Expedition to Mostaganem (1558)

Last updated

Expedition of Mostaganem
Part of the Ottoman-Habsburg wars
DateAugust–September 1558
Location 35°56′00″N0°05′00″E / 35.9333°N 0.08333°E / 35.9333; 0.08333
Result Algerian-Ottoman Victory [1]
Belligerents
Flag of Cross of Burgundy.svg  Spain Flag of Ottoman Algiers.svg Ottoman Algeria
Commanders and leaders
Count Alcaudete   Hasan Pasha
Strength
12,000+ soldiers Unknown
Casualties and losses
6.000 killed, 6.000 prisoners [1] Unknown
Algeria location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Expedition of Mostaganem
Location of the Expedition of Mostaganem in Algeria.

The Expedition of Mostaganem occurred in 1558, when Spanish forces attempted to capture the city of Mostaganem, in modern Algeria, from the Ottomans. The expedition was supposed to be a decisive step in the conquest of the Ottoman base of Algiers, but it ended in failure, and has been called a "disaster". [2]

Contents

Background

The harbour of Mostaganem had been captured by the Spanish from the Muslims in 1506. The harbour became part of numerous Spanish possessions on the North African coast, which had been captured since 1496: Melilla (1496), Mers-el-Kebir (1505), Oran (1509), Bougie (1510), Tripoli (1510), Algiers, Shershell, Dellys, Tenes. [3]

In 1516, Mostaganem was seized by Hayreddin Barbarossa from his base of Algiers. He then strengthened its defences, and the city became a rival of Oran. [4] From 1519, Barbarossa placed himself under the protection of the Ottomans, thereby transforming Mostaganem into an Ottoman dominion. [3]

Previous Spanish expeditions had taken place in 1543 and 1547, which failed as the Spanish forces were repulsed and then pursued in retreat by Turkish and tribal forces. [5]

The expedition of 1558 to retake Mostaganem from the Ottomans followed a string of Ottoman successes in the Mediterranean, especially with the Siege of Tripoli in 1551, and the evacuation of Al-Mahdiyeh by the Spaniards. [2] Concurrently, the corsairs of Barbary were operating from their base in Algiers. [2]

Expedition

In the end, around 12,000 Spanish soldiers were taken prisoner. [6] [7] Count Alcaudete, Governor of Oran, died in the expedition. [2] His son Don Martín de Córdoba, himself future Governor of Oran, was also captured in the disaster and would be imprisoned as a Christian slave in Algiers under the beylerbey Hasan Pasha, until he was exchanged for the huge ransom of 23,000 escudos . [6]

The failure of the expedition of Mostaganem ended attempts at a grand alliance between Spain and Morocco against the common Ottoman enemy. [8]

Notes

  1. 1 2 Micheal Clodfelter (9 May 2017). Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Encyclopedia of Casualty and Other Figures, 1492–2015, 4th ed. McFarland. p. 25. ISBN   978-0-7864-7470-7.
  2. 1 2 3 4 Cervantes in Algiers: a captive's tale by María Antonia Garcés p.25
  3. 1 2 An Historical Geography of the Ottoman Empire p.107ff
  4. "But as early as 1516 Mostaganem fell into the hands of the Turks. From then on, being the rival of Spanish Oran, it saw its importance increase." Algeria Hildebert Hisnard p.158
  5. A history of the Maghrib in the Islamic period Jamil M. Abun-Nasr p.155
  6. 1 2 Cervantes in Algiers: a captive's tale by María Antonia Garcés p.49ff
  7. Power and Penury: Government, Technology and Science in Philip II's Spain by David C. Goodman p.247
  8. "the failure at Mostaganem, which brought the collapse of grandiose projects of alliance with Morocco" in MEDITERRANEAN AND THE MEDITERRANEAN WORLD IN THE: AGE OF PHILIP II -2 by Fernand Braudel p.855

Related Research Articles

Abu Marwan Abd al-Malik I Saadi Sultan of Morocco

Abu Marwan Abd al-Malik I, often simply Abd al-Malik or Mulay Abdelmalek, was the Saadi Sultan of Morocco from 1576 until his death right after the Battle of Ksar El Kebir against Portugal in 1578.

Mostaganem City in Mostaganem Province, Algeria

Mostaganem is a port city in and capital of Mostaganem province, in the northwest of Algeria. The city, founded in the 11th century lies on the Gulf of Arzew, Mediterranean Sea and is 72 km ENE of Oran. It has 245,330 inhabitants as of the 2014 census.

Ottoman Algeria

The Regency of Algiers, was a vassal state of the Ottoman Empire in North Africa lasting from 1515 to 1830, when it was conquered by the French. Situated between the regency of Tunis in the east and the Sultanate of Morocco in the west, the Regency originally extended its borders from La Calle in the east to Trara in the west and from Algiers to Biskra, and after spread to the present eastern and western borders of Algeria. The country was governed by governors appointed by the Ottoman Sultan (1518-1659), rulers appointed by the Odjak of Algiers (1659-1710), and then Sultans elected by the Divan of Algiers.

Oruç Reis was an Ottoman seaman, who became bey (governor) of Algiers, beylerbey of the West Mediterranean, and admiral of the Ottoman Empire. The elder brother of the famous Ottoman admiral Hayreddin Barbarossa, he was born on the Ottoman island of Midilli and died in battle against the Spanish at Tlemcen in the Ottoman Eyalet of Algeria.

