Mass (liturgy)

Last updated
Painting of a 15th-century Mass Pontifical Mass - 15th Century - Project Gutenberg eText 16531.jpg
Painting of a 15th-century Mass

Mass is the main Eucharistic liturgical service in many forms of Western Christianity. The term Mass is commonly used in the Catholic Church, [1] and in the Western Rite Orthodox, and Old Catholic churches. The term is used in some Lutheran churches, [2] [3] as well as in some Anglican churches. [4] The term is also used, on rare occasion, by other Protestant churches, such as in Methodism. [5] [6]

Contents

Other Christian denominations may employ terms such as Divine Service or worship service (and often just "service"), rather than the word Mass. [7] For the celebration of the Eucharist in Eastern Christianity, including Eastern Catholic Churches, other terms such as Divine Liturgy , Holy Qurbana , Holy Qurobo and Badarak are typically used instead.

Etymology

The English noun mass is derived from Middle Latin missa. The Latin word was adopted in Old English as mæsse (via a Vulgar Latin form *messa), and was sometimes glossed as sendnes (i.e. 'a sending, dismission'). [8] The Latin term missa itself was in use by the 6th century. [9] It is most likely derived from the concluding formula Ite, missa est ("Go; the dismissal is made"); missa here is a Late Latin substantive corresponding to classical missio.

Historically, however, there have been other explanations of the noun missa, i.e. as not derived from the formula ite, missa est. Fortescue (1910) cites older, "fanciful" etymological explanations, notably a latinization of Hebrew matzâh (מַצָּה) "unleavened bread; oblation", a derivation favoured in the 16th century by Reuchlin and Luther, or Greek μύησις "initiation", or even Germanic mese "assembly". [10] The French historian Du Cange in 1678 reported "various opinions on the origin" of the noun missa "Mass", including the derivation from Hebrew matzah (Missah, id est, oblatio), here attributed to Caesar Baronius. The Hebrew derivation is learned speculation from 16th-century philology; medieval authorities did derive the noun missa from the verb mittere, but not in connection with the formula ite, missa est. [11] Thus, De divinis officiis (9th century [12] ) explains the word as a mittendo, quod nos mittat ad Deo ("from 'sending', that which sends us towards God"), [13] while Rupert of Deutz (early 12th century) derives it from a "dismissal" of the "enmities which had been between God and men" (inimicitiarum quæ erant inter Deum et homines). [14]

Order of the Mass

A distinction is made between texts that recur for every Mass celebration ( ordinarium , ordinary), and texts that are sung depending on the occasion ( proprium , proper). [15] For example, for the Tridentine Mass:

OrdinariesPropers
Introit
Kyrie
Gloria
Gradual with Alleluia or Tract (Sequence)
Credo
Offertory
Sanctus, including Benedictus and Hosanna
Agnus Dei
Communion
Ite, missa est or Benedicamus

Ordinaries

A missa tota ("full Mass") consists of a musical setting of the five sections of the ordinarium as listed below.

I. Kyrie

A Gregorian chant Kyrie eleison

In the Tridentine Mass, the Kyrie is the first sung prayer of the Mass ordinary. It is usually (but not always) part of any musical setting of the Mass. Kyrie movements often have a ternary (ABA) musical structure that reflects the symmetrical structure of the text. Musical settings exist in styles ranging from Gregorian chant to Folk.

Of 226 catalogued Gregorian chant melodies, 30 appear in the Liber Usualis .[ citation needed ] In what are presumed to be the oldest versions, the same melody is repeated for the first eight iterations, and a variation used on the final line (that is, formally, aaa aaa aaa'). These repeats are notated by the Roman numerals "iij" (for three times) or "ij" (for twice). The Kyrie for the Requiem Mass in the Liber Usualis has this form. Later Kyries have more elaborate patterns, such as aaa bbb aaa', aaa bbb ccc', or aba cdc efe'. Note that the final line is nearly always modified somewhat; in some cases this may be because it leads into the Gloria better. In forms both with and without literal repeats, most Kyries in the Liber Usualis have a closing phrase used in nearly all of the lines of the text. This in fact parallels the text, as each line ends with the same word "eleison".

