister of Peru from 2005 to 2006. His administration ended on 23 March 2018, following his address to the nation two days earlier, announcing his resignation. Since 10 April 2019 he has been in pretrial detention, due to an ongoing investigation on corruption, money laundering, and connections to Odebrecht, a public works company accused of paying bribes.
Martín Alberto Vizcarra Cornejo is a Peruvian engineer and politician who is the current President of Peru. Vizcarra previously served as Governor of the Moquegua Region (2011–2014), Minister of Transport and Communications of Peru (2016–2017), and Ambassador of Peru to Canada (2017–2018), both during the presidency of Pedro Pablo Kuczynski.
Moquegua is a city in southern Peru, located in the Department of Moquegua, of which it is the capital. It is also capital of Mariscal Nieto Province and Moquegua District. It is located 1144 kilometers south of the capital city of Lima.
It corresponds, as a generic mandate, to direct the general policy of the government and the administration of the State. Although its role, title, and significance have undergone significant changes throughout history, as well as its position and relations with the other actors of the national political organization, it has been and is the most outstanding political figure. The current Constitution of Peru, in force since 1993, establishes the requirements, rights, and obligations that the President of the Republic must fulfill.
The president exercises his functions from the House of Pizarro, located in the historic center of Lima, which is the Government Palace of Peru and the House of Government of Lima -mention with which official documents are dated-. This palace, occupies the same location that corresponded to the conqueror and governor, Francisco Pizarro and where later the palace of the viceroys of Peru was located.
The Government Palace, also known as the House of Pizarro, is the seat of the executive branch of the Peruvian Government, and the official residence of the President of Peru. The palace is a stately government building, occupying the northern side of the Plaza Mayor in Peru's capital city, Lima. Set on the Rímac River, the palace occupies the site of a very large huaca that incorporated a shrine to Taulichusco, the last kuraka of Lima.
There have been a number of presidents that have reached the presidency through a coup d'état. The last successful coup d'état was carried out by Alberto Fujimori in 1992, who is now imprisoned for human rights violations and corruption.
Alberto Fujimori Fujimori is a Peruvian former politician who served as the President of Peru from 28 July 1990 to 22 November 2000. His government is credited with the creation of Fujimorism, defeating the Shining Path insurgency and restoring Peru's macroeconomic stability. Fujimori ended his presidency by fleeing Peru for Japan amid a major scandal involving corruption and human rights violations. Even amid his prosecution in 2008 for crimes against humanity relating to his presidency, two-thirds of Peruvians polled voiced approval for his leadership in that period.
Ordinarily, presidents are elected for five-year terms, with no opportunity for immediate reelection. A former president can run again after being out of office for a full term.The change of government takes place on 28 July, which is the date of independence from Spain and thus a national holiday.
The current Peruvian Constitution of 1993 establishes in its article 113 that the Presidency of the Republic is vacated by:
Four presidents of Peru have resigned: Guillermo Billinghurst (forced resignation), Andrés Avelino Cáceres, Alberto Fujimori, and Pedro Pablo Kuczynski.
Guillermo Enrique Billinghurst Angulo was a Peruvian politician who served as the 31st President of Peru. He succeeded Augusto B. Leguía, from 1912 to 1914. Billinghurst was of part English descent. The surname Billinghurst is a locational name 'of Billinghurst' a parish in Sussex, England.
Andrés Avelino Cáceres Dorregaray served as the President of Peru three times during the 19th century, from 1881 to 1882 as the 34th President of Peru, then from 1886 to 1890 as the 36th President of Peru, and again from 1894 to 1895 as the 38th President of Peru. In Peru, he is considered a national hero for leading the resistance to Chilean occupation during the War of the Pacific (1879–1883), where he fought as a General in the Peruvian Army.
The first State recognizable as such under current concepts in the central Andes was the Wari civilization, whose system of government has not yet been fully unraveled. Later, between the thirteenth century and the sixteenth century, the Inca civilization developed, whose State, based on the political management of reciprocity and alien to all European conceptions of then and now, had the Sapa Inca at its head.
The modern Peruvian State is the heir of the Viceroyalty of Peru. In 1532, the Spanish conquerors arrived in the territory, imposed their dominion and managed to establish a Spanish dependency. This dependence began as governorships corresponding to the conquerors, with the title of Governor. The Government of the New Toledo (Diego de Almagro) - which otherwise never consolidated - had as its capital the city of Cusco, the current historical capital of Peru. The Government of the New Castile (Francisco Pizarro) had as its capital the City of Kings, as Lima was also called initially and it was on this that the Viceroyalty was instituted after the civil wars.