Hayreddin Barbarossa Ottoman admiral

Hayreddin Barbarossa, also known as Hızır Hayrettin Pasha, and simply Hızır Reis , was an Ottoman corsair and later admiral of the Ottoman Navy. Barbarossa's naval victories secured Ottoman dominance over the Mediterranean during the mid 16th century.

Abu Abdallah Mohammed II Saadi Sultan of Morocco

Abu Abdallah Mohammed II, Al-Mutawakkil, often simply Abdallah Mohammed was Sultan of Morocco from 1574 to 1576. He was the oldest son of Abdallah al-Ghalib and became Sultan after his father's death.

Salah Rais was an Ottoman privateer and admiral. He is alternatively referred to as Sala Reis, Salih Rais, Salek Rais and Cale Arraez in several European sources, particularly in Spain, France and Italy.

Barbary slave trade Slave markets in North Africa

The Barbary slave trade refers to slave markets on the Barbary Coast of North Africa, which included the Ottoman provinces of Algeria, Tunisia and Tripolitania and the independent sultanate of Morocco, between the 16th and middle of the 18th century. The Ottoman provinces in North Africa were nominally under Ottoman suzerainty, but in reality they were mostly autonomous.

Conquest of Tunis (1574)

The Conquest of Tunis in 1574 marked the final conquest of Tunis by the Ottoman Empire over the Spanish Empire. This was an event of great significance as it decided that North Africa would be under Muslim rather than Christian rule and ended the Spanish Conquista of Northern Africa, which started in 1497 under the Catholic Monarchs of Spain. The capture of Tunis in 1574 "sealed the Ottoman domination of the eastern and central Maghreb".

French conquest of Algeria Military campaign

The French conquest of Algeria took place between 1830 and 1903. In 1827, an argument between Hussein Dey, the ruler of the Ottoman Regency of Algiers, and the French consul escalated into a naval blockade, following which France invaded and quickly seized Algiers in 1830, and seized other coastal communities. Amid internal political strife in France, decisions were repeatedly taken to retain control of the territory, and additional military forces were brought in over the following years to quell resistance in the interior of the country.

Siege of Tripoli (1551)

The siege of Tripoli occurred in 1551 when the Ottomans besieged and vanquished the Knights of Malta in the fortress of Tripoli, modern Libya. The Spanish had established a fort in Tripoli in 1510, and Charles V remitted it to the Knights in 1530. The siege culminated in a six-day bombardment and the surrender of the city on 15 August.

Algiers expedition (1541)

The 1541 Algiers expedition occurred when Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire attempted to lead an amphibious attack against the Ottoman Empire's stronghold of Algiers, in modern Algeria. Inadequate planning, particularly against unfavourable weather, led to the failure of the expedition.

Capture of Peñón of Algiers (1529)

The Capture of Peñón of Algiers was accomplished when the beylerbey of Algiers Hayreddin Barbarossa took a fortress in a small islet facing the Algerian city of Algiers from the Habsburg Spaniards.

Hasan Pasha was the son of Hayreddin Barbarossa and three-times Beylerbey of the Regency of Algiers. His mother was a Morisca. He succeeded his father as ruler of Algiers, and replaced Barbarossa's deputy Hasan Agha who had been effectively holding the position of ruler of Algiers since 1533.

Battle of Wadi al-Laban

The Battle of Wadi al-Laban, also Battle of Oued el Leben, occurred in March–April 1558 between Morocco and Ottoman forces under Hasan Pasha, the son of Hayreddin Barbarossa. The battle was rather inconclusive, and occurred north of Fes, at Wadi al-Laban, an affluent of the Sebou River, one day north of Fes.

The Fall of Tlemcen occurred in 1518, when the Ottoman admiral Oruç Barbarossa captured the city of Tlemcen from its sultan, Abu Zayan, the last member of the Banu Zayan lineage.

The Capture of Algiers in 1516 was accomplished by the Ottoman brothers Oruç and Hayreddin Barbarossa against Sālim al-Tūmī, the ruler of the city of Algiers.

Morocco–Turkey relations Diplomatic relations between the Kingdom of Morocco and the Republic of Turkey

Turkey–Morocco relations covers relations between Morocco and Turkey, and spanned a period of several centuries, from the early 16th century when the Ottoman Empire neighbored Morocco to until the modern times.

Martín Alonso Fernández de Córdoba Montemayor y Velasco was a Spanish nobleman and first Count of Alcaudete.

Ottoman Tunisia

Ottoman Tunis refers to the episode of the Turkish presence in Ifriqiya during the course of three centuries from the 16th century until the 18th century, when Tunis was officially integrated into the Ottoman Empire as the Eyalet of Tunis (province). Eventually including all of the Maghrib except Morocco, the Ottoman Empire began with the takeover of Algiers in 1516 by the Ottoman Turkish corsair and beylerbey Oruç Reis. The first Ottoman conquest of Tunis took place in 1534 under the command of Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha, the younger brother of Oruç Reis, who was the Kapudan Pasha of the Ottoman Fleet during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent. However, it wasn't until the final Ottoman reconquest of Tunis from Spain in 1574 under Kapudan Pasha Uluç Ali Reis that the Turks permanently acquired the former Hafsid Tunisia, retaining it until the French occupation of Tunisia in 1881.