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This is a timeline of Peruvian history, comprising important legal & territorial changes and political events in Peru and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of Peru. See also the list of presidents of Peru.
|1230||Manco Cápac died from being shot in the left eye. Sinchi Roca, his son, married his sister, and succeeded him as Inca of the Inca Empire.|
|1260||Sinchi Roca was succeeded by his son Lloque Yupanqui.|
|1290||Lloque Yupanqui was succeeded by his son Mayta Cápac.|
|1320||Mayta Cápac was succeeded by his son Cápac Yupanqui.|
|1350||Cápac Yupanqui was succeeded by his son Inca Roca.|
|1380||Inca Roca died. His heir Quispe Yupanqui was killed in a coup, and the throne went to Yáhuar Huácac, another son.|
|1410||Yáhuar Huácac was succeeded by his son Viracocha.|
|1438||Viracocha was succeeded by his son Pachacuti, who would expand Cuzco into the Inca Empire.|
|1471||Pachacuti died. His son Tupac Inca Yupanqui succeeded him.|
|1493||Tupac Inca Yupanqui died and was succeeded by Huayna Capac.|
|1527||Huayna Capac died and was succeeded by his heir Ninan Cuyochi.|
|1532||13 May||Conquistador Francisco Pizarro landed on the northern coast of Peru.|
|15 November||Pizarro arrived at Cajamarca.|
|16 November||Battle of Cajamarca The Spanish army took the Inca emperor Atahualpa prisoner, marking the end of his empire.|
|1535||18 January||Spaniards founded the city of Lima.|
|1542||22 November||The Viceroyalty of Peru was established.|
|1572||End of the Neo-Inca State in Vilcabamba.|
1586 St rose of lima was born
|1656||Pedro Bohórquez announced to the Calchaqui Indians that he was the last living descendant of the Inca emperors.|
|1659||15 December||Bohórquez led the Calchaqui in an uprising against the Spanish crown.|
|1667||3 January||Bohórquez was executed and displayed in Lima.|
|1717||The New Kingdom of Granada became an independent viceroyalty under the Spanish crown.|
|1742||Juan Santos Atahualpa led a failed uprising against the Spanish colonial government.|
|1776||The Governorate of the Río de la Plata was spun off as an independent viceroyalty.|
|1780||18 November||Battle of Sangarará : Indigenous rebels led by Túpac Amaru II soundly defeated a numerically inferior Spanish force while they attended church.|
|1781||18 May||Túpac Amaru II was drawn and quartered in Cuzco.|
|1810||25 May||Viceroy José Fernando de Abascal y Sousa sent troops to Córdoba, Potosí, La Paz and Charcas and reincorporated them into the Viceroyalty of Peru.|
|1815||15 October||By royal order, Joaquín de la Pezuela was named viceroy of Peru to replace Abascal.|
|1816||San Martin's Argentina had declared its independence.|
|1820||20 September||An Argentine army led by José de San Martín landed at Paracas.|
|1821||29 January||Pezuela was deposed. José de la Serna was proclaimed viceroy.|
|6 July||De la Serna moved the capital to Cuzco.|
|28 July||Peruvian War of Independence : San Martín declared the independence of Peru.|
|1824||9 December||Battle of Ayacucho : The Spanish army was defeated, marking the end of Spanish rule in South America.|
|1837||9 May||The Peru-Bolivian Confederacy was established.|
|1839||25 August||The Peru-Bolivian Confederacy was officially dissolved.|
|1866||2 May||A Spanish fleet under the command of Admiral Casto Méndez Núñez besieged the port city of Callao.|
|1879||5 April||War of the Pacific : Chile declared war on Peru and Bolivia.|
|1883||20 October||War of the Pacific: Under the Treaty of Ancón, the war ended with the cession of Peru's Tarapacá Province to Chile.|
|1948||29 October||A military coup|
|1956||Odría allowed free elections.|
|1968||3 October||General Juan Velasco Alvarado seized power in a military coup.|
|1975||29 August||A number of prominent military commanders overthrew the Alvarado government and installed General Francisco Morales Bermúdez in the presidency.|
|1979||12 July||A new constitution came into force.|
|1985||14 April||Alan García won election to the Presidency.|
|1990||8 April||Alberto Fujimori defeated Mario Vargas Llosa in a presidential election.|
|1992||5 April||Fujimori declares a self-coup and dissolves the Congress.|
|12 September||The Maoist leader Abimael Guzmán was arrested in Lima.|
|1995||26 January||Cenepa War : The war broke out.|
|9 April||1995 Peruvian general election : Fujimori was re-elected president of Perú.|
