Battles of La Naval de Manila

Last updated
Battle of La Naval de Manila
Part of the Eighty Years' War
DateMarch 15, 1646 – October 4, 1646
Location
Result Spanish victory
Belligerents

Flag of Cross of Burgundy.svg Spanish Empire

Prinsenvlag.svg Dutch Republic

Commanders and leaders

Flag of Cross of Burgundy.svg Philip IV


Flag of Cross of Burgundy.svg Diego Fajardo Chacón
Flag of Cross of Burgundy.svg Lorenzo Ugalde de Orellana
Flag of Cross of Burgundy.svg Sebastián López
Flag of Cross of Burgundy.svg Agustín de Cepeda
Flag of Cross of Burgundy.svg Cristobal Marquéz de Valenzuela
Flag of Cross of Burgundy.svg Francisco de Esteyvar

Prinsenvlag.svg Frederick Henry


1 VOC.gif Cornelis van der Lijn
1 VOC.gif Maarten Gerritsz Vries
1 VOC.gif Antonio Camb
Strength

4 ships


400 soldiers

68 guns

19 ships

  • 16 regular galleons
  • 3 fire ships
  • 16 launches

470 guns (est.)
First Squadron:
Second Squadron: 800 soldiers

Third Squadron:

Contents

Casualties and losses
15 dead

500 dead [1] (est.)
2 fire ships sunk

3 ships severely damaged

The Battles of La Naval de Manila (Spanish : Batallas de las marinas de Manila) were a series of five naval battles fought in the waters of the Spanish East Indies in the year 1646, in which the forces of the Spanish Empire repelled various attempts by forces of the Dutch Republic to invade Manila, during the Eighty Years' War. The Spanish forces, which included many native Kapampángan volunteers, consisted of two, and later, three Manila galleons, a galley and four brigantines. They neutralized a Dutch fleet of nineteen warships, divided into three separate squadrons. Heavy damage was inflicted upon the Dutch squadrons by the Spanish forces, forcing the Dutch to abandon their invasion of the Philippines.

The victories against the Dutch invaders were attributed by the Spanish troops to the intercession of the Virgin Mary under the title of Our Lady of La Naval de Manila. On 9 April 1652, the victories in the five sea battles were declared a miracle by the Archdiocese of Manila after a thorough canonical investigation, giving rise to the centuries-old festivities of Our Lady of La Naval de Manila.

Background

Early Spanish-Dutch conflicts in the Philippines

Pursuing their quest for alternative trade routes to Asia, the Dutch reached the Philippines and sought to dominate the commercial sea trade in Southeast Asia. Being at war with Spain, they engaged in privateering activities. They harassed the coasts of Manila Bay and its environs, and preyed on sampans and junks from China and Japan in an attempt to cut off Spanish trade with East Asia.

The first Dutch squadron to reach the Philippines was led by Olivier van Noort. On December 14, 1600, van Noort's squadron grappled with the Spanish fleet under Antonio de Morga near Fortune Island, where de Morga's flagship, the San Diego , sank. Van Noort managed to return to Holland, thus becoming the first Dutch to circumnavigate the world.

Another Dutch fleet of four ships under the command of François de Wittert tried to attack Manila in 1609, but was repelled by the Spanish governor-general Juan de Silva who launched a counterattack and defeated the Dutch at the Battle of Playa Honda, where François Wittert was killed.

On October 1616, another Dutch fleet of 10 galleons under the command of Joris van Spilbergen (Georges Spillberg) blockaded the entrance of the Manila Bay. A Spanish armada of seven galleons led by Juan Ronquillo battled against Spilbergen's fleet at the Playa Honda on April 1617 (known as the second battle of Playa Honda). Spilbergen's flagship, the "Sol de Holanda" (Sun of Holland) sank, and the Dutch were once again repulsed with heavy damage.

From 1640 to 1641, a Dutch fleet of three ships stationed near Embocadero de San Bernandino tried to capture merchant galleons coming from Acapulco, Mexico. These galleons, however, escaped safely by taking a different route after receiving warnings from a system of fire-signals (placed in Embocadero) which was devised by the Jesuit priest Francisco Colin. [2]

Planned invasion of the Philippines

A lithographic illustration of the Dutch harbour in Taiwan (after 1623). 1600 drawing of Dutch ships in Taiwan.jpg
A lithographic illustration of the Dutch harbour in Taiwan (after 1623).

