Siege of Castelnuovo

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Siege of Castelnuovo
Part of the Ottoman–Venetian War (1537–1540)
Castel Novo.jpg
View of Castelnuovo in the 16th century. Engraving of an unknown 17th-century artist.
Date18 July – 6 August 1539
Location
Herceg Novi, present-day Montenegro
Result Ottoman victory [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]
Belligerents
Flag of Cross of Burgundy.svg Spanish Empire Flag of the Ottoman Empire.svg  Ottoman Empire
Commanders and leaders
Francisco de Sarmiento   Hayreddin Barbarossa
Strength
3,500 [6] –4,000 men [7] 50,000 men
200 ships [6] [8]
Casualties and losses
All killed or executed
except 100 men [8] [9]
20,000 killed [9] [10]

The Siege of Castelnuovo was an engagement during the Ottoman-Habsburg struggle for control of the Mediterranean, which took place in July 1539 in the walled town of Castelnuovo, present-day Herceg Novi, Montenegro. Castelnuovo had been conquered by elements of various Spanish tercios the year before during the failed campaign of the Holy League against the Ottoman Empire in Eastern Mediterranean waters. The walled town was besieged by land and sea by a powerful Ottoman army under Hayreddin Barbarossa, who offered an honorable surrender to the defenders. These terms were rejected by the Spanish commanding officer Francisco de Sarmiento and his captains even though they knew that the Holy League's fleet, defeated at the Battle of Preveza, could not relieve them. [6] During the siege Barbarossa's army suffered heavy losses due to the stubborn resistance of Sarmiento's men. However, Castelnuovo eventually fell into Ottoman hands and almost all the Spanish defenders, including Sarmiento, were killed. The loss of the town ended the Christian attempt to regain control of the Eastern Mediterranean. The courage displayed by the Old Tercio of Naples during this last stand, however, was praised and admired throughout Europe and was the subject of numerous poems and songs. [8] [9] Even the Venetian refused the promised naval link to Castelnuovo with the supplies and reinforcements; after a general troop parliament, the Capitan Francisco de Sarmiento answer to the Barbarossa surrender question was: "Que vengan cuando quieran" (come when you want). [11]

Herceg Novi Town and municipality in Montenegro

Herceg Novi is a coastal town in Montenegro located at the entrance to the Bay of Kotor and at the foot of Mount Orjen. It is the administrative center of the Herceg Novi Municipality with around 33,000 inhabitants. Herceg Novi was known as Castelnuovo between 1482 and 1797, when it was part of Ottoman Empire and the Albania Veneta of the Republic of Venice. It was a Catholic bishopric and remains a Latin titular see as Novi. Herceg Novi has had a turbulent past, despite being one of the youngest settlements on the Adriatic. A history of varied occupations has created a blend of diverse and picturesque architectural style in the city.

Montenegro Republic in Southeastern Europe

Montenegro is a country in Southeast Europe on the Adriatic Sea. It borders Bosnia and Herzegovina to the northwest; Serbia and Kosovo to the east, Albania to the south and Croatia to the west. Montenegro has an area of 13,812 square kilometres and a population of 620,079. Its capital Podgorica is one of the twenty-three municipalities in the country. Cetinje is designated as the Old Royal Capital.

The Holy League of 1538 was a short-lived alliance of Christian states arranged by Pope Paul III at the urging of the Republic of Venice.

Contents

Background

Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha defeats the Holy League of Charles V under the command of Andrea Doria at the Battle of Preveza (1538). Painting from 1866 by Ohannes Umed Behzad. Battle of Preveza (1538).jpg
Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha defeats the Holy League of Charles V under the command of Andrea Doria at the Battle of Preveza (1538). Painting from 1866 by Ohannes Umed Behzad.

In 1538 the main danger to Christianity in Europe was the expansion of the Ottoman Empire. The armies of the Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent had been stopped at Vienna in 1529. [12] In the Mediterranean, a Christian offensive attempted to eliminate the danger of the great Turkish fleet in 1535, when a strong armada under Don Álvaro de Bazán and Andrea Doria captured the port of Tunis, expelling Ottoman admiral Hayreddin Barbarossa from the waters of the Western Mediterranean. [12] The Ottoman admiral was then required to return to Constantinople, where he was appointed commander of a great fleet to conduct a campaign against the Republic of Venice's possessions in the Aegean and Ionian Seas. Barbarossa captured the islands of Syros, Aegina, Ios, Paros, Tinos, Karpathos, Kasos, Naxos, and besieged Corfu. [12] The Italian cities of Otranto and Ugento and the fortress of Castro, in the province of Lecce, were also looted. [12]

Suleiman the Magnificent Sultan of the Ottoman Empire

Suleiman I, commonly known as Suleiman the Magnificent in the West and Kanunî Sultan Süleyman in his realm, was the tenth and longest-reigning Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1520 until his death in 1566. Under his administration, the Ottoman state ruled over at least 25 million people.