|1996||17 December||The terrorist group Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement (MRTA) took hostage hundreds of high-level diplomats, government and military officials and business executives who were attending a party at the official residence of Japan's ambassador to Peru.|
|1997||22 April||The Peruvian army mounted a dramatic raid on the residence. Fourteen members of the MRTA were killed, crippling the organization, and the hostages were freed.|
|2000||24 June||Alberto Fujimori wins reelection for a third term, later resigning at the threat of impeachment.|
|2001||8 April||2001 Peruvian general election : Possible Peru won a plurality of APRA.|
|3 June||Peruvian general election, 2001: Toledo won the presidency.|
|2003||26 May||Toledo declared a state of emergency in response to a series of paralyzing strikes.|
|14 July||Birth of Jose Diego Salazar in Trujillo, Peru.|
|2006||9 April||2006 Peruvian general election : Union for Peru won a plurality of seats in the Congress. Their presidential candidate, Ollanta Humala, went into a runoff against García.|
|4 June||García won the presidency.|
|2007||15 August||2007 Peru earthquake : A 7.9 earthquake hit Pisco Province.|
|2010||1||Peru celebrates Peruvian novelist Mario Varga Llosa's achievement in receiving the Nobel Prize in Literature.|
|2011||28 July||Ollanta Humala is inaugurated, winning the presidency over Keiko Fujimori.|
|2016||28 July||Pedro Pablo Kuczynski is inaugurated as President of Peru, prevailing over former President Alberto Fujimori's daughter, Keiko Fujimori.|
|2017||24 December||Kuczynski pardons former President Alberto Fujimori, who was sentenced for 25 years with manslaughter, corruption, bribery, and violation of human rights.|
|2018||21 March||Amidst a political crisis, Pedro Pablo Kuczynski resigns the presidency in the threat of impeachment for corruption and bribery. |
The history of Peru spans 15 millennia, extending back through several stages of cultural development along the country's desert coastline and in the Andes mountains. Peru's coast was home to the Norte Chico civilization, the oldest civilization in the Americas and one of the six cradles of civilization in the world. When the Spanish arrived in the sixteenth century, Peru was the homeland of the highland Inca Empire, the largest and most advanced state in pre-Columbian America. After the conquest of the Incas, the Spanish Empire established a Viceroyalty with jurisdiction over most of its South American domains. Peru declared independence from Spain in 1821, but achieved independence only after the Battle of Ayacucho three years later.
Lima, originally founded as Ciudad de Los Reyes, is the capital and largest city of Peru. It is located in the valleys of the Chillón, Rímac and Lurín Rivers, in the desert zone of the central coastal part of the country, overlooking the Pacific Ocean. Together with the seaside city of Callao, it forms a contiguous urban area known as the Lima Metropolitan Area. With a population of more than 9.7 million in its urban area and more than 11 million in its metropolitan area, Lima is one of the largest cities in the Americas.
Peru, officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, and in the south and west by the Pacific Ocean. Peru is a megadiverse country with habitats ranging from the arid plains of the Pacific coastal region in the west to the peaks of the Andes mountains extending from the north to the southeast of the country to the tropical Amazon basin rainforest in the east with the Amazon River. Peru has a population of over 34 million, and its capital and largest city is Lima. At 1,285,216 km2, Peru is the 19th largest country in the world, and the third largest in South America.
The War of the Pacific, also known as the Saltpeter War and by multiple other names, was a war between Chile and a Bolivian–Peruvian alliance from 1879 to 1884. Fought over Chilean claims on coastal Bolivian territory in the Atacama Desert, the war ended with a Chilean victory, which gained for the country a significant amount of resource-rich territory from Peru and Bolivia.
The Viceroyalty of Peru officially known as the Kingdom of Peru was a Spanish imperial provincial administrative district, created in 1542, that originally contained modern-day Peru and most of the Spanish Empire in South America, governed from the capital of Lima. Peru was one of the two Spanish Viceroyalties in the Americas from the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries.