In view of their previous failures to disrupt the Spanish Empire's trade in Asia, the Dutch decided to seize the Philippines, feeling certain that they were strong enough to carry out the attacks. [3] From the time they conquered the Spanish settlement in the north of Formosa in 1642, the Dutch became increasingly eager to attack Manila because they knew the city lacked strong defenses and that it was unable to receive enough aid because the Spanish were occupied by the wars in Europe.

Fr. Juan de los Angeles, a Dominican priest who had been taken from Formosa to Macassar by the Dutch as a prisoner of war, later described in his account that the Dutch were so eager to launch an attack on the Philippines that "they talk among themselves of nothing else than how they will gain Manila", and that "they have urgently requested more men [4] from Holland for the purpose of attacking Manila. [5] ". In his account, he also described the formidable force of the Dutch stationed at the ports of Jakarta in Indonesia and Formosa:

"The power which the Dutch enemy possess in those regions...is greater than we could imagine of them. According to what I myself have seen...the Dutch have at this time more than one hundred and fifty ships and pataches, at a moderate estimate—all equipped and provided by seamen, soldiers, artillery and other necessary supplies. [5] "

Condition of the islands

The entire Philippines was already in dire situation at the time when the Dutch were planning their invasion.

The new Spanish governor-general Diego Fajardo Chacón reached the Philippines at the end of June in 1644, together with the Andalusian Captain Sebastian López. [8] Fajardo found the islands deficient in naval strength. Making his entrance into Manila by mid-August, Fajardo took possession of the government and dispatched two galleons--Nuestra Señora dela Encarnación and Nuestra Señora del Rosario (hereinafter called Encarnación and Rosario, respectively)—to acquire new resources for the islands from New Spain.

Msgr. Fernando Montero de Espinosa FernandoMonteroEspinosa.jpg
Msgr. Fernando Montero de Espinosa

Catastrophic events in 1645

Death of the Archbishop

In July 1645, the Encarnación and Rosario, under the command of the Viscayan Captain Lorenzo de Orella y Ugalde (also Lorenzo Ugalde de Orellana [9] ) arrived from Mexico at the port of Lamon Bay, with goods for the Philippines to replenish its depleted resources. Aboard in one of the two galleons was the archbishop-elect of Manila, His Grace Don Fernando Montero de Espinosa. On his way to Manila, de Espinosa was stricken by hemorrhagic fever and died. The citizens of Manila, who were in great need of a religious leader to strengthen their faith in those desperate times, sorrowfully mourned at the untimely death of de Espinosa.

The San Andres earthquake

On November 30, 1645, during the feast of Saint Andrew the Apostle, a devastating earthquake hit Manila and its environs, destroying about 150 magnificent buildings and killed countless citizens. Five days later, on December 5, another earthquake as violent as the first rocked the city. Although no fatalities were recorded, the remaining unstable structures damaged by the first tremor were totally destroyed.

The destructive powers of the earthquake reached other provinces of the islands. Natives' villages were utterly overthrown, as their huts built of bamboos and palm-leaves were leveled. Great fissures, and even chasms, appeared in the open fields. Rivers (including those in Manila) overflowed and flooded the cities and villages as the result of the subsequent quakes. [10]

Full-scale attack in 1646

Drawing of Batavia (now Jakarta) in the 17th century. Waere affbeeldinge Wegens het Casteel ende Stadt BATAVIA gelegen opt groot Eylant JAVA Anno 1681.jpg
Drawing of Batavia (now Jakarta) in the 17th century.

In their great council in New Batavia [6] (Jakarta), the Dutch decided to launch a decisive attack in the Philippines. The Dutch equipped 18 vessels under Maarten Gerritsz Vries, and divided them into three squadrons:

Dutch Forces

First Squadron

Second Squadron

Third Squadron

After monsoon, these three squadrons will then converge as one armada outside the bay of Manila to attack the city. [6]

The two merchant galleons--the Encarnacion and Rosario--which were hastily converted to warships to meet the superior Dutch armada of 18 vessels during the battles of La Naval de Manila in 1646. (From an artist's conception) Encarnacion and Rosario.jpg
The two merchant galleons—the Encarnacion and Rosario--which were hastily converted to warships to meet the superior Dutch armada of 18 vessels during the battles of La Naval de Manila in 1646. (From an artist's conception)

Hispanic forces

News of the arrival of the first squadron in Ilocos and Pangasinan region reached Manila on February 1, 1646. The Dutch tried to win over the Ilocanos and Pangasinenses, promising complete independence and abolition of taxes. [3] But when the natives resisted, the Dutch corsairs plundered their homes. The arrival of some companies of Spanish soldiers to those places, however, forced the Dutch to re-embark to their ships. [3]