Vienna Capital of Austria

Vienna is the national capital, largest city, and one of nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primate city, with a population of about 1.9 million, and its cultural, economic, and political centre. It is the 7th-largest city by population within city limits in the European Union.

Don Álvaro de Bazán, called the Elder (1506–1558) was a Spanish naval commander from an old navarrese noble family who received several nobilary titles such as the rank of Admiral of Castile, Marquis del Viso, and General-Captain of the Galleys of Spain. He was the father of Álvaro de Bazán, 1st Marquis of Santa Cruz, who surpassed him in fame. At the age of eight his son was appointed "Military Governor and captain of the fortress and city of Gibraltar". His command however was via his father. It has been speculated that this unusual appointment was intended to show Charles V's confidence but Bazán the Elder did not share that confidence and he suggested to no effect that Gibraltar's Line Wall Curtain be extended to the southern tip of the rock.

Portrait of Charles V with a Baton. Copy by Rubens of a portrait by Titian. Emperor charles v.png
Portrait of Charles V with a Baton. Copy by Rubens of a portrait by Titian.

The Republic of Venice, frightened by the loss of their possessions and the ruin of their trade, conducted a vigorous campaign for the creation of a "Holy League" to recover the lost territories and expel the Ottomans from the sea. [12] In February 1538, Pope Paul III succeeded in creating a league which united the Papacy itself, the Republic of Venice, the Empire of Charles V, the Archduchy of Austria and the Knights of Malta. [7] The Allied fleet for the campaign was supposed to consist of 200 galleys and another 100 auxiliary ships, and the army of about 50,000 infantry and 4,500 cavalry. But only 130 galleys and an army of around 15,000 infantry, mostly Spaniards, were all that could be gathered. [7] [13] The command of the fleet was given nominally to the Genoese Andrea Doria, but Vincenzo Capello and Marco Grimaldi, commanding officers of the Venetian and Papal fleets respectively, had almost twice as many ships as Doria. [7] The commander of the army was unquestionably Hernando Gonzaga, Viceroy of Sicily. [7]

Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor 16th-century Holy Roman Emperor

Charles V was Holy Roman Emperor and Archduke of Austria from 1519, King of Spain from 1516, and Lord of the Netherlands as titular Duke of Burgundy from 1506. Head of the rising House of Habsburg during the first half of the 16th century, his dominions in Europe included the Holy Roman Empire extending from Germany to northern Italy with direct rule over the Austrian hereditary lands and the burgundian Low Countries, and a unified Spain with its southern Italian kingdoms of Naples, Sicily, and Sardinia. Furthermore, his reign encompassed both the long-lasting Spanish and short-lived German colonizations of the Americas. The personal union of the European and American territories of Charles V was the first collection of realms labelled "the empire on which the sun never sets".

Archduchy of Austria Fief of the Holy Roman Empire

The Archduchy of Austria was a major principality of the Holy Roman Empire and the nucleus of the Habsburg Monarchy. With its capital at Vienna, the archduchy was centered at the Empire's southeastern periphery.

Knights Hospitaller Western Christian military order

The Order of Knights of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem, commonly known as the Knights Hospitaller or the Order of Saint John, was a medieval and early modern Catholic military order. It was headquartered in the Kingdom of Jerusalem until 1291, on the island of Rhodes from 1310 until 1522, in Malta from 1530 until 1798 and at Saint Petersburg from 1799 until 1801. Today several organizations continue the Hospitaller tradition, most importantly the Sovereign Military Order of Malta.

Differences among the commanders of the fleet diminished its effectiveness against an experienced opponent like Barbarossa. This was seen in the Battle of Preveza, fought in the Gulf of Arta. But the Holy League fleet provided support to the land forces that landed on the Dalmatian coast and captured the town of Castelnuovo. [14] This small town was a strategic fortress between the Venetian possessions of Cattaro and Ragusa in the area known as Venetian Albania. Venice therefore claimed ownership of the city, but Charles V refused to cede it. This was the beginning of the end of the Holy League. [14] [15]

Battle of Preveza 1538 naval battle

The Battle of Preveza was a naval battle that took place on 28 September 1538 near Preveza in northwestern Greece between an Ottoman fleet and that of a Christian alliance assembled by Pope Paul III in which the Ottoman fleet defeated the allies. It occurred in the same area in the Ionian Sea as the Battle of Actium, 31 BC. It was one of the three largest sea battles that took place in the sixteenth century Mediterranean.