Because of the brevity of the text, Kyries were often very melismatic. This encouraged later composers to make tropes out of them, either by adding words to the melisma (as how a sequence is often considered), or extending the melisma. In fact, because of the late date of most Kyries, it is not always clear whether a particular Kyrie melody or the apparently troped text came first; it could just as easily be the case that a syllabic song was converted into a melisma for a Kyrie verse. In some cases, verses interpolate Latin text between each "Kyrie" (or "Christe") and "eleison".

The introductory words “Kýrie Eléison” from the Kyriale Mass XI, Orbis Factor

As the Kyrie is the first item in settings of the Mass ordinary and the second in the requiem Mass (the only Mass proper set regularly over the centuries), nearly all of the thousands of composers over the centuries who have set the ordinaries of the Mass to music have included a Kyrie movement.

Kyrie movements often have a structure that reflects the concision and symmetry of the text. Many have a ternary (ABA) form known as a three-fold kyrie, where the two appearances of the phrase "Kyrie eleison" consist of identical or closely related material and frame a contrasting "Christe eleison" section. Or AAABBBCCC' form is also commonly used which is known as a nine-fold kyrie. Famously, Mozart sets the "Kyrie" and "Christe" texts in his Requiem Mass as the two subjects of a double fugue.

II. Gloria

The Gloria is a celebratory passage praising God the Father and Christ.

In Mass settings (normally in English) composed for the Church of England's Book of Common Prayer liturgy, the Gloria is commonly the last movement, because it occurs in this position in the text of the service. In Order One of the newer Common Worship liturgy, however, it is restored to its earlier place in the service.

III. Credo

The Credo, a setting of the Nicene Creed, is the longest text of a sung Mass.

Organizers of international celebrations, such as World Youth Day, have been encouraged by Rome to familiarize congregants in the Latin chants for the Our Father and the Credo, specifically Credo III (17th century, Fifth Mode) from the Missa de Angelis . The purpose of singing these two texts in Latin is to engender a sense of unity in the faithful, all of whom thus sing the prayer of Jesus and the shared belief of the universal Church in the same language.

IV. Sanctus and Benedictus

The Sanctus is a doxology praising the Trinity. A variant exists in Lutheran settings of the Sanctus. While most hymnal settings keep the second person pronoun, other settings change the second person pronoun to the third person. This is most notable in J.S. Bach's Mass in B minor, where the text reads gloria ejus ("His glory"). Martin Luther's chorale Isaiah, Mighty in Days of Old, and Felix Mendelssohn's setting of the Heilig! (German Sanctus) from his Deutsche Liturgie also use the third person.

The Benedictus is a continuation of the Sanctus. Hosanna in excelsis is repeated after the Benedictus section, often with musical material identical to that used after the Sanctus, or very closely related.

In Gregorian chant the Sanctus (with Benedictus) was sung whole at its place in the Mass. However, as composers produced more embellished settings of the Sanctus text, the music often would go on so long that it would run into the consecration of the bread and wine. This was considered the most important part of the Mass, so composers began to stop the Sanctus halfway through to allow this to happen, and then continue it after the consecration is finished. This practice was forbidden for a period in the 20th century.[ citation needed ]

V. Agnus Dei

The Agnus Dei is a setting of the "Lamb of God" litany, containing the responses miserere nobis (have mercy upon us), repeated twice, and dona nobis pacem (grant us peace) once at the end.

In a Requiem Mass, the words "miserere nobis" are replaced by "dona eis requiem" (grant them rest), while "dona nobis pacem" is replaced by "dona eis requiem sempiternam" (grant them eternal rest).

Short and solemn Masses

There is some additional terminology regarding Mass settings indicating whether or not they include all five usual sections of the ordinarium, and whether or not the Mass is intended for exceptionally festive occasions.

Missa brevis

Missa brevis (literally: short Mass) may, depending on time and conventions, indicate the setting of a subset of the five ordinary Mass parts (e.g. Masses containing only a setting of the Kyrie and the Gloria), or a Mass containing all these parts, but relatively short in duration, or a Mass in a setting that is less extended in vocal and orchestral forces than that of a Neapolitan Mass.

Missa longa ("long Mass") can indicate the counterpart of missa brevis when the aspect of duration is considered.

Missa solemnis

Missa solemnis indicates a solemn Mass, usually for special festive occasions and with an extended vocal and orchestral setting. In that sense Missa brevis is sometimes used to indicate the counterpart of a Missa solemnis.