In 1542, the Viceroyalty of Peru was established, whose government was held by the representative of the King of Spain (Head of State) with the title of Viceroy of Peru (Head of Government). The true organizer of the viceregal state was Francisco de Toledo.
This period had only two stages corresponding to the two Spanish dynasties: the houses of Habsburg and Bourbon, and lasted 282 years from its establishment in 1542 to the Capitulation of Ayacucho in 1824, despite the independence of Peru in 1821.
Viceroy José Fernando de Abascal was in charge of centralizing Spanish political and military power in Peru. His successors, the last viceroys of Peru were parallel to San Martin and his first successors. Joaquín de la Pezuela and José de la Serna faced the liberating armies and the last of them signed the capitulation. Finally, Pío Tristán was the interim viceroy in charge of transferring power to the patriots.
In July 1821, during the Peruvian War of Independence, the autonomous states lying in the viceroyalty of Peru declared themselves as independent and sovereign from influence and mediation from the Spanish Empire. Recognizing the impending threat of Spanish backlash to regain their lost colonies, the autonomous viceroyalty began to draft a constitution on which they would decide to base the sovereign nation. Working closely with the Constituent Congress of Peru in 1822, a formal constitution was created, named the Constitution of 1823. Francisco Xavier de Luna Pizarro, a Peruvian politician, presided and led the Constituent Congress of Peru, leading to him being subjectively regarded as the first informal President of Peru.
The first articles of the 1823 Constitution consisted of 24 items, known as the "Bases". These bases formally defined the borders of the Andean nation and formally created the First Republic of Peru, which still holds until the present day. The governing board, led by Luna Pizarro, declared Peruvian autonomy from Spain and a Catholic state. Additionally, the Constitution defined the three powers of the government, the executive, judicial and the legislative power. The Governing Board, a colloquial terminology that was used to classify the ten politicians that devised these 24 items, was the first representation of executive power and the executive branch in Peruvian history.
Later, issues arose around the bases which granted the protectorate of Peru, Simon Bolivar, overwhelming power over the legislative and executive organs of the Peruvian government.At the same time, Bolivar was already undergoing a campaign to establish a dictatorship around Andean Latin American nations. As a precursor, this incentivized the initial drafters of the constitution and the Governing Board to accelerate the process of defining reasonable executive powers, balance the three branches of power, and begin to draft an idea for the roles and powers of the official position of state leader of Peru.
The Act of Independence was signed in Lima on August 15, 1821, and soon after the government was left under the charge of José de San Martín with the title of Protector. Later, the legislative branch occupied the executive branch. In 1823 the Congress appointed José de la Riva Agüero as the first President of the Republic of the history of Peru. Since then, that has been the main denomination that has held the great majority of the rulers of Peru. The same first Political Constitution of 1823 (after the appointment of Riva Agüero) recognizes the position,and says ex officio: "Article 72. Resides exclusively the exercise of executive power in a citizen with the name of President of the Republic."
Only two constitutions have been contrary, partially, to the presidential republican system, the Lifetime Political Constitution of 1826 emanating from Simón Bolívar and expressing:
The exercise of the Executive Power resides in a Life President, a Vice President, and four Secretaries of State.
By 1827, an outline of an executive along with the executive branch had been drawn out to prevent a Bolivarian dictatorship which would be seen by the populace as a general return to Spanish tyrannical rule.As a result, on July 28, 1827, Manuel Salazar assumed the formal office of the presidency and became the first president of Peru to be elected by the populace, marking the start of the Presidency of Peru.
The President is head of the general administration of the Republic, and his authority extends both to the preservation of public order internally, and to external security in accordance with the Constitution and laws.
The duties exclusive to the President have been defined the 1823 Constitution as:
The powers of the President of the Republic are:
The powers of the President of the Republic are:
The President of the Republic, in addition to the Head of State, is the Head of the national Government. Its functions are explicit in the Constitution and the Organic Law of the Executive Power.
The acts of the President of the Republic that lack ministerial endorsement are null. It corresponds to the President of the Republic to preside over the Council of Ministers when it is convened or when he attends its sessions. The President of the Republic appoints and removes the President of the Council. Appoints and removes the other ministers, on proposal and with agreement, respectively, from the President of the Council.
The ministers are individually responsible for their own acts and for the presidential acts they endorse. All ministers are jointly and severally liable for criminal acts or violations of the Constitution or the laws that the President of the Republic incurs or that are agreed upon in the Council, even if they save their vote, unless they resign immediately.