Callao is a Peruvian seaside city and region on the Pacific Ocean in the Lima metropolitan area. Callao is Peru's chief seaport and home to its main airport, Jorge Chávez International Airport. Callao municipality consists of the whole Callao Region, which is also coterminous with the Province of Callao. Founded in 1537 by the Spaniards, the city has a long naval history as one of the main ports in Latin America and the Pacific, as it was one of vital Spanish towns during the colonial era. Central Callao is about 15 km (9.3 mi) west of the Historic Centre of Lima.
El Comercio is a conservative Peruvian newspaper based in Lima. Founded in 1839, it is the oldest newspaper in Peru and one of the oldest Spanish-language papers in the world. It has a daily circulation of more than 120,000. It is one of the most influential media in Peru.
The Peru national football team represents Peru in men's international football. The national team has been organised, since 1927, by the Peruvian Football Federation (FPF). The FPF constitutes one of the ten members of FIFA's South American Football Confederation (CONMEBOL). Peru has won the Copa América twice, Bolivarian Games 6 times, and has qualified for the FIFA World Cup five times ; the team also participated in the 1936 Olympic football competition and has reached the semi-finals of the CONCACAF Gold Cup. In the past, they were often considered 4th best in South America, after Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay. The team plays most of its home matches at the Estadio Nacional in Lima, the country's capital.
A pisco sour is an alcoholic cocktail of Peruvian origin that is typical of Peruvian cuisine and Chilean cuisine. The drink's name comes from pisco, which is its base liquor, and the cocktail term sour, about sour citrus juice and sweetener components. The Peruvian pisco sour uses Peruvian pisco as the base liquor and adds freshly squeezed lemon juice, simple syrup, ice, egg white, and Angostura bitters. The Chilean version is similar, but uses Chilean pisco and Pica lime, and excludes the bitters and egg white. Other variants of the cocktail include those created with fruits like pineapple or plants such as coca leaves.
Pontifical Catholic University of Peru is a private university in Lima, Peru. It was founded in 1917 with the support and approval of the Catholic Church, being the oldest private institution of higher learning in the country. The person who dealt the necessary formalities was Catholic priest Jorge Dintilhac.
The term Peruvian literature not only refers to literature produced in the independent Republic of Peru, but also to literature produced in the Viceroyalty of Peru during the country's colonial period, and to oral artistic forms created by diverse ethnic groups that existed in the area during the prehispanic period, such as the Quechua, the Aymara and the Chanka South American native groups.
Chifa is Chinese Peruvian culinary tradition based on Cantonese elements fused with traditional Peruvian ingredients and traditions. The term is also used to refer to restaurants that serve the chifa cuisine.
The Liberating Expedition of Peru was a naval and land military force created in 1820 by the government of Chile in continuation of the plan of the Argentine General José de San Martín to achieve the independence of Peru, and thus consolidate the independence of all former Spanish-American colonies. It was vital to defeat the Viceroyalty of Peru—the center of royalist power in South America—from where royalist expeditions were sent to reconquer the territories lost to the independence fighters.
Jorge Alfredo Basadre Grohmann was a Peruvian historian known for his extensive publications about the independent history of his country. He served during two different administrations as Minister of Education and was also director of the Peruvian National Library.
The following is an alphabetical list of topics related to the Republic of Peru.
Viracochapampa, Huiracochapampa, or Wiracochapampa is an archaeological site with the remains of a building complex of ancient Peru of pre-Inca times. It was one of the administrative centers of the Wari culture. Viracochapampa is located about 3.5 km north of Huamachuco in the region of La Libertad at an elevation of 3,070 metres (10,072 ft).
Peruvian Spanish is a family of dialects of the Spanish language that have been spoken in Peru since brought over by Spanish conquistadors in 1492. There are four varieties spoken in the country, by about 94.4% of the population. The four Peruvian dialects are Andean Spanish, Peruvian Coastal Spanish, Andean-Coastal Spanish, and Amazonic Spanish.
The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Lima, Peru.
Manuel María Gálvez Egúsquiza was a Peruvian lawyer, magistrate, university professor and politician.