Missa brevis et solemnis

The Missa brevis et solemnis (short and solemn) is an exceptional format, for its best known instances tied to the Salzburg of archbishop Hieronymus Colloredo, although earlier examples are extant. Mozart described it thus in a letter he wrote in 1776 ("the Archbishop" in this quotation refers to Colloredo): [16] [17]

Our church music is very different from that of Italy, since a Mass with the whole Kyrie, the Gloria, the Credo, the Epistle sonata, the Offertory or motet, the Sanctus and the Agnus Dei must not last longer than three quarters of an hour. This applies even to the most Solemn Mass spoken by the Archbishop himself. Special study is required for this kind of composition, particularly as the Mass must have a full contingent of instruments—trumpets, drums and so forth.

The "brevis et solemnis" description applies to several of the Masses Mozart composed in Salzburg between 1775 and 1780, the Sparrow Mass being considered as its first instance for this composer. [16] [17]

Tongue-in-cheek, and not indebted to Viennese traditions, Gioachino Rossini qualified one of his last compositions, a Mass, as both "petite" ("small") and "solennelle" ("solemn"). In this case "small" rather refers to the modest forces needed for its performance, and "solemn" to its duration, although later commentators would describe the composition as "neither small nor solemn". [18]

Other types of Masses with fewer than five of the usual parts of the ordinarium

During Lent (in Latin: Quadragesima) and Advent (in Latin: Adventus) the Gloria is not sung. Thus Missa (in) tempore (Adventus et) Quadragesimae, "Mass for the period of (Advent and) Lent" indicates a Mass composition without music for the Gloria. Michael Haydn composed a Mass suitable for Lent and Advent, the Missa tempore Quadragesimae , in D minor for the modest forces of choir and organ.

Missa senza credo ("Mass without a Credo") indicates a musical setting of the usual parts of the Mass ordinary with exception of the Credo.

A missa ferialis (weekday Mass) leaves out both the Gloria and the Credo.

Other sections

The sixth and last part of the Ordinarium (either Ite, missa est, or, in Masses without Gloria, Benedicamus Domino) is usually not set as part of a Mass composition. In a Tridentine Mass that part of the Ordinarium is usually spoken, or sung to the Gregorian melody provided in the Roman Missal, although early polyphonic settings for the "Deo gratias" response (e.g. in Guillaume de Machaut's Messe de Nostre Dame ) and for the Benedicamus Domino (e.g. in Magnus Liber Organi ) are extant.

The Proper of the Mass is usually not set to music in a Mass itself, except in the case of a Requiem Mass, but may be the subject of motets or other musical compositions. Some Mass compositions, like for instance Rossini's Petite messe solennelle , do however contain parts outside the Ordinarium. Some Mass compositions even consist entirely of such additions: Schubert's Deutsche Messe , a set of eight hymns with epilogue, [19] is an example of such a Mass.

Also purely instrumental compositions can be part of a Mass celebration, e.g. a Sonata da chiesa, sometimes with a liturgical function, like Mozart's Epistle Sonatas.

Propers

In a liturgical Mass, there are other sections that may be sung, often in Gregorian chant. These sections, the "Proper" of the Mass, change with the day and season according to the Church calendar, or according to the special circumstances of the Mass. The sections of the Proper of the Mass include the Introit, Gradual, Alleluia or Tract (depending on the time of year), Offertory and Communion.

Ordinarium and proprium sections of a specific liturgical Mass are not typically set to music together in the same composition. The one major exception to this rule is the Mass for the dead, or requiem.

Nunc dimittis

Following the distribution of the Sacrament, it is customary in most Lutheran churches to sing the Nunc dimittis.[ citation needed ]

Catholic Church

The Catholic Church sees the Mass or Eucharist as "the source and summit of the Christian life", to which the other sacraments are oriented. [20] Remembered in the Mass are Jesus' life, Last Supper, and sacrificial death on the cross at Calvary. The ordained celebrant (priest or bishop) is understood to act in persona Christi , as he recalls the words and gestures of Jesus Christ at the Last Supper and leads the congregation (always "we", never "I") in praise of God. The Mass is composed of two parts, the Liturgy of the Word and the Liturgy of the Eucharist.