The Constitution of 1993, a product of the Presidency of Alberto Fujimori (1990-2000), is the constitution that is currently in place.
The presidential band is the most distinctive feature that the President wears and has been used since the beginning of the Republic. It was inherited from the last Viceroys. The placement and delivery of the presidential sash symbolize a democratic transition of power. The band is used by the President of Congress until the new president is sworn in.
It is a bicolor band that carries the national colors (red and white). This band is worn diagonally from the right shoulder to the left side of the waist. At the waist, like a brooch, the band was embroidered in golden thread the Coat of Arms of Peru. There is a Lima family that has traditionally made them. They are made to measure for each President and have been used normally with formal suit: suit, tuxedo or military uniform. Since 2006, the Shield was moved up to chest height.
A symbolic act narrated by Ricardo Palma in his famous Peruvian Traditions was made during the confused first half of the 1840s, by President Justo Figuerola. This, in front of the protests made by the pope in front of his home, he asked his daughter to take the presidential band out of the dresser drawer and give it to the people from the balcony. The crowd left happy and alive to Figuerola and went to find someone to impose the garment, which, so many times coveted, this time did not find who wanted to stick it.
The Ministers of State wear a red-and-white sash; Supreme Members, Congressmen of the Republic, Magistrates of the Constitutional Court, Members of the National Council of the Magistracy, Supreme Prosecutors, the Ombudsman, etc., wear red-and-white collars with medals that recognize them as such.
The necklace is the symbol of the highest authority in the country. It is composed of gold and encrusted with diamonds, bearing at the center a medal that contains the Coat of Arms of Peru. Presidents Oscar R. Benavides Larrea, Manuel Prado and Ugarteche and Jose Luis Bustamante y Rivero notably used the large necklace and other insignias. Its use disappeared after the administration of Fernando Belaúnde Terry. Recently its use was 'revived' by Alan García Pérez the European Union Summit held precisely in Lima in May 2008.
The President of the Republic carries a plaque in the left upper pocket of the bag in the manner of a lanyard with the insignia of the military command that recognizes him as Supreme Chief of the Armed Forces. It is the heir of the distinctive and military honors worn by presidents belonging to the Armed Forces throughout the history of the country. It is golden and has the shape of a radiant sun.
The staff originates from the Spanish custom of symbolizing power with a cane. The custom was introduced in the eighteenth century in the Andes, after the rebellion of José Gabriel Túpac Amaru and Túpac Catari in 1780 to represent the dignity of mayor of Incas. Unlike Argentina, the use of a cane that symbolizes the power and office of President (symbolically, varayoc), has not been common in the history of the Peruvian presidency and has been replaced innumerable times by the saber or the sword of the military presidents. Only a handful of cases are remarkable. Mariano Ignacio Prado, José Balta and Augusto B. Leguía used it in pictures and presidential photographs. Recently, Alejandro Toledo, made use of the cane in his symbolic assumption to the charge in Cusco and also on a few other occasions. Its most recent use corresponds to July 29, 2008, the date of the traditional military parade, when Alan García carried a small presidential staff, the same one used by Ollanta Humala in the military parade on July 29, 2011.
During its more than 190 years of independence, Peru has been ruled by the military leaders who fought for independence, the leaders of the War of the Pacific, representatives of the aristocracy, and democratically elected leaders. Also, the history of the presidency has involved civil wars, coups and violence. More than once, several individuals claimed the right to be president at the same time.
Different titles have been used, such as "Protector of Peru" (used by José de San Martín), and "Supreme Protector" (by Andrés de Santa Cruz).
The following table contains a list of the individuals who have served as President of Peru.
The Constitution of 1823, the first constitution of this country, indicates that to be the President of Peru one must:
The Constitution of 1826, on the other hand, incorporating some subjective concepts, requires the following:
The Constitution of 1856 states that To be President is required: be Peruvian by birth, citizen in office and thirty-five years of age and ten of domicile in the Republic, which will remain virtually unchanged until today. As of 1979, the requirement of having resided in the country for the last ten years is eliminated.
According to the Organic Law of Elections, they can not run for the Presidency or Vice Presidencies of the Republic:
All persons who have been non-interim presidents of Peru since 1985 were prosecuted in later years.
As of April 2019 [update] , there are five living former presidents of Peru. In order of office they are:
The most recent president to die was Alan Garcia (1985-1990, 2006-2011) on 17 April 2019, who committed suicide before being arrested.
Bermudez was sentenced to life in prison by an Italian court in January 2017.
