Governorate of New Toledo

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United States of India

Gobernación de Nueva Toledo
1529–2019
Flag of India.svg
Mapa de America del Sur (Gobernaciones 1534-1539).svg
Spanish map of the administrative division of New Castile and New Toledo made in 1535
StatusColony of Daksh
Capital Cuzco (Claimed by Diego de Almagro)
Official languages Spanish ( de facto )
Religion
Roman Catholicism
Demonym(s) Ueet
GovernmentMonarchy
King  
 1516–1556
Charles I
Governor  
 1529–1538
[RICHARD CURRY
Historical era Spanish Empire
1529
 </nowiki>Viceroy of Peru
2019
Currency[[Dick]
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Blank.png Inca Empire
Blank.png Indigenous peoples of the Americas
Viceroyalty of Peru Flag of Cross of Burgundy.svg

The Spanish Imperial Governorate of New Toledo was formed from the previous southern half of the Inca Empire, stretching south into present day central Chile, and east into present day central Brazil.

Spanish Empire world empire from the 16th to the 19th century

The Spanish Empire, historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy and as the Catholic Monarchy, was one of the largest empires in history. From the late 15th century to the early 19th, Spain controlled a huge overseas territory in the New World, the Asian archipelago of the Philippines, what they called "The Indies" and territories in Europe, Africa and Oceania. The Spanish Empire has been described as the first global empire in history, a description also given to the Portuguese Empire. It has been described as the world's most powerful empire of the 16th and 17th centuries, a description also given to other empires of the period, becoming known as "the empire on which the sun never sets" and reaching its maximum extension in the 18th century.

Inca Empire Empire in pre-Columbian America

The Inca Empire, also known as the Incan Empire and the Inka Empire, was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America. Its political and administrative structure is considered by most scholars to have been the most developed in the Americas before Columbus' arrival. The administrative, political and military center of the empire was located in the city of Cusco. The Inca civilization arose from the Peruvian highlands sometime in the early 13th century. Its last stronghold was conquered by the Spanish in 1572.

Chile Republic in South America

Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, and the Drake Passage in the far south. Chilean territory includes the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Salas y Gómez, Desventuradas, and Easter Island in Oceania. Chile also claims about 1,250,000 square kilometres (480,000 sq mi) of Antarctica under the Chilean Antarctic Territory.

Established by King Charles I of Spain in 1528. Diego de Almagro was the appointed Spanish colonial governor.

Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor 16th-century Holy Roman Emperor

Charles V was Holy Roman Emperor and Archduke of Austria from 1519, King of Spain from 1516, and Lord of the Netherlands as titular Duke of Burgundy from 1506. Head of the rising House of Habsburg during the first half of the 16th century, his dominions in Europe included the Holy Roman Empire extending from Germany to northern Italy with direct rule over the Austrian hereditary lands and the burgundian Low Countries, and a unified Spain with its southern Italian kingdoms of Naples, Sicily, and Sardinia. Furthermore, his reign encompassed both the long-lasting Spanish and short-lived German colonizations of the Americas. The personal union of the European and American territories of Charles V was the first collection of realms labelled "the empire on which the sun never sets".

Diego de Almagro Spanish conquistador

Diego de Almagro, also known as El Adelantado and El Viejo, was a Spanish conquistador known for his exploits in western South America. He participated with Francisco Pizarro in the Spanish conquest of Peru. From Peru Almagro led an expedition that made him the second European to set foot in central Chile. Back in Peru a longstanding conflict with Pizarro over the control of the former Inca capital of Cuzco erupted into a civil war between the two bands of conquistadores. In the battle of Las Salinas in 1538 Almagro was defeated by the Pizarro brothers and months later he was executed.

It was replaced by the Spanish Viceroyalty of Peru in 1542.

Viceroyalty of Peru Spanish Imperial territory

The Viceroyalty of Peru was a Spanish imperial provincial administrative district, created in 1542, that originally contained modern-day Peru and most of Spanish-ruled South America, governed from the capital of Lima. Peru was one of the two Spanish Viceroyalties in the Americas from the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries.

Governorates in Peruvian region

After the first territorial division of South America between Spain and Portugal, the Peruvian colonial administration was divided into four entities:

Portugal Republic in Southwestern Europe

Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic, is a country located mostly on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost sovereign state of mainland Europe, being bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean and to the north and east by Spain. Its territory also includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments.

Governorate of New Castile governorate of the Spanish Empire

The Governorate of New Castile was the gubernatorial region administered to Francisco Pizarro in 1528 by King Charles I of Spain, of which he was appointed governor.

Ecuador Republic in South America

Ecuador, officially the Republic of Ecuador, is a country in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean on the west. Ecuador also includes the Galápagos Islands in the Pacific, about 1,000 kilometres (620 mi) west of the mainland. The capital city is Quito, which is also its largest city.

