Tidore

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Tidore

Kota Tidore Kepulauan
Tidore Island Indonesia Daytime.jpg
Tidore Island, as seen from Ternate Island.
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Seal
ID Tidore.PNG
Location within Maluku Islands
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Tidore
Location in Maluku, Halmahera and Indonesia
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Tidore
Tidore (Halmahera)
Indonesia location map.svg
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Tidore
Tidore (Indonesia)
Coordinates: 0°41′N127°24′E / 0.683°N 127.400°E / 0.683; 127.400 Coordinates: 0°41′N127°24′E / 0.683°N 127.400°E / 0.683; 127.400
Country Flag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia
Region Maluku Islands
Province Flag of North Maluku.png  North Maluku
Government
  MayorAli Ibrahim
  Vice MayorMuhammad Senin
Area
  Total1,550.37 km2 (598.60 sq mi)
Population
 (2015)
  Total48,678
  Density31/km2 (81/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+9 (Indonesia Eastern Time)
Postcodes
9xxxx
Area code (+62) 921
Vehicle registration DG
Website tidorekota.go.id

Tidore (Indonesian : Kota Tidore Kepulauan) is a city, island, and archipelago in the Maluku Islands of eastern Indonesia, west of the larger island of Halmahera. In the pre-colonial era, the Sultanate of Tidore was a major regional political and economic power, and a fierce rival of nearby Ternate, just to the north.

Indonesian language official language of Indonesia

Indonesian is the official language of Indonesia. It is a group of varieties of Malay, an Austronesian language that has been used as a lingua franca in the multilingual Indonesian archipelago for centuries. Indonesia is the fourth most populous nation in the world. Of its large population, the majority speak Indonesian, making it one of the most widely spoken languages in the world.

Maluku Islands Archipelago in eastern Indonesia, also called the Spice Islands

The Maluku Islands or the Moluccas are an archipelago in eastern Indonesia. Tectonically they are located on the Halmahera Plate within the Molucca Sea Collision Zone. Geographically they are located east of Sulawesi, west of New Guinea, and north and east of Timor.

Halmahera Island of the Maluku Islands

Halmahera, formerly known as Jilolo, Gilolo, or Jailolo, is the largest island in the Maluku Islands. It is part of the North Maluku province of Indonesia and Sofifi, the capital of the province, is located on the west coast of the island.

Contents

Geography

Tidore Island consists of a large stratovolcano which rises from the seafloor to an elevation of 1,730 m (5,676 ft) above sea level at the conical Mount Kie Matubu on the south end of the island. The northern side of the island contains a caldera, Sabale, with two smaller volcanic cones within it.

Stratovolcano Tall, conical volcano built up by many layers of hardened lava and other ejecta

A stratovolcano, also known as a composite volcano, is a conical volcano built up by many layers (strata) of hardened lava, tephra, pumice and ash. Unlike shield volcanoes, stratovolcanoes are characterized by a steep profile with a summit crater and periodic intervals of explosive eruptions and effusive eruptions, although some have collapsed summit craters called calderas. The lava flowing from stratovolcanoes typically cools and hardens before spreading far, due to high viscosity. The magma forming this lava is often felsic, having high-to-intermediate levels of silica, with lesser amounts of less-viscous mafic magma. Extensive felsic lava flows are uncommon, but have travelled as far as 15 km (9.3 mi).

Sea level Average level for the surface of the ocean at any given geographical position on the planetary surface

Mean sea level (MSL) is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's bodies of water from which heights such as elevation may be measured. The global MSL is a type of vertical datum – a standardised geodetic datum – that is used, for example, as a chart datum in cartography and marine navigation, or, in aviation, as the standard sea level at which atmospheric pressure is measured to calibrate altitude and, consequently, aircraft flight levels. A common and relatively straightforward mean sea-level standard is instead the midpoint between a mean low and mean high tide at a particular location.

A caldera is a large cauldron-like hollow that forms shortly after the emptying of a magma chamber/reservoir in a volcanic eruption. When large volumes of magma are erupted over a short time, structural support for the rock above the magma chamber is lost. The ground surface then collapses downward into the emptied or partially emptied magma chamber, leaving a massive depression at the surface. Although sometimes described as a crater, the feature is actually a type of sinkhole, as it is formed through subsidence and collapse rather than an explosion or impact. Only seven caldera-forming collapses are known to have occurred since 1900, most recently at Bárðarbunga volcano, Iceland in 2014.