Dalmatia Historical region of Croatia

Dalmatia is one of the four historical regions of Croatia, alongside Croatia proper, Slavonia, and Istria.

Dubrovnik City in Dubrovnik-Neretva, Croatia

Dubrovnik is a city on the Adriatic Sea in southern Croatia. It is one of the most prominent tourist destinations in the Mediterranean Sea, a seaport and the centre of Dubrovnik-Neretva County. Its total population is 42,615. In 1979, the city of Dubrovnik joined the UNESCO list of World Heritage sites.

Portrait of Andrea Doria, c. 1520, by Sebastiano del Piombo. Andrea Doria.jpg
Portrait of Andrea Doria, c. 1520, by Sebastiano del Piombo.

The town of Castelnuovo was garrisoned with approximately 4,000 men. [14] The main force was a tercio of Spanish veteran soldiers numbering about 3,500 men under the experienced Maestro de Campo Francisco Sarmiento de Mendoza y Manuel. This tercio, named Tercio of Castelnuovo, was formed by 15 flags (companies) belonging to other tercios, among them the Old Tercio of Lombardy, dissolved the year before after a mutiny for lack of pay. [16] The 15 captains in charge of the flags were Machín de Munguía, Álvaro de Mendoza, Pedro de Sotomayor, Juan Vizcaíno, Luis Cerón, Jaime de Masquefá, Luis de Haro, Sancho de Frías, Olivera, Silva, Cambrana, Alcocer, Cusán, Borgoñón and Lázaro de Coron. [17] The garrison also included 150 light cavalry soldiers, a small contingent of Greek soldiers and knights under Ándres Escrápula, and some artillery pieces managed by 15 gunners under captain Juan de Urrés. [17] The chaplain of Andrea Doria, named Jeremías, also remained in Castelnuovo along with 40 clerics and traders and was appointed bishop of the town. [17]

A tercio or tercio español was a powerful Spanish infantry division during the time of Habsburg Spain known for its victories on European battlefields in the early modern period.

Maestro de Campo, also called Sibale and Concepcion is an island in the province of Romblon, Philippines. Concepcion, a Philippine sixth class municipality is located on Maestro de Campo. In 1919, most of Maestro de Campo's residents were located in Concepcion.

Light cavalry

Light cavalry comprises lightly armed and lightly armoured troops mounted on horses, as opposed to heavy cavalry, where the riders are heavily armored. The missions of the light cavalry were primarily reconnaissance, screening, skirmishing, raiding, and most importantly, communications, and were usually armed with spears, swords, bows and later with pistols or carbines.

The reason for the garrison's large size was that Castelnuovo was projected to be the beachhead for a great offensive against the heart of the Ottoman Empire. [14] [18] However, the fate of the troops who were in the fortress depended entirely on the support of the fleet, and this had been defeated by Barbarossa at Preveza before the capture of Castelnuovo. Moreover, in a short time Venice withdrew from the Holy League after accepting a disadvantageous agreement with the Ottomans. [19] [20] Without Venetian ships, the Allied fleet had no chance to defeat the Ottoman fleet commanded by Barbarossa, who was by this time supported by another experienced officer, Turgut Reis. [20]

Beachhead

A beachhead is a temporary line created when a military unit reaches a landing beach by sea and begins to defend the area while other reinforcements help out until a unit large enough to begin advancing has arrived. The term is sometimes used interchangeably with bridgehead and lodgement. Beachheads were very important in operations such as Operation Neptune during World War II, the Korean War, and the Vietnam War, among many other examples.

Siege

First maneuvers

Barbaros Hayreddin Pasha, 16th century contemporary painting, Louvre Museum, Paris. Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha.jpg
Barbaros Hayreddin Pasha, 16th century contemporary painting, Louvre Museum, Paris.

Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent ordered Barbarossa to reorganize and rearm his fleet during the winter months to have it ready for the battle in the spring of 1539. 10,000 infantry soldiers and 4,000 Janissaries were embarked aboard the warships to reinforce the troops of the galleys. [20] According to the orders received, Barbarossa's army, numbering about 200 ships with 20,000 fighting men aboard, would blockade Castelnuevo by sea while the forces of the Ottoman governor of Bosnia, a Persian named Ulamen, would besiege the fortress by land in command of 30,000 soldiers. [20] Sarmiento, meanwhile, used the peaceful months prior to the siege to improve the defenses of the town, repairing walls and bastions and building new fortifications. In the event he could not do much due to a lack of available means, as there was no plan to fortify the town since it was supposed to function as a beachhead. [20] Captain Alcocer was sent to Spain with instructions to call for help; Pedro de Sotomayor was sent to Sicily and Captain Zambrana to Brindisi, all in vain. [21] Andrea Doria, who was in Otranto with 47 Imperial and 4 Maltese galleys, received news of Castelnuovo's situation, but given the inferiority of his fleet he sent a message to Sarmiento recommending him to surrender. [22]

In June Barbarossa sent 30 galleys to block the entrance of the Gulf of Cattaro. [21] The vessels reached Castelnuovo on 12 June and disembarked a thousand soldiers with the aim of finding water and capturing Spanish soldiers or local civilians to gain information. [21] Once the Spanish were warned of their enemy's presence, Sarmiento dispatched three companies under Captain Machín de Munguía and the cavalry under Lázaro de Corón to attack them before lunchtime. [21] After a fierce fight the Ottoman landing party was forced to re-embark, although it returned in the afternoon. Then it was beaten by Francisco de Sarmiento in person, who was waiting for a new attempt together with Captains Álvaro de Mendoza, Olivera and Juan Vizcaíno, and 600 soldiers. Three hundred Ottomans were killed during the battle, and another 30 captured. [23] The remainder escaped to their ships. [23]

Portrait of Suleiman the Magnificent attributed to Titian. c.1530. EmperorSuleiman.jpg
Portrait of Suleiman the Magnificent attributed to Titian. c.1530.

On 18 July Barbarossa arrived with the main force and immediately began to land troops and artillery while waiting for the arrival of Ulamen, who came along with his army a few days later. [24] The Ottoman pioneers spent five days digging trenches and building ramparts for 44 heavy siege guns carried aboard Barbarossa's fleet or by Ulamen's troops, and even smoothed the fields around Castelnuovo to facilitate maneuvers. [24] Castelnuovo was also bombarded by sea, as ten pieces had been previously embarked aboard the galleys. [24] The Spanish, meanwhile, undertook several sorties to obstruct the siege works. These raids inflicted many casualties, among them Agi, one of Barbarossa's favorite captains. [24] Another sortie by a Spanish force of 800 men surprised several units of Janissaries who were attempting to storm the walls of Castlenuovo, killing most of them and leaving the field strewn with corpses. When Barbarossa was informed about the setback, he severely reprimanded his officers, as the losses of the Ottoman elite corps were difficult to replace. He gave orders forbidding skirmishes to avoid a repeat of the defeat. [23]

Great assault

By 23 July, Barbarossa's army was ready to begin a general assault and his artillery prepared to break down the walls of Castelnuovo. Enjoying a vast numerical superiority over the Spanish garrison, which was completely isolated and unable to receive support or supplies, Barbarossa offered an honorable surrender to the Spanish. [21] Sarmiento and his men would be granted a safe passage to Italy, the soldiers retaining their weapons and flags. Barbarossa added to his offer the incentive of giving each soldier 20 ducats. [21] His only demand to Sarmiento was the abandonment of his artillery and gunpowder. Two squad corporals of Captain Vizcaino's company, Juan Alcaraz and Francisco de Tapia, managed to return to Naples and write their version of events many years later. [21] They recorded the answer given to Barbarossa that "the Maestro de Campo consulted with all the captains, and the captains with his officers, and they decided that they preferred to die in service of God and His Majesty." [21]

Ottoman siege guns at the Siege of Esztergom, 1543. Painted by Sebastian Vrancks, 17th century. Cannon battery at the Siege of Esztergom 1543.jpg
Ottoman siege guns at the Siege of Esztergom, 1543. Painted by Sebastian Vrancks, 17th century.