Prior to his resignation in 2000, Alberto Fujimori escaped to his home country of Japan seeking political refuge, where he faxed his resignation to Peru. He unsuccessfully attempted to run for a parliamentary position in the Parliament of Japan, and ultimately returned to Latin America in 2006 to run for the 2006 presidential elections.
The refugee president's flight diverted to Chile, where he stayed for six days. Peruvian officials and the President of Peru during the time expressed discontent at Chilean officials for allowing the indicted former president into the continent without repercussion. Ultimately, Fujimori flew back to Peru for unstated reasons and was arrested.
Fujimori was convicted of corruption, bribery, human rights violations, crimes against humanities, murder, and other charges, for 25 years of prison until 2031. Fujimori served his sentence until 2017, where then Peruvian President Pedro Pablo Kuczynski issued a presidential pardon, clearing Fujimori of his conviction.
Following the resignation of Kuczynski, the pardon was declared illegitimate and Fujimori was arrested and returned to confinement. Presently, Fujimori still remains in custody, serving the rest of his 25-year sentence.
Following the end of his term in 2006, Toledo abruptly withdrew from Peruvian politics. Toledo and his spouse, Eliane Karp, both moved to California, in the United States, where they have resided since, to avoid persecution.
Toledo and the former First Lady were charged with multiple offenses of corruption and probing, and have been summoned to Peru for a trial. Toledo ignored this warning and proceeded to remain in the United States. Toledo claimed to have been a professor at Stanford University, but the university verified that Toledo was solely invited as a one-time guest speaker to the institution.
Many efforts have been made by former President Pedro Pablo Kuczynski and President Martin Vizcarra to extradite Toledo, but no responses have been heard from the United States government.
In March 2019, Toledo was temporarily arrested for public drunkenness in California, and was released later that night. Via a call in, Toledo denied that he was arrested. There is currently a $25,000 reward for the ex-president.
In August 2019, Toledo was finally arrested in Northern California as part of an extradition request from the Ministry of Justice of Peru. He has been held in custody ever since and awaiting for a clear for extradition from the United States government.
Humala and former First Lady Nadine Heredia were abruptly arrested following the end of his term. Both of them were detained for 6 months for investigation on the means of corruption, but were later released.
There were no conclusions or evidence provided by the investigation. Humala continues to reside in Lima.
Following his resignation in March 2018, Kuczynski quietly left the Government Palace and returned to his home in the district of San Isidro. Kuczynski remained out of the public eye for the following ten months, but was then summoned to the Department of Justice. All of Kuczynski's bank accounts were frozen and he was prohibited from leaving the country.
Kuczynski made few public appearances, but on the first anniversary of his resignation, Kuczynski made his first major public appearance on El Commercio. The former president mentioned his present financial ruins and the amounts of loans he was forced to make. Additionally, Kuczynski mentioned that he felt betrayed by Martin Vizcarra, the incumbent President of Peru who succeeded Kuczynski following his resignation.
On 10 April 2019, Kuczynski was arrested for primary corruption charges on the basis of an ongoing investigation into his connections with Odebrecht, money laundering, and bribery. At the end of his detention, Kuczynski was convicted to 3 years of prison until 2022.
In contemporary history, two presidents are known to not have been of direct Peruvian descent, being Alberto Fujimori (1990-2000) and Pedro Pablo Kuczynski (2016-2018). Fujimori is of Japanese descent and Kuczynski is of German and French descent. A majority of presidents have been born in Lima, including the current president.
Three presidents have been assassinated in Peru's history—Felipe Santiago Salaverry, Tomas Gutierrez, and Luis Miguel Sanchez Cerro. The youngest president to die was Luis Miguel Sanchez Cerro who was assassinated at 43 years of age. The president who has reached the longest life span is Francisco Morales Bermudez (1975-1980), who is currently 97 years of age. One president, Alan Garcia (1985-1990, 2001-2006), has commit suicide.
The tallest recorded president is Alan Garcia, who stood at 6'4. The shortest is Alejandro Toledo (2001-2006), who stands at 5"3. The oldest person to assume the presidency is Pedro Pablo Kuczynski (2016-2018) who assumed the presidency at 78 years and 217 days, with the second being Fernando Belaunde Terry (1963-1968, 1980-1985) who assumed his second presidency at 78 years and 39 days. The youngest president was Luis Miguel Sanchez Cerro, who assumed office 42 years.
The President of the Republic of Peru is the Head of the Peruvian State, Head of the Peruvian Government and the Supreme Commander of the Peruvian Armed Forces.