Soasio is Tidore's capital. It has its own port, Goto, and it lies on the eastern edge of the island. It has a mini bus terminal and a market. The sultan's palace was rebuilt with completion in 2010. [1]

History

Tidore was a spice-funded sultanate that was founded in 1409, and spent much of its history in the shadow of Ternate, another sultanate. [2]

Ternate City in North Maluku, Indonesia

Ternate is the largest city in the Indonesian province of North Maluku and an island in the Maluku Islands. It was the capital of the former Sultanate of Ternate and de facto provincial capital of North Maluku before being moved to Sofifi in 2010. It is off the west coast of the larger island of Halmahera. The city has a population of just under 200,000 on some 111.39 km2.

The sultans of Tidore ruled most of southern Halmahera, and, at times, controlled Buru, Ambon and many of the islands off the coast of New Guinea. Tidore established an alliance with the Spanish in the sixteenth century, and Spain had several forts on the island. There was mutual distrust between the Tidorese and the Spaniards but for the Tidorese the Spanish presence was helpful in resisting the incursions of the Ternateans and their ally, the Dutch, who had a fort on Ternate. For the Spanish, backing the Tidore state helped check the expansion of Dutch power that threatened their nearby Asia-Pacific interests, provided a useful base right next to the centre of Dutch power in the region and was a source of spices for trade.

Buru island

Buru is the third largest island within Maluku Islands of Indonesia. It lies between the Banda Sea to the south and Seram Sea to the north, west of Ambon and Seram islands. The island belongs to Maluku province and includes the Buru and South Buru regencies. Their administrative centers, Namlea and Namrole, respectively, have ports and the largest towns of the island. There is a military airport at Namlea which supports civilian cargo transportation.

Ambon Island island

Ambon Island is part of the Maluku Islands of Indonesia. The island has an area of 775 km2 (299 sq mi) and is mountainous, well watered, and fertile. Ambon Island consists of two territories - the city of Ambon to the south and various districts (kecamatan) of the Central Maluku Regency to the north. The main city and seaport is Ambon, which is also the capital of Maluku province, while those districts of Maluku Tengah Regency situated on Ambon Island had a 2014 population of 132,377. Ambon has an airport and is home to the Pattimura University and Open University, state universities, and a few private universities, which include Darussalam University and Universitas Kristen Indonesia Maluku (UKIM).

New Guinea Island in the Pacific Ocean

New Guinea is a large island separated by a shallow sea from the rest of the Australian continent. It is the world's second-largest island, after Greenland, covering a land area of 785,753 km2 (303,381 sq mi), and the largest wholly or partly within the Southern Hemisphere and Oceania.

Before the Spanish withdrawal from Tidore and Ternate in 1663, the Tidore sultanate, although nominally part of the Spanish East Indies, established itself as one of the strongest and most independent states in the region. After the Spanish withdrawal it continued to resist direct control by the Dutch East India Company (the VOC). Particularly under Sultan Saifuddin (r. 1657–1689), the Tidore court was skilled at using Dutch payment for spices for gifts to strengthen traditional ties with Tidore's traditional peripheral territories. As a result, he was widely respected by many local populations, and had little need to call on foreign military help for governing the kingdom, unlike Ternate which frequently relied upon Dutch military assistance.

Dutch East India Company 17th-century Dutch trading company

The Dutch East India Company, officially the United East India Company was an early megacorporation founded by a government-directed amalgamation of several rival Dutch trading companies (voorcompagnieën) in the early 17th century. It was established on March 20, 1602, as a chartered company to trade with Mughal India during the period of proto-industrialization, from which 50% of textiles and 80% of silks were imported, chiefly from its most developed region known as Bengal Subah. In addition, the company traded with Indianised Southeast Asian countries when the Dutch government granted it a 21-year monopoly on the Dutch spice trade. It has been often labelled a trading company or sometimes a shipping company. However, VOC was in fact a proto-conglomerate company, diversifying into multiple commercial and industrial activities such as international trade, shipbuilding, and both production and trade of East Indian spices, Formosan sugarcane, and South African wine. The Company was a transcontinental employer and an early pioneer of outward foreign direct investment. In the early 1600s, by widely issuing bonds and shares of stock to the general public, VOC became the world's first formally listed public company. In other words, it was the first corporation to be listed on an official stock exchange. It was influential in the rise of corporate-led globalisation in the early modern period.