The great assault on the city was launched shortly after, and lasted all day. [25] It was costly in lives, as the Ottomans employed both infantry and artillery at the same time to assault and bombard Castelnuovo, resulting in heavy casualties among the Ottomans themselves due to both friendly fire and Spanish defending. [25] During the night the Spanish improved their defenses and plugged the gaps opened in the walls. When the attack was resumed the next morning, Saint James Day, Bishop Jeremías remained with the soldiers, encouraging them and confessing those who were mortally wounded along the attacked perimeter. About 1,500 Ottoman soldiers were killed in the bloody assault, while the Spanish suffered only 500 killed; although the number of men who died from their wounds was probably large. [17]

Encouraged by the successful defense, several Spanish soldiers decided to conduct a surprise raid on the Ottoman camp with the approval of Sarmiento. [26] Thus, one morning, 600 men took the unprepared besiegers by surprise. In some places the assault could not be stopped, and panic spread among the Ottomans. Many troops broke and ran, including some Janissaries who fled throughout their own camp breaking down the tents, including that of Barbarossa. [26] The Admiral's personal guard feared for the safety of its lord, and, ignoring his protests, took him to the galleys along with the standard of the Sultan. [26]

Ottoman janissaries. Battle of Vienna.SultanMurads with janissaries.jpg
Ottoman janissaries.

During the following days most of the artillery concentrated its fire on a fort in the upper town. Barbarossa thought that it was the key point of Castelnuovo's fortifications and proposed to capture it. [26] The remaining cannons, meantime, continued firing at the fragile walls of the town. On 4 August, Barbarossa ordered an assault against the ruins of the fort, which was now completely shattered, with its casemates ruined. As a major point of the defense, Sarmiento had reinforced the garrison and removed the wounded in the preceding days. The assault began at dawn and the battle lasted all day. Captain Machín of Munguía distinguished himself in the fight, leading the defenders with great courage. [26] By nightfall the remnants of the Spanish garrison retreated to the walls of the town with their wounded, leaving the ruined castle in Barbarossa's hands. The day was very costly in lives. Of the Spanish officers defending the castle only Captains Masquefá, Munguía, Haro, and a corporal surnamed Galaz survived. [26] The remainder had been killed in the battle. Among the very few survivors that the Ottomans captured, they found three deserters. These were immediately brought to Barbarossa and encouraged the admiral to continue with the assaults, reporting that the Spanish had suffered heavy casualties, lacked gunpowder and shot, and were mostly injured and exhausted. [26]

Ottoman capture

Castelnuovo's view in the early 18th century, by Pierre Mortier (1661-1711), circa 1700. Pierre Mortier - Golfo di Cattaro.jpg
Castelnuovo's view in the early 18th century, by Pierre Mortier (1661–1711), circa 1700.

On 5 August a new attack was launched against the walls. Barbarossa, after the report of the Spanish deserters, was sure that he could soon capture Castelnuevo. All the Janissaries took part in the action, and the cavalry was ordered to dismount to join the general assault. [27] Despite the overwhelming numerical superiority of the Ottoman troops, the Spanish defense was successful, as no more than a tower of the wall fell to the besiegers that day. [27] Sarmiento ordered his sappers to prepare a mine to destroy the tower, but the attempt failed when an unexpected burst of the gunpowder killed the soldiers who were working in the mine. [27] At dawn on the following day a heavy downpour ruined the matchlocks of the harquebuses, the few remaining pieces of artillery, and the last gunpowder. The fight was therefore sustained only with swords, pikes and knives, and the wounded Spanish soldiers were forced to take up arms and help defend the walls. [27] Only the dying men remained in the hospital. Surprisingly, the few surviving Spanish managed to repel the assault. [28]

The last and definitive attack took place the next morning. Francisco de Sarmiento, on horseback, was wounded in the face by three arrows, but he continued to encourage his men. [29] Demolished by heavy gunfire, the ruins of the walls became indefensible. Sarmiento then ordered the 600 Spanish survivors to retreat. His idea consisted of defending a castle in the lower city where the civilian population of Castelnuovo had taken refuge. [29] Although the withdrawal was made in perfect order and discipline, Sarmiento and his men found that the doors of the castle were walled at their arrival. [29] Sarmiento was offered a rope to raise him to the walls, [29] but refused and responded "Never God wants that I was saved and my companions were lost without me". [10] [29] After that he joined Machín de Munguía, Juan Vizcaíno and Sancho Frias to lead the last stand. Surrounded by the Ottoman army, the last Spanish soldiers fought back to back until none were able to fight. At the end of day, Castelnuovo was in Ottoman hands. [30]