Learning the presence of the enemy, Governor Fajardo called for a council of war. [6] At that time, Manila had no naval strength to repel the enemy—save for the two old and nearly-rotting Manila-Acapulco galleons, the 800-ton [3] Encarnación and 700-ton [3] Rosario—which arrived at Cavite from Mexico from the previous year. Despite of being greatly outnumbered by the enemy, General Fajardo decided that the two galleons should be made ready for battle. [6] The two galleons were hastily equipped and manned as follows:

EncarnaciónRosario
DesignationCapitana (Flagship)Almiranta (Admiral ship)
Artillery34 bronze cannons (calibers: 18, 25 and 30) [6] 30 cannons (calibers: same as the flagship)
Soldiery200 men (100 musketeers; 40 seamen; 60 artillerist, laborers and servants) [3] (Same as the flagship) [3]

Fajardo appointed the General Lorenzo Ugalde de Orellana as commander-in chief of the Spanish fleet (and thus making him captain of the flagship Encarnacion), with Sebastain Lopez as admiral (and captain of the Rosario). The appointed sergeant-major was Agustin de Cepeda.

The four companies of infantrymen were under the leadership of Captains Juan Enriquez de Miranda and Gaspar Cardoso on the flagship, and Captains Juan Martinez Capel and Gabriel Niño de Guzman on the almiranta. [6]

The chief pilots were Captain Domingo Machado with his associate Francisco Romero on the flagship, while on the almiranta were Captain Juan Martinez and his associate Andres Cordero. [6]

Battles of 1646

First battle

Arriving at the entrance of Mariveles, the Dutch squadron were nowhere to be found (contrary to the earlier reports of the sentinels stationed in Mariveles). [13]

The Spanish fleet then proceeded to Bolinao in Lingayen, Pangasinan. [11] There, on March 15 at around 9:00 am, the Spanish fleet discovered one enemy vessel on oars, but it quickly took flight. [6] At about 1:00 pm, four Dutch ships appeared, together with the smaller oared-vessel they had seen earlier. The two fleets came within firing range of each other between two and three o'clock in the afternoon.

The first salvo came from the Dutch flagship but missed its mark. The Encarnación answered with two shots, hitting the Dutch flagship with a 15 kg cannonball, [11] [13] tearing open the forward edge of the ship's prow. The Dutch then concentrated firing on the smaller ship Rosario, but it retaliated by firing a simultaneous volley of cannons. On the other hand, the Encarnación fired freely at any of the four enemy vessels, inflicting severe damages and thus forcing the Dutch to disengage in battle. [13]

The battles lasted for five hours. At around 7:00 pm, four of the enemy ships retreated in the dark with their lanterns out. The Dutch flagship almost sunk but also escaped under the cover of darkness. The Spanish-Kapampánga fleet looked for the Dutch corsairs up to Cape Bojeador on the northern tip of Luzon, but the Dutch fleet completely disappeared. [13]

The Spanish fleet sustained only minor damages. None of the men were killed and only few were wounded. [6]

The two ships stayed at the port of Bolinao to undergo some repairs. From there, General Orellana, after sending word to Governor Fajardo of their initial victory, received orders from the governor to escort and secure the safety of the merchant galleon from Mexico—the San Luis—which was calculated to reach the Philippines via Embocadero de San Bernardino on July 21. The merchant galleon, laden with goods from Mexico, could be a principal target of the Dutch corsairs.

Naval siege at Ticao Island

In mid-April, the second Dutch squadron had entered the Philippine waters. The Dutch first headed for Jolo, [6] intending to attack the Spanish garrison in that place, but upon seeing that it was already abandoned (as ordered by Governor Fajardo to consolidate the Spanish force against the Dutch), [11] the Dutch fleet then proceeded to another Spanish stronghold in Zamboanga, snatching two of the five ships that would carry the relief to Ternate in Moluccas. The other three managed to escape. [3]

The Dutch then attacked the stronghold of Zamboanga, but given its strong resistance, the corsairs landed their troops in Caldera to directly assault the fort, but they were driven back to their ships by Captain Pedro Duran de Monforte with 30 Spanish and two indigenous companies, causing more than a hundred casualties on the part of the Dutch. [3]

News of the Dutch presence in Zamboanga reached the Spanish fleet, which had already docked at the Port of San Jacinto [9] in Ticao Island (a long and narrow strip of land, lying between San Bernardino Strait and Ticao Passage, northeast of Masbate Island) on June 1. The port where the two galleons anchored lies open to sea, in the form of a semicircle, and is entered by a passage through which vessels can pass only one after another. [6]

The Dutch squadron, still stationed in Zamboanga awaiting the return of the other three ships which managed to escape their clutches, [3] proceeded to San Bernandino, prompted by their previous orders from Batavia to seize any vessel coming from Mexico to the Philippines. [6] On June 22, the seven Dutch warships and 16 launches were sighted by the sentinel approaching the island of Ticao. The following day, June 23, the Dutch discovered the Encarnación and Rosario moored at the entrance of San Jacinto port. The Dutch decided to form a naval siege, blockading the entrance of the harbor with their own ships to prevent the two galleons from coming out.

It was decided after a council of war that the two ships should not engage in battle to save their ammunitions until the arrival of the San Luis to protect it at all cost. [6] General Orellana then ordered Sargeant-major Agustin de Cepeda with Captain Gaspar Cardoso as his aide, together with 150 infantrymen, to secure an elevated piece of land located near the entrance of the harbor, which might be used by the Dutch as a strategic point to ambush the two galleons. [6] At 10 o'clock of June 23, four heavy armed boats of the Dutch approached the hill, but were driven back by the Spanish troops in a surprise attack. [6]

Failing to secure the hill, the Dutch sent 10 launches to inflict some damage upon the two galleons, hoping to reduce the ammunitions of the Spanish fleet before the arrival of the San Luis. This strategy (which intermittently occurred throughout the span of the siege) also failed. [6]

The standoff between the Spanish and Dutch fleets continued for a span of 31 days as both navies waited for the arrival of San Luís. By July 24, however, there was still no sign of the galleon. Antonio Camb, [6] the commander of the second Dutch squadron, presumed that it had already made port somewhere in the archipelago. [6] The Dutch decided to lift their siege and finally took the route to Manila.

Second battle

At dawn of July 25, (the feast of St. James the Great, Patron of Spain) the Spanish fleet of two left the port of Ticao. When the sun finally rose they saw the Dutch squadron sailing away, bound to Manila. The Encarnación and Rosario wasted no time and chased the enemy, knowing that Manila laid defenseless, with no ships to protect itself and all its artillery totally removed for use of the two galleons.

On one occasion, as reported by one of the soldiers aboard the Encarnación, Fr. Juan de Cuenca, O.P. seemed in a trance and then delivered "a very spiritual sermon" to the men, the content of which was "an assurance on the part of God and His Most Holy Mother, not only victory but also that no one would be killed in battle." [9] [14]

The two Spanish galleons caught up the seven Dutch warships between the islands of Banton and Marinduque on July 28, 1646, although no immediate hostilities ensued. [13] Before the battle began, both General Orellana and Admiral Lopez (without each other's knowledge), [15] made public their vows to the Virgin of the Rosary in the name of the entire armada, that if they come out victorious against the Dutch, they will make a solemn feast in Her honor, and all of them would walk barefoot to Our Lady's chapel at Santo Domingo church, [9] [13] as a sign of thanksgiving.

The second battle (which was according to the chronicles was the bloodiest) took place on July 29 at around 7:00 pm. The seven Dutch ships surrounded the Encarnación. The lone Spanish flagship exchanged fires violently against the Dutch, inflicting greater damage on the part of the corsairs. The Rosario was outside the circle of the Dutch and fired freely from behind causing greater destruction to the enemy. [6]

At one point the Encarnacion got entangled with the Dutch flagship, [13] with the danger that the Dutch would board the flagship and force the outnumbered Spanish troops in hand-to-hand combat. The mariners of the Spanish flagship immediately rushed to cut the tangled ropes, freeing both ships. [6]

The Dutch tried to blow up the Encarnacion by sending one of their fire ships, but it was repulsed by a continuous volley of artillery from the Spanish flagship. It turned to the Rosario, but it too was met with ten simultaneous shots which ignited its fireworks. The fire ship burst into flames and sank, killing its crew. [3]

The battle lasted till daybreak, and the Dutch fled. One man survived the sinking of the Dutch fire ship and was taken prisoner by the Spanish armada. [13] As promised by Fr. de Cuenca, no man was killed in the Encarnación. [6] [13] The Rosario lost five men. [6] [13]

Third battle

The following day, the Spanish fleet pursued the enemy, which now had only six vessels including the remaining fire ship. The Dutch were cornered by the two ships on July 31, 1646 at around 2:00 pm, between the islands of Mindoro and Maestro de Campo (an island about 20 kilometers southeast of Mindoro), where the third battle took place.

The Spanish fleet took the offensive side as the Dutch were desperately defensive. [13] The bombardment between the two navies, as one narrator described it, "became furious like the explosion of so many volcanoes." [16] The Dutch then tried to disable the Rosario, but they were met by a heavy volley of cannon shots.

In desperation, the Dutch finally sent out their remaining fire ship. It was armed with 30 cannons but with no sail, so it had to be escorted by two other vessels and towed by some of the Dutch launches.

General Orellana ordered the musketeers to fire on the men who were directing the launches. At the same time, he ordered the artillery on the starboard side of his ship (to which the fire ship was coming) to continuously fire at the sides of the approaching vessel. [6] The fire ship got badly battered and sank, bringing its crew and fireworks to the bottom of the sea.

As the fire ship sank, the men on the Spanish flagship shouted "Ave Maria!" [9] (Hail Mary!) and "Viva la fe Cristo y la Virgen Santísima del Rosario!" [9] (Long live the Faith in Christ and the Most Holy Virgin of the Rosary!) and continued shouting these words until the fire ship completely disappeared into the sea.

The battle continued till about the time of the Angelus at 6:00 pm. The Dutch once again fled into the night, with its flagship severely damaged. The sense of relief was overwhelming for the Spanish armada, that they publicly declared that it was the victory of Our Lady of the Rosary, and General Orellana "fell on his knees before an image of Our Lady and publicly gave thanks for the victory, acknowledging it as by Her hand." [16]

Informed of the third victory, Governor Fajardo ordered the Spanish fleet of two to return to the port of Cavite for the much needed rest and repairs. After a six-month voyage, the victorious fleet reached Cavite in the latter part of August. [6] As soon as they landed, the triumphant Spanish troops led by General Orellana marched barefooted to the church of Santo Domingo in Manila, as fulfillment to their vow. [6] They were acclaimed as heroes upon their arrival in the city.

General Orellana retired from service and was awarded by the Governor-General with one of the best encomiendas in the land, [6] while the other officers were promoted in rank. [15]

Example of an Atlantic Spanish galleon. Spanish Galleon.jpg
Example of an Atlantic Spanish galleon.

Fourth battle

With their successive victories against the Dutch corsairs, the Spanish authorities in Manila presumed that the enemy had already abandoned their plan of invasion, that they confidently allowed the San Diego, a newly built merchant galleon bound for Mexico, to sail as far as San Bernardino Strait without having any ships to escort it. [6]

Unknown to the Spaniards, the first three of the six warships that consisted the third Dutch squadron had already entered the Philippine waters by the month of September of the same year, to join the rest of the earlier two Dutch squadrons, which—unknown to the commanders of these three ships—had already been defeated by the Spanish fleet. [6]

General Cristoval Marquez de Valenzuela, commander of the San Diego, was surprised to discover the three Dutch ships stationed near Fortune Island in Nasugbu, Batangas. Seeing that the San Diego was not a warship, the Dutch corsairs attacked it furiously. The San Diego barely escaped the Dutch as it retreated towards Mariveles. Upon entering Manila Bay, the galleon proceeded to the port of Cavite to inform the Governor General regarding the presence of the Dutch. [6] [13]

Governor Fajardo immediately ordered his sergeant major and infantry commander Manuel Estacio de Venegas to form a new Spanish armada, now composed of three galleons (the Encarnación, Rosario and San Diego, which was converted to a battleship), a galley (Galera in Spanish [17] ) and four brigantines. The Encarnación and Rosario maintained its designations as flagship and admiral ship, respectively.

Reorganization in the military

With General Orellana's retirement, Sebastian Lopez (former admiral and captain of the Rosario) was promoted as commander-in-chief of the entire armada (making him the new captain of the Encarnación). The former sergeant-major Agustin de Cepeda was elevated to the rank of admiral, and thus becoming Sebastian Lopez's successor as captain of Rosario.

The chaplaincy in the Encarnación was retained by the Dominicans; the Franciscans were assigned on the Rosario while an Augustinian friar on the galley.

Governor Fajardo ordered that the vow made during the three previous battles be renewed, as well as the continuity of the practice of reciting the Holy Rosary aloud in two choirs while keeling before the image of Our Lady.

On September 16, 1646, the Spanish armada sailed towards Fortune Island where Dutch presence had been reported, but the enemy was not there anymore. Sailing a little further towards Mindoro, the Spaniards sighted the Dutch corsairs nearby, [18] between Ambil and Lubang Islands.

The fourth battle began at around 4:00 pm. The wind was against the Spanish armada so it had difficulty in approaching the enemy. The two navies were so far from each other that the bombardment was conducted with long range for five hours.

At around 9 o'clock, the current caused the Rosario to drift towards the enemy and it found itself surrounded by the three Dutch ships. The Encarnación had difficulty in approaching the Rosario to lend a hand, and for four hours, the lone admiral ship battled furiously against the three, forcing the Dutch corsairs to retreat and took shelter among the shoals near Cape Calavite.

Fifth Battle

The final battle took place on October 4, 1646, the feast of St. Francis of Assisi. [11] Upon learning that the newly built San Diego had some defects, making it unable to continue its journey to Mexico, General Sebastian decided to bring the galleon back to Mariveles and await for Governor Fajardo's decision regarding the matter.

The San Diego was moored at Mariveles (together with the galley and the four brigantines), with the Encarnación guarding it from a distance, anchoring at the entrance of Manila Bay. The Rosario on the other hand, was carried far away by adverse currents (some two or three leagues from the two ships) and had difficulty in approaching the flagship (for in those places the force of the currents is irresistible). [6]

Seeing that the three galleons were far from each other, the three Dutch ships ventured to attack once more. The Dutch ships, according to the chronicles, were of great size and well-armed. [9] The enemy flagship had 40 cannons on its sides, not including those in rear and on the quarterdeck. The admiral's ship had less. The third vessel seemed to be a fireship due to its swiftness and the fireworks it carried. [13]

General Lopez decided not to move from his current position, as the Encarnación might also be carried away by the current like the Rosario, leaving the San Diego unguarded from the approaching Dutch corsairs. Instead, he waited for the Dutch to come nearer without raising the anchor, but loosened the cable with a buoy.

The Dutch came very close to the Encarnación with the danger that the corsairs would board the lone flagship. [14] Lopez then ordered the anchor to be raised, the ship's sails unfurled, [6] and with the buoyed cables controlling the movement of the flagship, [15] the Encarnación fired violently against the three Dutch ships, as all the four grappling vessels were carried by the current away from the San Diego. [19]

The furious bombardment lasted for four hours. The Encarnación inflicted grave damages upon the enemy, forcing the Dutch corsairs once again to flee. As the Dutch fled, the wind suddenly stopped, giving chance to the galley under the command of Admiral de Esteyvar to attack the Dutch flagship (which was temporarily immobilized with the absence of the wind). Although outgunned, the galera fired upon the Dutch vessel "so furiously that the enemy regarded themselves as lost and the men attempted to throw themselves overboard." [6]

The Dutch flagship was already in danger of sinking when the wind returned which helped the enemy in their escape. The Encarnación and the galera followed in hot pursuit, but the Dutch managed to flee by nightfall. There was no casualty in the Spanish galley, however, four were killed in the Encarnación.

Aftermath

The victorious armada returned once again to Manila to fulfill their vow of walking barefoot to the shrine of Our Lady of the Rosary in Santo Domingo Church in Intramuros. [11] [13]

On January 20, 1647, [3] [9] the victory was celebrated with a solemn feast by means of a procession, Mass and a parade of the Spanish squadron with other demonstrations in fulfillment of the vow made to the Virgin of the Rosary. After which, the city of Manila, after convening a council, made a new vow to celebrate the solemnity of the naval victories every year. [6] [9]

With the failure of the attempted Dutch conquest, the Philippines remained under Spanish rule until 1898. Conversely, the Dutch did succeed in establishing themselves further south and created the Dutch East Indies, which would last until the mid-20th Century. The character of the present-day nations of the Philippines on the one hand and Indonesia on the other is still deeply influenced by that outcome.

Ecclesiastical investigations

On April 6, 1647, the Father Friar Diego Rodriguez, O.P., Procurator-General of the Dominican fathers, on behalf of the religious Order, duly requested the vicar of the Diocese of Manila to declare that the victories achieved in the year 1646 had been miraculous intercession of the Virgin of the Rosary. [3]

The City Council took into account the three following circumstances to declare the victories as miraculous: [9]

Declaration as miracle

On April 9, 1652, the battles of 1646 were declared miraculous by the Venerable Dean and Chapter and Ecclesiastical Governor in the vacant See of the Metropolitan Church of Manila. [3] [9] [15]

Notes

  1. Recorded casualties in the second Dutch squadron only.—Vidal, Prudencio. (1888)
  2. Velarde, Murillo (Hist. de Philipinas, fol. 126 b)
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Vidal, Prudencio. (1888)
  4. Aside from the one hundred and fifty fresh soldiers that arrived at Jakarta from Holland in January of the same year).— De los Angeles, O.P., Juan. (March 1643)
  5. 1 2 De los Angeles, O.P., Juan. (March 1643)
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 Fayol, Joseph. (1640–1649)
  7. Cortez, Regino (1998).
  8. According to Vidal, Sebastian Lopez was a Portuguese (Vidal, Prudencio, 1888)
  9. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Rodriguez, Mariano (1907)
  10. Fayol, Joseph. (1640–1649). A contemporary description of this earthquake is furnished in a rare pamphlet (Manila, 1641), containing a report of this occurrence made by the order of Pedro Arce, bishop of Cebu; part of it is reprinted by Retana in his edition of Zunfiiga's Estadismo, ii, pp. 334–336.
  11. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Cortez, Regino. (1998)
  12. Cortes, Regino (1998)
  13. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Hornedo, Florentino. (2007)
  14. 1 2 Hornedo, Florentino (2007)
  15. 1 2 3 4 Cortez, Regino (1998)
  16. 1 2 Hornedo, Florentino. (2007).
  17. From Spanish Dictionary (Accessed: May 11, 2011)
  18. A cape at the northwest point of Mindoro, formed by the slope of a mountain of the same name. (Fayol, Joseph. 1640–1649)
  19. Laput, Ernesto (___)

Related Research Articles

Spanish Navy Naval warfare branch of Spains military

The Spanish Navy is the maritime branch of the Spanish Armed Forces and one of the oldest active naval forces in the world. The Spanish navy was responsible for a number of major historic achievements in navigation, the most famous being the voyages of Christopher Columbus to America and the first global circumnavigation by Magellan and Elcano. For several centuries, it played a crucial logistical role in the expansion and consolidation of the Spanish Empire, and defended a vast trade network across the Atlantic Ocean between the Americas and Europe, and the Manila Galleon across the Pacific Ocean between Manila and the Americas.

Galleon Ship type

Galleons were large, multi-decked sailing ships first used as armed cargo carriers by European states from the 16th to 18th centuries during the age of sail and were the principal vessels drafted for use as warships until the Anglo-Dutch Wars of the mid-1600s. Galleons generally carried three or more masts with a lateen fore-and-aft rig on the rear masts, were carvel built with a prominent squared off raised stern, and used square-rigged sail plans on their fore-mast and main-masts.

Battle of Manila Bay 1898 battle during the Spanish–American War

The Battle of Manila Bay, also known as the Battle of Cavite, took place on 1 May 1898, during the Spanish–American War. The American Asiatic Squadron under Commodore George Dewey engaged and destroyed the Spanish Pacific Squadron under Contraalmirante Patricio Montojo. The battle took place in Manila Bay in the Philippines, and was the first major engagement of the Spanish–American War. The battle was one of the most decisive naval battles in history and marked the end of the Spanish colonial period in Philippine history.

Battle of Gibraltar (1607) Eighty Years war naval battle

The naval Battle of Gibraltar took place on 25 April 1607, during the Eighty Years' War, when a Dutch fleet surprised and engaged a Spanish fleet anchored at the Bay of Gibraltar. During the four hours of action, most of the Spanish ships were destroyed.

Spanish treasure fleet Convoy system used by the Spanish Empire from 1566 to 1790

The Spanish treasure fleet, or West Indies Fleet Spanish: Flota de Indias, was a convoy system of sea routes organized by the Spanish Empire from 1566 to 1790, which linked Spain with its territories in the Americas across the Atlantic. The convoys were general purpose cargo fleets used for transporting a wide variety of items, including agricultural goods, lumber, various metal resources such as silver and gold, gems, pearls, spices, sugar, tobacco, silk, and other exotic goods from the overseas territories of the Spanish Empire to the Spanish mainland. Spanish goods such as oil, wine, textiles, books and tools were transported in the opposite direction.

Battle of the Downs Took place on 21 October 1639

The naval Battle of the Downs took place on 21 October 1639, during the Eighty Years' War, and was a decisive defeat of the Spanish, commanded by Admiral Antonio de Oquendo, by the United Provinces of the Netherlands, commanded by Lieutenant-Admiral Maarten Tromp.

The naval Battle of Puerto de Cavite took place on 10 June 1647 during the Eighty Years' War between a Spanish fleet and a Dutch fleet in Puerto de Cavite, an important Spanish port in Manila Bay, Philippines in which the Dutch were defeated.

Battle of Ponta Delgada

The naval Battle of Ponta Delgada, Battle of São Miguel or specifically the Battle of Vila Franca do Campo took place on 26 July 1582, off the coast of the island of São Miguel in the Portuguese archipelago of the Azores, during the War of the Portuguese Succession. A combined corsair expedition, mainly French, sailed against a Spanish naval force made up of Portuguese and Castilian ships, to preserve control of the Azores under pretender António, Prior of Crato and to defend the islands from incorporation into the Iberian Union—the largest French force sent overseas before the age of Louis XIV.

Juan de Silva was a Spanish military commander and governor of the Philippines, from April 1609 until his death on April 19, 1616.

Juan Niño de Tabora, was a Spanish general and colonial official. From June 29, 1626 until his death on July 22, 1632, he was governor of the Philippines.

Diego Fajardo Chacón was a Spanish military officer and governor of the Philippines, from August 11, 1644 to July 25, 1653.

Antonio de Oquendo Spanish admiral

Antonio de Oquendo was a Spanish admiral; in 1639 he was in command of the Spanish forces at the Battle of the Downs.

Battle of Gibraltar (1621) Naval battle in the Eighty Years War

The Battle of Gibraltar took place on 10 August 1621, during the Eighty Years' War between the Spanish Empire and the Dutch Republic. A Dutch East India Company fleet, escorted by a squadron under Willem Haultain de Zoete, was intercepted and defeated by nine ships of Spain's Atlantic fleet under Fadrique de Toledo while passing the Strait of Gibraltar.

Battle off Lizard Point

The Battle off Lizard Point was a naval action which took place on 18 February 1637 off the coast of Cornwall, England, during the Eighty Years' War. The Spanish admiral Miguel de Horna, commander of the Armada of Flanders, intercepted an important Anglo-Dutch merchant convoy of 44 vessels escorted by six warships, destroying or capturing 20 of them, and returned safely to his base in Dunkirk.

Action of 18 February 1639

The action of 18 February 1639 was a naval battle of the Eighty Years' War fought off Dunkirk between a Dutch fleet under the command of Admiral Maarten Tromp and the Spanish Dunkirk Squadron under Miguel de Horna. Horna, who had orders to join with his ships Admiral Antonio de Oquendo's fleet at A Coruña, escorted at the same time a transport convoy carrying 2,000 Walloon soldiers to Spain, where they were needed. The attempt to exit Dunkirk was done in sight of the Dutch blockading squadron of Maarten Tromp. A 4-hour battle ensued and Horna was forced to retreat into Dunkirk leaving behind two of his galleons, whilst another ran aground. Despite his success in stopping the sortie, many of Tromp's ships suffered heavy damage, and the Dutch Admiral was forced to abandon the blockade. Therefore, De Horna, after repairing his squadron, was able to accomplish his mission.

Don Martín de Bertendona was an important officer of the Spanish Navy under Philip II and Philip III. He participated in the Spanish Armada, and is perhaps most famous for his role in the capture of the iconic English galleon Revenge in 1591.

Battle of the Gulf of Cadiz (1604)

The Battle of the Gulf of Cádiz was a naval action which occurred on 7 August 1604, during the last days of the Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604). The battle took place when a flotilla of two galleons commanded by Antonio de Oquendo engaged two English privateers who were plundering shipping lanes and villages around the Gulf of Cádiz. One of the English ships was captured and the other damaged. Oquendo's action off Cádiz is notable for having been fought just 21 days before the signing of the Treaty of London, which ended the protracted war between England and Spain.

Spanish ship <i>Nuestra Señora de la Encarnación y Desengaño</i>

Nuestra Señora de la Encarnación y Desengaño, nicknamed Desengaño, was a Manila galleon which plied the trade routes between the Viceroyalty of New Spain and the Spanish Philippines. The ship was captured on 22 December 1709 by a British privateering expedition led by Woodes Rogers and renamed Bachelor.

Battle of Cape St. Vincent (1606)

The Battle of Cape St. Vincent was a naval engagement that took place on 16 June or 6 October 1606, during Eighty Years' War and Dutch–Portuguese War. A Spanish fleet under Admiral Luis Fajardo attacked the Dutch fleet led by Admiral Willem Haultain and Vice Admiral Regnier Klaazoon, which was blocking the Spanish-Portuguese coast to intercept the Spanish treasure fleet. The battle concluded in a Spanish victory; in which Klaazoon's flagship was destroyed, two ships were captured, and Haultain fled with the rest of the fleet to his country without having achieved his purpose.

References

Websites

See also