The term "Mass" is generally used only in the Roman Rite, while the Byzantine Rite Eastern Catholic Churches use the term "Divine Liturgy" for the celebration of the Eucharist, and other Eastern Catholic Churches have terms such as Holy Qurbana and Holy Qurobo. Although similar in outward appearance to the Anglican Mass or Lutheran Mass, [21] [22] the Catholic Church distinguishes between its own Mass and theirs on the basis of what it views as the validity of the orders of their clergy, and as a result, does not ordinarily permit intercommunion between members of these Churches. [23] [24] In a 1993 letter to Bishop Johannes Hanselmann of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Bavaria, Cardinal Ratzinger (later Pope Benedict XVI) affirmed that "a theology oriented to the concept of succession [of bishops], such as that which holds in the Catholic and in the Orthodox church, need not in any way deny the salvation-granting presence of the Lord [Heilschaffende Gegenwart des Herrn] in a Lutheran [evangelische] Lord's Supper." [25] The Decree on Ecumenism, produced by Vatican II in 1964, records that the Catholic Church notes its understanding that when other faith groups (such as Lutherans, Anglicans, and Presbyterians) "commemorate His death and resurrection in the Lord's Supper, they profess that it signifies life in communion with Christ and look forward to His coming in glory." [24]

Within the fixed structure outlined below, which is specific to the Ordinary Form of the Roman Rite, the Scripture readings, the antiphons sung or recited during the entrance procession or at Communion, and certain other prayers vary each day according to the liturgical calendar. For many variations and options not mentioned here, see the complete Order of the Mass.

As regards those of other Christian faiths receiving Communion from a Catholic priest, Canon 844 allows that the sacrament may be shared with those "who cannot approach a minister of their own community", provided they believe in the real presence and are in the state of grace". This is frequently the case with the incarcerated. [26]

Introductory rites

A priest offering the Mass at St Mary's Basilica, Bangalore Mass, St Mary's Basilica Bangalore.jpg
A priest offering the Mass at St Mary's Basilica, Bangalore

The priest enters, with a deacon if there is one, and altar servers (who may act as crucifer, candle-bearers and thurifer). The priest makes the sign of the cross with the people and formally greets them. Of the options offered for the Introductory Rites, that preferred by liturgists would bridge the praise of the opening hymn with the Glory to God which follows. [27] The Kyrie eleison here has from early times been an acclamation of God's mercy. [28] The Penitential Act instituted by the Council of Trent is also still permitted here, with the caution that it should not turn the congregation in upon itself during these rites which are aimed at uniting those gathered as one praiseful congregation. [29] [30] The Introductory Rites are brought to a close by the Collect Prayer.

Liturgy of the Word

On Sundays and solemnities, three Scripture readings are given. On other days there are only two. If there are three readings, the first is from the Old Testament (a term wider than "Hebrew Scriptures", since it includes the Deuterocanonical Books), or the Acts of the Apostles during Eastertide. The first reading is followed by a psalm, recited or sung responsorially. The second reading is from the New Testament epistles, typically from one of the Pauline epistles. A Gospel acclamation is then sung as the Book of the Gospels is processed, sometimes with incense and candles, to the ambo; if not sung it may be omitted. The final reading and high point of the Liturgy of the Word is the proclamation of the Gospel by the deacon or priest. On all Sundays and Holy Days of Obligation, and preferably at all Masses, a homily or sermon that draws upon some aspect of the readings or the liturgy itself, is then given. [31] The homily is preferably moral and hortatory. [32] Finally, the Nicene Creed or, especially from Easter to Pentecost, the Apostles' Creed is professed on Sundays and solemnities, [33] and the Universal Prayer or Prayer of the Faithful follows. [34] The designation "of the faithful" comes from when catechumens did not remain for this prayer or for what follows.

Liturgy of the Eucharist

The elevation of the host began in the 14th century to show people the consecrated host. Elevation of the Host.jpg
The elevation of the host began in the 14th century to show people the consecrated host.

The Liturgy of the Eucharist begins with the preparation of the altar and gifts, [35] while the collection may be taken. This concludes with the priest saying: "Pray, brethren, that my sacrifice and yours may be acceptable to God, the almighty Father." The congregation stands and responds: "May the Lord accept the sacrifice at your hands, for the praise and glory of His name, for our good, and the good of all His holy Church." The priest then pronounces the variable prayer over the gifts.