Aftermath

Héroes gloriosos, pues el cielo
os dio más parte que os negó la tierra,
bien es que por trofeo de tanta guerra
se muestren vuestros huesos por el suelo.
Si justo es desear, si honesto celo
en valeroso corazón se encierra,
ya me parece ver, o que sea tierra
por vos la Hesperia nuestra, o se alce a vuelo.
No por vengaros, no, que no dejastes
A los vivos gozar de tanta gloria,
Que envuelta en vuestra sangre la llevastes;
Sino para probar que la memoria
De la dichosa muerte que alcanzastes,
Se debe envidiar más que la victoria

— Sonnet 217 of Gutierre de Cetina (1520–57) entitled: “A los huesos de los españoles muertos en Castelnuovo”. [30]

Almost all of the Janissaries and 16,000 from the other Ottoman units were killed in the assault. According to rumor, Ottoman losses amounted to 37,000 dead. [9] [10] Of the Spanish troops only 200 survived, most of them wounded. One of the prisoners was the Biscayan Captain Machín de Munguía. Barbarossa, upon learning this, offered Munguía freedom and a place in his army. The admiral greatly admired him for his actions in the battle of Preveza, where the Spaniard had successfully defended a sinking Venetian carrack against several Ottoman warships. [31] Munguía refused to accept and was therefore beheaded on the spur of the admiral's galley. [9] Half of the prisoners and all the clerics were also slaughtered to satisfy the Ottoman soldiers, who were angry at the great losses which they had suffered in capturing the city. [9] The few survivors were taken as slaves to Constantinople. Twenty-five of them managed to escape from prison six years later and sailed to the port of Messina. [9]

Despite the failure of Sarmiento to retain the fortress, Castelnuovo's defense was sung by numerous contemporaneous poets and praised all over Christian Europe. [9] The Spanish soldiers who participated in the unequal engagement were compared with mythological and classical history heroes, being considered immortal due the magnitude of their feat. [9] Only the enemies of Charles V, such as the Paduan humanist Sperone Speroni, rejoiced at the annihilation of the Tercio of Castelnuovo. [32]

The siege of Castelnuovo ended the failed campaign of the Holy League against the power of the Ottoman Empire in the Eastern Mediterranean. Charles V began negotiations with Barbarossa to attract him to the imperial ranks but in vain, and turned all his efforts in a great expedition against Algiers to destroy the Ottoman sea power. [33] This expedition, known as the Journey of Algiers, ended in a disaster as a storm scattered the fleet and the army had to be reembarked having suffered heavy losses. [34] A truce between Charles V and Suleiman the Magnificent was signed in 1543. Castelnuovo remained in Ottoman hands for almost 150 years. It was recovered in 1687, during the Morean War, by the Venetian Captain-General at sea Girolamo Cornaro, who in alliance with Montenegrins under Vuceta Bogdanovic, won a great victory over the Ottomans near the town and put the fortress under Venetian rule. [35]

See also

Notes

  1. "...Admiral Khair-ed-Din Barbarossa led a costly siege which eventually recovered the port". Jaques, Tony: Dictionary of Battles and Sieges. Vol. I: A-E. Westport: Greenwood Press, 2007. ISBN   9780313335372, p. 210.
  2. Pardo Molero states that Barbasossa endured an "extremely hard siege campaign" and later the admiral assured to the imperial agent Pedro Sánchez that "...what happened in Castelnuovo was the greatest feat among all he had seen or heard about". Pardo Molero, Juan Francisco: La defensa del Imperio: Carlos V, Valencia y el Mediterráneo. Madrid: Sociedad Estatal para la Conmemoración de los Centenarios de Felipe II y Carlos V, 2001. ISBN   9788495146687, p. 328.
  3. "At no time can one say without exaggeration that a stronghold had been defended with more heroism". Preveden, Francis Ralph: A history of the Croatian people from their arrival on the shores of the Adriatic to the present day. New York: Philosophical Library, 1962. OCLC 949507306, p. 193.
  4. "When the Turks entered Castelnuovo over the rubble and the Spanish corpses, Barbarossa had to admit that their losses amounted to more than nineteen thousand". Santiago, Vicente: Carlos I de España. Barcelona: Mateu, 1959. OCLC 19218641, p. 158.
  5. Fernández Álvarez, p. 583
  6. 1 2 3 Fernández Álvarez, p. 229
  7. 1 2 3 4 5 Arsenal/Prado, p. 23
  8. 1 2 3 Martínez Laínez, p. 116
  9. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Arsenal/Prado, p. 33
  10. 1 2 3 De Sandoval, p. 377
  11. 1 2 3 4 5 Arsenal/Prado, p. 22
  12. Fernández Duro, p. 234
  13. 1 2 3 4 Arsenal/Prado, p. 24
  14. Fernández Duro, p. 269
  15. 6 flags of the Tercio of Florence, 3 of the Tercio of Lombardy, 2 of the Tercio of Naples, one of the Tercio of Nice and three new flags. Fernández Álvarez, Carlos V, el César y el hombre, p. 579
  16. 1 2 3 4 De Sandoval, p. 375
  17. Fernández Duro, p. 228
  18. Levin, p. 159
  19. 1 2 3 4 5 Arsenal/Prado, p. 25
  20. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Arsenal/Prado, p. 27
  21. Fernández Duro, p. 247
  22. 1 2 3 De Sandoval, p. 374
  23. 1 2 3 4 Arsenal/Prado, p. 26
  24. 1 2 Arsenal/Prado, p. 28
  25. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Arsenal/Prado, p. 29
  26. 1 2 3 4 Arsenal/Prado, p. 30
  27. Arsenal/Prado, p. 31
  28. 1 2 3 4 5 Arsenal/Prado, p. 32
  29. 1 2 Arsenal/Prado, p. 34
  30. Fernández Duro, p. 244
  31. Croce, p. 317
  32. Martínez Ruiz/Giménez, pp. 145-146
  33. Martínez Ruiz/Giménez, p. 146
  34. Jaques, p. 210