The official style is:
His/Her Excellency [name of the president]
Common usages include:
El Presidente de la Republica / The President of the Republic
Names of incumbents as of 2019 [update] :
The politics of the Republic of Peru takes place in a framework of a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Peru is both head of state and head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the President and the Government. Legislative power is vested in both the Government and the Congress. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. The Economist Intelligence Unit has rated Peru as "flawed democracy" in 2016.
The President of the Republic of Turkey is the head of state and head of government of the Republic of Turkey. Following the 2018 general election, the incumbent office-holder assumed the role of an Executive President and holds both ceremonial and executive status. In this capacity, the President represents the Republic of Turkey, and the unity of the Turkish nation, as well as ensuring the implementation of the Constitution of Turkey and the organized and harmonious functioning of the organs of state. The articles from 101 to 106 of the Constitution establish all the requirements, election, duties, and responsibilities for the office of the President. The office of the President of Turkey was established with the proclamation of the Republic of Turkey on 29 October 1923. The President of Turkey is often referred to as the Cumhurbaşkanı, meaning 'President of the People'.
The President of Brazil, officially the President of the Federative Republic of Brazil or simply the President of the Republic, is both the head of state and the head of government of Brazil. The president leads the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the Brazilian Armed Forces. The presidential system was established in 1889, upon the proclamation of the republic in a military coup d'état against Emperor Pedro II. Since then, Brazil has had six constitutions, three dictatorships, and three democratic periods. During the democratic periods, voting has always been compulsory. The Constitution of Brazil, along with several constitutional amendments, establishes the requirements, powers, and responsibilities of the president, their term of office and the method of election.
The President of the Arab Republic of Egypt is the head of state of Egypt. Under the various iterations of the Constitution of Egypt, the president is also the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces and head of the executive branch of the Egyptian government. The current president is Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, in office since 8 June 2014.
Valentín Paniagua Corazao was a Peruvian politician who served as Interim President of Peru. Paniagua was elected by the Peruvian Congress to serve as interim president of the country after Alberto Fujimori was ousted from office by Congress in November 2000.
The Congress of the Republic of Peru is the unicameral body that assumes legislative power in Peru.
The Republic of Peru is a unitary state and a semi-presidential representative democratic republic with a multi-party system, The current government was established by the 1993 Constitution of Peru. The government is composed of three branches, being the executive, judicial, and legislative branches.
The 1992 Fujimori auto-coup, also known as the 1992 auto-coup, was a constitutional crisis that occurred in Peru after President Alberto Fujimori dissolved the Congress of Peru as well as the judiciary of Peru and assumed full legislative and judicial powers.
The Republic of Peru has two Vice Presidents who are elected along with the President in democratic elections. Their only mission is to replace the President in case of death, permanent or temporary incapacity, resignation, being abroad without the permission of Congress, failure to return from abroad at fixed time, and/or dismissal or removal from office as allowed by the Constitution.
Former Peruvian President Alberto Fujimori was arrested, tried, and convicted for a number of crimes related to corruption and human rights abuses that occurred during his government. Fujimori was president from 1990 to 2000. His presidency ended when he fled the country in the midst of a scandal involving corruption and human rights violations.
Mercedes Rosalba Aráoz Fernández is a Peruvian economist, professor, and politician.
The term Fujimorism or Fujimorismo denotes the policies and the political ideology of former President of Peru Alberto Fujimori as well as the personality cult built around him, his policies and his family. The ideology is defined by its support for social conservatism and neoliberal economics, as well as its opposition to both the far-left and far-right.
General elections were held in Peru on 10 April 2016 to determine the president, vice-presidents, composition of the Congress of the Republic of Peru and the Peruvian representatives of the Andean Parliament.
The presidency of Pedro Pablo Kuczynski in Peru began with his inauguration on Peru independence day and ended with the president's resignation following a corruption scandal on March 23, 2018.
A constitutional referendum was held in Peru on 9 December 2018 alongside the second round of gubernatorial elections.
The 2017–19 Peruvian political crisis is an ongoing period of political instability in the Republic of Peru during the government of Pedro Pablo Kuczynski, between 15 September 2017 and 23 March 2018, and since 7 July 2018 under the government of Martín Vizcarra.
The 2019 Peruvian constitutional crisis began when President Martín Vizcarra dissolved the Congress of Peru on 30 September 2019. Congress responded by declaring Vizcarra's presidency suspended and appointed Vice President Mercedes Aráoz as interim president, moves that were largely seen as null and void.