Then in dialogue with the faithful the priest brings to mind the meaning of "eucharist", to give thanks to God. A variable prayer of thanksgiving follows, concluding with the acclamation "Holy, Holy ....Heaven and earth are full of your glory. ...Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord. Hosanna in the highest." The anaphora, or more properly "Eucharistic Prayer", follows, The oldest of the anaphoras of the Roman Rite, fixed since the Council of Trent, is called the Roman Canon, with central elements dating to the fourth century. With the liturgical renewal following the Second Vatican Council, numerous other Eucharistic prayers have been composed, including four for children's Masses. Central to the Eucharist is the Institution Narrative, recalling the words and actions of Jesus at his Last Supper, which he told his disciples to do in remembrance of him. [36] Then the congregation acclaims its belief in Christ's conquest over death, and their hope of eternal life. [37] Since the early church an essential part of the Eucharistic prayer has been the epiclesis, the calling down of the Holy Spirit to sanctify our offering. [38] The priest concludes with a doxology in praise of God's work, at which the people give their Amen to the whole Eucharistic prayer. [39]

Communion rite

A priest administers Communion during Mass in a Dutch field on the front line in October 1944. The British Army in North-west Europe 1944-45 B10582.jpg
A priest administers Communion during Mass in a Dutch field on the front line in October 1944.

All together recite or sing the "Lord's Prayer" ("Pater Noster" or "Our Father"). The priest introduces it with a short phrase and follows it up with a prayer called the embolism, after which the people respond with another doxology. The sign of peace is exchanged and then the "Lamb of God" ("Agnus Dei" in Latin) litany is sung or recited while the priest breaks the host and places a piece in the main chalice; this is known as the rite of fraction and commingling.

Out of Mass (1893), oil on canvas by Joan Ferrer Miro Joan Ferrer i Miro- Sortida de missa- 169.jpg
Out of Mass (1893), oil on canvas by Joan Ferrer Miró

The priest then displays the consecrated elements to the congregation, saying: "Behold the Lamb of God, behold him who takes away the sins of the world. Blessed are those called to the supper of the Lamb," to which all respond: "Lord, I am not worthy that you should enter under my roof, but only say the word and my soul shall be healed." Then Communion is given, often with lay ministers assisting with the consecrated wine. [40] According to Catholic teaching, one should be in the state of grace, without mortal sin, to receive Communion. [41] Singing by all the faithful during the Communion procession is encouraged "to express the communicants' union in spirit" [42] from the bread that makes them one. A silent time for reflection follows, and then the variable concluding prayer of the Mass.

Concluding rite

The priest imparts a blessing over those present. The deacon or, in his absence, the priest himself then dismisses the people, choosing a formula by which the people are "sent forth" to spread the good news. The congregation responds: "Thanks be to God." A recessional hymn is sung by all, as the ministers process to the rear of the church. [43]

Western Rite Orthodox Churches

Since most Eastern Orthodox Christians use the Byzantine Rite, most Eastern Orthodox Churches call their Eucharistic service "the Divine Liturgy." However, there are a number of parishes within the Eastern Orthodox Church which use an edited version of the Latin Rite. Most parishes use the "Divine Liturgy of St. Tikhon" which is a revision of the Anglican Book of Common Prayer, or "the Divine Liturgy of St. Gregory" which is derived from the Tridentine form of the Roman Rite Mass. These rubrics have been revised to reflect the doctrine and dogmas of the Eastern Orthodox Church. Therefore, the filioque clause has been removed, a fuller epiclesis has been added, and the use of leavened bread has been introduced. [44]

Divine Liturgy of St. Gregory

  • The Preparation for Mass
  • Confiteor
  • Kyrie Eleison
  • Gloria in excelsis deo
  • Collect of the Day
  • Epistle
  • Gradual
  • Alleluia
  • Gospel
  • Sermon
  • Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed
  • Offertory
  • Dialogue
  • Preface
  • Sanctus
  • Canon
  • Lord's Prayer
  • Fraction
  • Agnus Dei
  • Prayers before Communion
  • Holy Communion
  • Prayer of Thanksgiving
  • Dismissal
  • Blessing of the Faithful
  • Last Gospel

Anglicanism

Bishop William White celebrating Holy Communion in choir dress (19th century A.D.) WilliamWhiteCommunion.jpg
Bishop William White celebrating Holy Communion in choir dress (19th century A.D.)

In the Anglican tradition, Mass is one of many terms for the Eucharist. More frequently, the term used is either Holy Communion, Holy Eucharist, or the Lord's Supper. Occasionally the term used in Eastern churches, the Divine Liturgy, is also used. [45] In the English-speaking Anglican world, the term used often identifies the Eucharistic theology of the person using it. "Mass" is frequently used by Anglo-Catholics.

Structure of the rite

The various Eucharistic liturgies used by national churches of the Anglican Communion have continuously evolved from the 1549 and 1552 editions of the Book of Common Prayer, both of which owed their form and contents chiefly to the work of Thomas Cranmer, who in about 1547 had rejected the medieval theology of the Mass. [46] Although the 1549 rite retained the traditional sequence of the Mass, its underlying theology was Cranmer's and the four-day debate in the House of Lords during December 1548 makes it clear that this had already moved far beyond traditional Catholicism. [47] In the 1552 revision, this was made clear by the restructuring of the elements of the rite while retaining nearly all the language so that it became, in the words of an Anglo-Catholic liturgical historian (Arthur Couratin) "a series of communion devotions; disembarrassed of the Mass with which they were temporarily associated in 1548 and 1549". [46] Some rites, such as the 1637 Scottish rite and the 1789 rite in the United States, went back to the 1549 model. [48] From the time of the Elizabethan Settlement in 1559 the services allowed for a certain variety of theological interpretation. Today's rites generally follow the same general five-part shape. [49] Some or all of the following elements may be altered, transposed or absent depending on the rite, the liturgical season and use of the province or national church:

The liturgy is divided into two main parts: The Liturgy of the Word (Gathering, Proclaiming and Hearing the Word, Prayers of the People) and the Liturgy of the Eucharist (together with the Dismissal), but the entire liturgy itself is also properly referred to as the Holy Eucharist. The sequence of the liturgy is almost identical to the Roman Rite, except the Confession of Sin ends the Liturgy of the Word in the Anglican rites in North America, while in the Roman Rite (when used) and in Anglican rites in many jurisdictions the Confession is near the beginning of the service.

Special Masses

The Anglican tradition includes separate rites for nuptial, funeral, and votive Masses. The Eucharist is an integral part of many other sacramental services, including ordination and Confirmation.

Ceremonial

Some Anglo-Catholic parishes use Anglican versions of the Tridentine Missal, such as the English Missal , The Anglican Missal , or the American Missal , for the celebration of Mass, all of which are intended primarily for the celebration of the Eucharist, or use the order for the Eucharist in Common Worship arranged according to the traditional structure, and often with interpolations from the Roman Rite. In the Episcopal Church (United States), a traditional-language, Anglo-Catholic adaptation of the 1979 Book of Common Prayer has been published (An Anglican Service Book).

All of these books contain such features as meditations for the presiding celebrant(s) during the liturgy, and other material such as the rite for the blessing of palms on Palm Sunday, propers for special feast days, and instructions for proper ceremonial order. These books are used as a more expansively Catholic context in which to celebrate the liturgical use found in the Book of Common Prayer and related liturgical books. In England supplementary liturgical texts for the proper celebration of Festivals, Feast days and the seasons is provided in Common Worship; Times and Seasons (2013), Festivals (Common Worship: Services and Prayers for the Church of England) (2008) and Common Worship: Holy Week and Easter (2011).

These are often supplemented in Anglo-Catholic parishes by books specifying ceremonial actions, such as A Priest's Handbook by Dennis G. Michno, Ceremonies of the Eucharist by Howard E. Galley, Low Mass Ceremonial by C.P.A. Burnett, and Ritual Notes by E.C.R. Lamburn. Other guides to ceremonial include the General Instruction of the Roman Missal, Ceremonies of the Modern Roman Rite (Peter Elliott), Ceremonies of the Roman Rite Described (Adrian Fortescue), and The Parson's Handbook (Percy Dearmer). In Evangelical Anglican parishes, the rubrics detailed in the Book of Common Prayer are sometimes considered normative.

Lutheranism

A Lutheran priest elevates the chalice in the celebration of the Holy Mass. Elca eucharistic elevation.jpg
A Lutheran priest elevates the chalice in the celebration of the Holy Mass.

In the Book of Concord, Article XXIV ("Of the Mass") of the Augsburg Confession (1530) begins thus:

Falsely are our churches accused of abolishing the Mass; for the Mass is retained among us, and celebrated with the highest reverence. We do not abolish the Mass but religiously keep and defend it. ...We keep the traditional liturgical form. ...In our churches Mass is celebrated every Sunday and on other holy days, when the sacrament is offered to those who wish for it after they have been examined and absolved (Article XXIV).