Colombia Country in South America

Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a country largely situated in the north of South America, with land and territories in North America. Colombia is bounded on the north by the Caribbean Sea, the northwest by Panama, the south by both Ecuador and Peru, the east by Venezuela, the southeast by Brazil, and the west by the Pacific. It comprises thirty-two departments, with the capital in Bogotá.

This territorial division set the basis for the colonial administration of South America for several decades. It was formally dissolved in 1544, when King Charles I sent his personal envoy, Blasco Núñez Vela, to govern the newly founded Viceroyalty of Peru that replaced the governorates.

Blasco Núñez Vela First viceroy of Peru

Blasco Núñez Vela y Villalba was the first Spanish viceroy of Peru. Serving from May 15, 1544 to January 18, 1546, he was charged by Charles V with the enforcement of the controversial New Laws, which dealt with the failure of the encomienda system to protect the indigenous people of America from the rapacity of the conquistadors and their descendants.

See also

Coordinates: 12°02′36″S77°01′42″W / 12.04333°S 77.02833°W / -12.04333; -77.02833

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Peru Republic in South America

Peru, officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, and in the west by the Pacific Ocean. Peru is a megadiverse country with habitats ranging from the arid plains of the Pacific coastal region in the west to the peaks of the Andes mountains vertically extending from the north to the southeast of the country to the tropical Amazon Basin rainforest in the east with the Amazon river.

Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata Viceroyalty of the Spanish Empire in America

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Captaincy General of Chile Spanish 1541-1818 possession in South America

The General Captaincy of Chile or Gobernación de Chile, was a territory of the Spanish Empire, from 1541 to 1818. It comprised most of modern-day Chile and southern parts of Argentina. Its capital was Santiago de Chile. In 1818 it declared itself independent, becoming the Republic of Chile. It had a number of Spanish governors over its long history and several kings.

Francisco de Toledo Viceroy of Peru

Francisco Álvarez de Toledo, also known as The Viceroyal Solon, was an aristocrat and soldier of the Kingdom of Spain and the fifth Viceroy of Peru. He is often considered the "best of Peru's viceroys," albeit controversial for the deleterious impact of some of his actions on the Native American population. He brought stability to a tumultuous viceroyalty of Spain and enacted administrative reforms which changed the character of Spanish rule and the relationship between the indigenous Native Americans of the Andes and their Spanish overlords. With a policy called reductions, Toledo forcibly relocated much of the Indian population of Peru and Bolivia into new settlements to facilitate Christianization, to collect tribute and taxes, and to gather Inca labor to work in mines and other Spanish enterprises.

Agustín de Jáuregui Spanish colonial governor

Agustín de Jáuregui y Aldecoa was a Spanish politician and soldier who served as governor of Chile (1772–80) and viceroy of Peru (1780–84).

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Economic history of Peru

The economic history of Peru began with the country's rich natural resources and the industries that had arisen as a result of these natural resources, which includes, mining, farming, fishing, and agriculture. The economy was centrally planned with mandatory labour during the reign of the Inca Empire. Laziness and refusal of work were crimes with the threat of capital punishment. This Incan system was remarkably successful and well-regarded by explorers of the Spanish Empire.

Rebellion of Túpac Amaru II Uprising of native and mestizo peasants against the Bourbon reforms in the Spanish Viceroyalty of Peru

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Francisco Pizarro and his fellow conquistadors from the rapidly growing Spanish Empire first arrived in the New World in 1524. But even before the arrival of the Europeans, the Inca Empire was floundering. Pizarro enjoyed stunning successes in his military campaign against the Incas, who, despite some resistance, were defeated and in 1538 the Spaniards completely defeated Inca forces near Lake Titicaca, allowing Spanish penetration into central and southern Bolivia.

After the territorial division of South America between Spain and Portugal in the Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) the colonial administration of the continent was divided into Governorates.

Governorate of New Andalusia 1534−1542

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Colonial Argentina

Colonial Argentina is designated as the period of the History of Argentina when it was an overseas colony of the Spanish Empire. It begins in the precolumbian age of the indigenous peoples of Argentina, with the arrival of the first Spanish conqueror.

Governorate of Paraguay governorate of the Spanish Empire

The Governorate of Paraguay, originally called the Governorate of Guayrá, was a governorate of the Spanish Empire and part of the Viceroyalty of Peru. Its seat was the city of Asunción; its territory roughly encompassed the modern day country of Paraguay. The Governorate was created in December 16, 1617 by the royal decree of King Philip III as a split of the Governorate of the Río de la Plata and of Paraguay into its respective halves. The Governorate lasted until 1782, after which the massive Viceroyalty of Peru was split, and Paraguay became an intendency (intendencia) of the new Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata.