Transport in Peru

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This article describes the transport in Peru .

Railways

Railways in Peru (interactive map) Railways in Peru.svg
Railways in Peru (interactive map)

total: 2,374 km
standard gauge: 1,608 km, 4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm) gauge
narrow gauge: 380 km, 3 ft (914 mm) gauge

Contents

There are two unconnected principal railways in Peru.

The Ferrocarril Central Andino (FCCA; the former Ferrocarril Central del Perú) runs inland from Callao and Lima across the Andes watershed to La Oroya and Huancayo. It is the second highest railway in the world (following opening of the Qingzang railway in Tibet), with the Galera summit tunnel under Mount Meiggs at 4,783 m (15,692 ft) and Galera station at 4,777 m (15,673 ft) above sea level. In 1955 the railway opened a spur line from La Cima on the Morococha branch (4,818 m (15,807 ft) above sea level) to Volcán Mine, reaching an (at the time) world record altitude of 4,830 m (15,850 ft). Both branch and spur have since closed to traffic. [1] [ page needed ] From Huancayo the route is extended by the Ferrocarril Huancayo - Huancavelica. In July 2006 FCCA began work to regauge the Huancavelica line from 914 mm (3 ft) to 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge and it was finished in 2010. There was also a proposal for a 21 km tunnel under the Andes. [2]

The Ferrocarriles del Sur del Perú (FCS), now operated by PeruRail, runs from the coast at Matarani to Cuzco, and to Puno on Lake Titicaca. From Cuzco, PeruRail runs the 914 mm (3 ft) gauge line to Aguas Calientes for Machu Picchu. [3]

Towns served

Central railways

See Ferrocarril Central Andino

  • in March 2009, gauge conversion from Huancayo to Huancavelica from 914 mm (3 ft) to 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) proceeds. By October 2010 it was finished and it is in service now.

Southern railway

See PeruRail

Metro

Lima has a metro service or Lima Metro, also called Tren eléctrico that has now only one line (called Linea 1). The line has an extension of 34.6 km. with 26 stations, and goes from the south east to north east Lima urban districts passing downtown (This is Villa El Salvador to San Juan de Lurigancho). The second line (called Linea 2) is now under construction and will run from the port of Callao to Ate passing downtown too (west to east).(2015).

Huancayo Metro is the second urban rail line in Peru, is located in the Andean city of Huancayo and is currently under construction (2012).

Proposed

Highways


total: 85,900 km
paved: 45,000 km (Of which approximately 350 km. of divided multi-line roads)
unpaved: 40,900 km (1999 est.)

The Pan American Highway runs the country from north to south next to the coast, from Tumbes (Ecuadoran border) to Tacna (Chilean border). From Arequipa a branch goes to Puno and then to Bolivia. Other important highways are the Longitudinal de la Sierra, that goes from north to south in the highlands; and the Carretera Central, that goes from Lima (in the coast) to Pucallpa (in the jungle).

Long distance buses

Inter-city travel in Peru is almost exclusively done in long distance buses. Buses in most of the cities depart from bus terminals called terminal terrestre. The main bus companies which link Lima with the major cities include Cruz del Sur and Ormeño. Other companies are Civa, Tepsa, Cial, Flores and Oltursa. [4]

Maps

Waterways

8,600 km of navigable tributaries of Amazon system and 208 km of Lake Titicaca.

There are river boat service from Yurimaguas and Pucallpa to Iquitos, and from there to the Brazilian border in the Amazon river. Touristic boats can be reached at Puno in the Lake Titicaca.

Pipelines

Ports and harbors

Pacific Ocean

Lake Titicaca

Amazon basin

Merchant marine


total: 7 ships (1,000  gross tonnage  (GT) or over) totaling 65,193  GT/100,584 tonnes deadweight (DWT)
ships by type: (1999 est.)

Airports and airlines

Airports

According to a 1999 estimate there are 234 airports in Peru. Jorge Chavez International Airport, in Lima is Peru's main national and international gateway, with an estimate of 98 percent of all international flights into Peru landing at this airport. Other important airports are located in Cusco, Arequipa, Iquitos and Piura.

Airports - with paved runways:
total: 44
over 3,047 m: 7
2,438 to 3,047 m: 17
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 1 (1999 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 190
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 26
914 to 1,523 m: 67
under 914 m: 94 (1999 est.)

Airlines

International airlines connecting Peru with North America, Europe and other Latin American countries include: Delta Air Lines, American Airlines, United Airlines, Air Canada, Iberia, Air France, KLM, LATAM Airlines, Avianca, AeroMexico, and British Airways.
Airlines in Peru with domestic service in Peru include LAN Peru, Star Peru, Peruvian Airlines, and LC Perú. Charter and Cargo airlines include ATSA, Andes Air and Cielos Airlines. Former Peruvian airlines include Aero Continente, AeroPerú and Faucett.

Related Research Articles

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Transport in Chile is mostly by road. The far south of the country is not directly connected to central Chile by road, and water transport also plays a part there. The railways were historically important in Chile, but now play a relatively small part in the country's transport system. Because of the country's geography and long distances between major cities, aviation is also important.

Transport in El Salvador

El Salvador has transport links by road, rail, sea and air.

For Soviet transportation, see Transport in the Soviet Union.

Transport in Malawi

Transportation in Malawi is poorly developed. The country of almost 14 million has 39 airports, 6 with paved runways and 33 with unpaved runways. It has 495 miles (797 km) of railways, all narrow-gauge and about 45 percent of its roads are paved. Though it is landlocked, Malawi also has 435 miles (700 km) of waterways on Lake Malawi and along the Shire River.

Mountain railway

A mountain railway is a railway that operates in a mountainous region. It may operate through the mountains by following mountain valleys and tunneling beneath mountain passes, or it may climb a mountain to provide transport to and from the summit.

Catholic Church in Peru

The Catholic Church in Peru is part of the worldwide Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope, the curia in Rome, and the Peruvian Episcopal Conference.

Huancayo Place in Junin, Peru

Huancayo is the capital of Junín Region, in the central highlands of Peru.

Trans-Andean railways

The Trans-Andean railways provide rail transport over the Andes. Several are either planned, built, defunct, or waiting to be restored. They are listed here in order from north to south.

The Empresa Nacional de Ferrocarriles del Perú (Enafer) is a public company which ensures the management and the commercial use of the railway network of Peru.

PeruRail

PeruRail is a railway operator providing tourist, freight, and charter services in southern Peru. It was founded in 1999 by 2 Peruvian entrepreneurs and British company Sea Containers.

Rail transport in Peru Overview of rail transport in Peru

Rail transport in Peru has a varied history. Peruvian rail transport has never formed a true network, primarily comprising separate lines running inland from the coast and built according to freight need rather than passenger need.

Ferrocarril Central Andino

Ferrocarril Central Andino (FCCA) is the consortium which operates the Ferrovías Central railway in Peru linking the Pacific port of Callao and the capital Lima with Huancayo and Cerro de Pasco. As one of the Trans-Andean Railways it is the second highest in the world constructed by the Polish engineer Ernest Malinowski in 1871–1876.

The Railroad Development Corporation is an American railroad holding company based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. It operates several short line railroads outside the United States and acts as an investor, with management and institutional investors as partners. It was founded in 1987 by former Conrail employee Henry Posner III.

Ticlio

Ticlio is a mountain pass and the highest point of the central road of Peru, in the Andes mountains, reaching a height of 4,818 metres (15,807 ft). It used to be a railway crossing loop on the Ferrocarril Central Andino (FCCA) in Peru, whose main claim to fame was being the highest railway junction in the world. The railway now crosses the pass through the nearby Galera Summit Tunnel at a lower elevation of 4,783 m and enters a different valley than the highway on the eastern side of the pass.

Rail transport in Bolivia

The Bolivian rail network has had a peculiar development throughout its history; owing to losses of land, prestige and credit rating due to the failure of the War of the Pacific, railway development came late to Bolivia. The demand for mineral wealth and communication to the inland city of La Paz, encouraged foreign investors, mainly British, to construct railways. However, into this mix came the experience of railway building in adjacent Peru, whereby overbuilding of 4 ft 8 12 instandard gauge line across the high Andes meant that Peru went bankrupt.

Huancayo Metro

The Huancayo Metro or Wanka Metro is a failed metropolitan railway project which was to be the second metro line in Peru, after Lima Metro. It was constructed by the company Ferrocarril Central Andino in the city of Huancayo in the Central Andes of Peru. Its operation was planned for the first half of 2013, as announced in October 2012, However the railway never opened

Metre and 3 ft gauge lines are found in South America. Some of the 1,000 mm gauge lines cross international borders, though not as efficiently as they might.

Huancayo-Huancavelica Railway Railway in Peru

The Huancayo-Huancavelica Railway, also known as Tren Macho is a state-owned, non-electrified, single-track, 128.7 km long, standard gauge railway connecting the cities of Huancayo and Huancavelica in the central highlands of Peru. The railway is operated by the Peruvian Ministry of Transport and Communications (MTC) but is expected to be operated as a concession from the end of 2019.

References

  1. Marshall, John (1989). The Guinness Railway Book. Enfield: Guinness Books. ISBN   0-8511-2359-7. OCLC   24175552.
  2. "Huancavelica upgrade". Railway Gazette International . 2006-06-01.
  3. Whetham, Robert D. (2008). Railways of Peru. Volume 2 – The Central and Southern Lines. Bristol: Trackside Publications. ISBN   978-1-900095-37-2.
  4. Oltursa

PD-icon.svg This article incorporates  public domain material from the CIA World Factbook website https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html .