Tidore long remained an independent state, albeit with growing Dutch interference, until the late eighteenth century. Like Ternate, Tidore allowed the Dutch spice eradication program (extirpatie) to proceed in its territories. This program, intended to strengthen the Dutch spice monopoly by limiting production to a few places, impoverished Tidore and weakened its control over its periphery.

In 1781 Prince Nuku left Tidore and declared himself Sultan of the Papuan Islands. This was the beginning of a guerilla war which lasted for many years. The Papuans sided with the rebellious Prince Nuku. The British had sponsored Nuku as part of their campaign against the Dutch in the Moluccas. Captain Thomas Forrest was intimately connected with Nuku and represented the British as ambassador.

The sultanate was abolished in the Sukarno era and re-established in 1999 with the 36th sultan. [2] Tidore was largely spared from the sectarian conflict of 1999 across the Maluku Islands. [2]

Administration

Tidore Island featured on the Indonesian 1,000-rupiah banknote Indonesia 2000 1000r r.jpg
Tidore Island featured on the Indonesian 1,000-rupiah banknote

The island constitutes a municipality (kotamadya) within the province of North Maluku. At the time of the 2010 Census, the municipality covered an area of 1,645.73 square kilometres (635.42 sq mi) and had a Census population of 90,055. However, later in 2010, the mainland part (Oba) became the city of Sofifi, the new provincial capital. This leaves 53,836 as the population covering 127 km2 of land. [3]

The municipality now includes the island of Tidore, together with two small islands (Maitara and Mare), with the loss of the Oba section of Halmahera Island. It was divided into eight districts (kecamatan), of which four constitute the island of Tidore (including the two small islands) and the other four constituted the Oba area on the 'mainland' of Halmahera. These are tabulated below with their areas (in sq km) and their populations at the 2010 Census. [4]

NameEnglish nameArea in
sq.km
Population
Census
2010
Tidore(Tidore town)24.418,477
Tidore SelatanSouth Tidore30.113,129
Tidore UtaraNorth Tidore42.114,573
Tidore TimurEast Tidore30.47,657
(totals on Tidore Island)127.053,836
Oba UtaraNorth Oba332.413,331
Oba TengahCentral Oba620.27,659
ObaOba430.710,337
Oba SelatanSouth Oba173.74,892
(totals on Halmahera Island)1,557.036,219

Notes

  1. Kompas
  2. 1 2 3 Witton, Patrick (2003). Indonesia. Melbourne: Lonely Planet. pp. 827–828. ISBN   1-74059-154-2.
  3. http://sp2010.bps.go.id/files/ebook/8272.pdf
  4. Biro Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2011.

Related Research Articles

Bacan Islands Group of islands in Indonesia

The Bacan Islands, formerly also known as the Bachans, Bachians, and Batchians, are a group of islands in the Moluccas in Indonesia. They are mountainous and forested, lying south of Ternate and southwest of Halmahera. The islands are administered by the South Halmahera Regency of North Maluku Province.

North Maluku Province in Indonesia

North Maluku is a province of Indonesia. It covers the northern part of the Maluku Islands. The provincial capital is Sofifi, on Halmahera, and the largest population center is the island city of Ternate. The population of North Maluku was 1,038,087 in the 2010 census, making it one of the least-populous provinces in Indonesia; at the latest estimate the population number rose to 1,141,561. The movement of the regional economy in North Maluku is largely derived from the people's economy which relies on the agricultural sector, fisheries and other types of marine products. The main commodities that support economic pulse in North Maluku include copra, nutmeg, cloves, fisheries, gold and nickel. North Maluku's natural products include rice, corn, roasted sweet potatoes, beans, coconut, potatoes, nutmeg, sago, and eucalyptus. The regional economy mostly comes from the people's economy which relies on the agricultural sector, fisheries and other types of marine products.