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The Conquest of Tunis in 1574 marked the final conquest of Tunis by the Ottoman Empire over the Spanish Empire. This was an event of great significance as it decided that North Africa would be under Muslim rather than Christian rule and ended the Spanish Conquista of Northern Africa started under Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon. The capture of Tunis in 1574 "sealed the Ottoman domination of the eastern and central Maghreb".

Battle of Orbetello

The Battle of Orbetello, also known as the Battle of Isola del Giglio, was a major naval engagement of the Franco-Spanish War of 1635. It was fought on 14 June 1646 off the Spanish-ruled town of Orbetello, on the coast of Tuscany, Italy, between a French fleet led by Admiral Armand de Maillé, Marquis of Brézé, and a Spanish fleet commanded by Miguel de Noronha, 4th Count of Linhares sent to break the blockade of Orbetello and relieve the town, besieged since 12 May by a French army under the command of Prince Thomas of Savoy. The Battle of Orbetello was tactically very unusual, since it was fought by sailing ships towed by galleys in a light breeze.

Battle of Cape Celidonia

The battle of Cape Celidonia took place on 14 July 1616 during the Ottoman-Habsburg struggle for the control of the Mediterranean when a small Spanish fleet under the command of Francisco de Rivera y Medina cruising off Cyprus was attacked by an Ottoman fleet that vastly outnumbered it. Despite this, the Spanish ships, mostly galleons, managed to repel the Ottomans, whose fleet consisted mainly of galleys, inflicting heavy losses.

Battle of Alborán Battle in the Ottoman-Habsburg wars

The battle of Alboran took place on 1 October 1540 off the isle of Alboran during the Ottoman-Habsburg struggle for the control of the Mediterranean when a Spanish fleet under the command of Bernardino de Mendoza destroyed an Ottoman fleet commanded by Ali Hamet, sinking a galley and capturing 10 other ships.

Capture of Mahdia (1550)

The capture of Mahdia was an amphibious military operation that took place from June to September, 1550, during the struggle between the Ottoman Empire and the Spanish Habsburgs for the control of the Mediterranean. A Spanish naval expedition under the command of the Genoese condottiero and admiral Andrea Doria and the Spaniard Bernardino de Mendoza, supported by the Knights of Malta under their Grand Master Claude de la Sengle, besieged and captured the Ottoman stronghold of Mahdia or Mahdiye, defended by the Ottoman Admiral Turgut Reis, known as Dragut, who was using the place as a base for his piratical activities throughout the Spanish and Italian coasts. Mahdia was abandoned by Spain three years later, and all its fortifications were demolished to avoid a re-occupation of the city by the Ottomans.

Sieges of Oran and Mers El Kébir

Between April and June 1563 the Regency of Algiers launched a major military campaign to retake the Spanish military-bases of Oran and Mers el Kébir on the North African coast, occupied by Spain since 1505. The sieges of Oran and Mers El Kébir of 1563 represented a major Hispano-Algerian episode in the larger Ottoman-Habsburg wars of the Mediterranean. The kingdom of Algiers, the principalities of Kabyle and other vassal tribes combined forces as one army under Hasan Pasha, son of Hayreddin Barbarossa, and Jafar Catania. The Spanish commander brothers, Alonso de Córdoba Count of Alcaudete and Martín de Córdoba, managed to hold the strongholds of Oran and Mers El Kébir, respectively, until the relief fleet of Francisco de Mendoza arrived to successfully defeat the offensive.

Battle of Bordeaux (1653)

The Battle of Bordeaux was a naval engagement of the Franco-Spanish War of 1635 fought on 20 October 1653 in the Gironde estuary. A Spanish fleet under Álvaro de Bazán, 3rd Marquis of Santa Cruz, sent to relieve Bordeaux, at that time held by the nobles rose up against Louis XIV during the Fronde, encountered a great concentration of French warships belonging to Duke of Vendome's army in the channel of Blaye and captured or destroyed most of it. Shortly after a landing was made by some 1,600 soldiers of the Spanish Tercios which sacked the village of Montagne-sur-Gironde. A similar attempt in the Island of Ré was rejected, so Santa Cruz, having accomplished his orders, returned to Spain.

The Action of 12–17 January 1640 was a naval battle between a Dutch fleet and a combined Spanish-Portuguese fleet during the Eighty Years' War. The battle took place on the Brazilian coast off Pernambuco and was an attempt by a fleet consisting of approximately eighty vessels transporting about 5,000 soldiers under the command of Portuguese Admiral Fernando de Mascarenhas to land reinforcements to bolster the Portuguese militia besieging the city of Recife. On 12 January this fleet was intercepted by a Dutch task force of about forty ships commanded by Willem Loos. The ensuing battle lasted with occasional breaks until the evening of 17 January, when the Spanish and Portuguese fleet retreated and sailed away to the north.

Battle of Cape Corvo

The Battle of Cape Corvo was a naval engagement of the Ottoman–Habsburg wars fought as part of the struggle for the control of the Mediterranean. It took place in August 1613 near the island of Samos when a Spanish squadron from Sicily, under Admiral Ottavio d'Aragona, engaged an Ottoman fleet led by Sinari Pasha. The Spanish were victorious and captured seven galleys and about 600 prisoners, among them the Bey of Alexandria and another 60 important Ottoman nobles. Cape Corvo was the first major victory of the Spanish fleets under Pedro Téllez-Girón, 3rd Duke of Osuna, the Spanish Viceroy of Sicily, as well as the greatest Spanish victory over the Ottoman Empire since the Battle of Lepanto.

Dragut Ottoman admiral

Dragut, known as "The Drawn Sword of Islam", was a Muslim Ottoman naval commander, governor, and noble, of Greek or Turkish descent. Under his command, the Ottoman Empire's maritime power was extended across North Africa. Recognized for his military genius, and as being among "the most dangerous" of corsairs, Dragut has been referred to as "the greatest pirate warrior of all time", "undoubtedly the most able of all the Turkish leaders", and "the uncrowned king of the Mediterranean". He was described by a French Admiral as "A living chart of the Mediterranean, skillful enough on land to be compared to the finest generals of the time. No one was more worthy than he to bear the name of king".

Battle of Girolata

The Battle of Girolata was a naval action fought between Genoese, Spanish and Ottoman ships on 15 June 1540 in the Gulf of Girolata, on the west coast of the island of Corsica, amidst the war between Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, and Suleiman the Magnificent. A Spanish squadron of 21 galleys led by the Genoese Gianettino Doria and the Spaniard Berenguer de Requesens surprised an Ottoman squadron of 11 galleys, anchored at Girolata, led by the Ottoman admiral Dragut, whom the commander of the Ottoman Navy, Hayreddin Barbarossa, had committed to raid the Italian coast after his victories in the Adriatic sea the year before. As the crews of the Ottoman warships were ashore, distributing the booty from recent raids, the Spanish-Genoese fleet easily overtook them, taking all 11 Ottoman galleys and making 1,200 prisoners, among them Dragut, who was carried to Genoa and put, together with his captains, to row in Andrea Doria's galleys.

Spanish conquest of Oran (1509)

The conquest of Oran by the Spanish Empire took place on May 1509, when an army led by Pedro Navarro on behalf of the Cardinal Cisneros seized the North-African city, which was controlled by the moors of Tlemcen.

References

Coordinates: 42°27′10″N18°31′52″E / 42.45278°N 18.53111°E / 42.45278; 18.53111