Maluku (province) Province in Indonesia

Maluku is a province of Indonesia. It comprises the central and southern regions of the Maluku Islands. The main city and capital of Maluku province is Ambon on the small Ambon Island. The total population of this province at the 2010 census results amounted to 1,533,506 people; the latest official estimate is 1,768,500. Maluku is located in Eastern Indonesia. It is directly adjacent to North Maluku and West Papua in the north, Central Sulawesi, and Southeast Sulawesi in the west, Banda Sea, East Timor and East Nusa Tenggara in the south and Arafura Sea and Papua in the east.

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Tidore language language centered on the island of Tidore

Tidore is a North Halmahera language of Indonesia. The language is centered on the island of Tidore, but it is also spoken in some areas of the neighbouring Halmahera. A Papuan language, it is unlike most languages in Indonesia which belong to the Austronesian language family. Tidore and the similar Ternate language are reported to be related to languages of the Bird's Head Peninsula, West Papua.

The Sultanate of Ternate, previously also known as The Kingdom of Gapi is one of the oldest Muslim kingdoms in Indonesia besides Tidore, Jailolo, and Bacan. Sultanate of Ternate was established by Momole Ciko, the first leader of Ternate, with the title Baab Mashur Malamo, in 1257. It reached its Golden Age during the reign of Sultan Baabullah (1570–1583) and encompassed most of the eastern part of Indonesia and a part of southern Philippines. Ternate was a major producer of cloves and a regional power from the 15th to 17th centuries.

Sultanate of Tidore

Sultanate of Tidore was a sultanate in Southeast Asia, centered on the Spice Islands of Tidore, a rival of Sultanate of Ternate for control of the spice trade.

Moluccans ethnolinguistic group of related Austronesian ethnic groups indigenous to the Maluku Islands

Moluccans are the Austronesian-speaking and Papuan-speaking ethnic groups indigenous to the Maluku Islands, also called the Moluccas, which have been part of Indonesia since 1950. As such, "Moluccans" is used as a blanket term for various ethnic and linguistic groups inhabiting the islands.

Ternate language language in North Maluku

Ternate or Ternatese is a North Halmahera language of Indonesia. It is spoken on the island of Ternate, and some neighboring areas in North Maluku, including Halmahera, Hiri, Kayoa and the Bacan Islands. Historically, it served as the primary language of the Sultanate of Ternate, famous for its role in the spice trade.

Jailolo (town) district in Halmahera Barat Regency, Maluku Utara Province, Indonesia

Jailolo is a town and former sultanate on Halmahera in Indonesia's Maluku Islands. It is located on the island's west coast approximately 20 km north of Ternate. Jailolo is a small port that serves Halmahera's northwestern coastal villages.

Fort Oranje (Ternate) fort in Ternate City, Indonesia

Fort Oranje is a 17th-century Dutch fort located at the center of Ternate City on the island of Ternate, one of the Moluccas in Indonesia. The fort is the largest in Ternate Island. Fort Oranje was once the capital of Dutch East India Company's trade empire in Asia until it was moved to Batavia.

Fort Tolukko

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The North Halmahera languages are the Papuan languages spoken in the northern and eastern parts of the island of Halmahera and some neighboring islands in Indonesia. The southwestern part of the island is occupied by the unrelated South Halmahera languages, which are a subgroup of Austronesian.

Nuku Muhammad Amiruddin Indonesian sultan

Nuku Muhammad Amiruddin (1738–1805), also known as Prince Nuku or Sultan Nuku, was a sultan of Tidore. He is also a National Hero of Indonesia.

Fort Kastela

Fort Kastela is a ruined fortress located at the southwest coast of Ternate. It is famous for being the first colonial fortification constructed in the Spice Islands (Maluku) of Indonesia. Built by the Portuguese in 1522, it is also referred to in different languages as São João Batista (Portuguese), Ciudad del Rosario (Spanish) or Gammalamma. Today it is locally known as Kastella/Kastela.

Kingdom of Banggai

The Kingdom of Banggai was a petty kingdom in present-day Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. It was based around the Banggai Islands and the eastern coast of Sulawesi, centered at the island of Banggai. For a significant part of its history, the kingdom was under the overlordship of the Sultanate of Ternate.

References