Martin Luther rejected parts of the Roman Rite Catholic Mass, specifically the Canon of the Mass, which, as he argued, did not conform with Hebrews 7:27. That verse contrasts the Old Testament priests, who needed to make a sacrifice for sins on a regular basis, with the single priest Christ, who offers his body only once as a sacrifice. The theme is carried out also in Hebrews 9:26, 9:28, and 10:10. Luther composed as a replacement a revised Latin-language rite, Formula missae, in 1523, and the vernacular Deutsche Messe in 1526.

As such, historically, the Lutheran Church has stated that the Lutheran Mass is "the only Mass founded in the Scriptures of God, in accordance with the plain and incontestable institution of the Saviour." [3] [51]

Scandinavian, Finnish, and some English speaking Lutherans, use the term "Mass" for their Eucharistic service, [52] but in most German and English-speaking churches, the terms "Divine Service", "Holy Communion, or "the Holy Eucharist" are used.

The celebration of the Mass in Lutheran churches follows a similar pattern to other traditions, starting with public confession (Confiteor) by all and a Declaration of Grace said by the priest or pastor. There follow the Introit , Kyrie , Gloria , collect, the readings with an alleluia (alleluia is not said during Lent), homily (or sermon) and recitation of the Nicene Creed. The Service of the Eucharist includes the General intercessions, Preface, Sanctus and Eucharistic Prayer, elevation of the host and chalice and invitation to the Eucharist. The Agnus Dei is chanted while the clergy and assistants first commune, followed by lay communicants. Postcommunion prayers and the final blessing by the priest ends the Mass. A Catholic or Anglican of the Anglo-Catholic party would find its elements familiar, in particular the use of the sign of the cross, kneeling for prayer and the Eucharistic Prayer, bowing to the processional crucifix, kissing the altar, incense (among some), chanting, and vestments.

Lutheran churches often celebrate the Eucharist each Sunday, if not at every worship service. This aligns with Luther's preference and the Lutheran confessions. [53] Also, eucharistic ministers take the sacramental elements to the sick in hospitals and nursing homes. The practice of weekly Communion is increasingly the norm again in most Lutheran parishes throughout the world. The bishops and pastors of the larger Lutheran bodies have strongly encouraged this restoration of the weekly Mass. [54]

The celebration of the Eucharist may form a part of services for weddings, funerals, retreats, the dedication of a church building and annual synod conventions. The Mass is also an important aspect of ordinations and confirmations in Lutheran churches.

Methodism

A Methodist minister consecrating the Eucharist elements during the Service of the Word and Table Methodistcommunion6.jpg
A Methodist minister consecrating the Eucharist elements during the Service of the Word and Table

The celebration of the "Mass" in Methodist churches, commonly known as the Service of the Table, is based on The Sunday Service of 1784, a revision of the liturgy of the 1662 Book of Common Prayer authorized by John Wesley. [55] The use of the term "Mass" is very rare in Methodism. The terms "Holy Communion", "Lord's Supper", and to a lesser extent "Eucharist" are far more typical.

The celebrant of a Methodist Eucharist must be an ordained or licensed minister. [56] In the Free Methodist Church, the liturgy of the Eucharist, as provided in its Book of Discipline, is outlined as follows: [57]

Methodist services of worship, post-1992, reflect the ecumenical movement and Liturgical Movement, particularly the Methodist Mass, largely the work of theologian Donald C. Lacy. [58]

Calendrical usage

The English suffix -mas (equivalent to modern English "Mass") can label certain prominent (originally religious) feasts or seasons based on a traditional liturgical year. For example:

See also

Related Research Articles

Eucharist Christian rite observed by consuming bread and wine

The Eucharist is a Christian rite that is considered a sacrament in most churches, and as an ordinance in others. According to the New Testament, the rite was instituted by Jesus Christ during the Last Supper; giving his disciples bread and wine during a Passover meal, he commanded them to "do this in memory of me" while referring to the bread as "my body" and the cup of wine as "the new covenant in my blood". Through the eucharistic celebration Christians remember Christ's sacrifice of himself on the cross.

The Mass of Paul VI, also known as the Ordinary Form of the Roman Rite Mass, the most commonly used liturgy in the Latin Church, sometimes referred as the post–Vatican II Mass, is the form promulgated after the Second Vatican Council (1962–65) by Pope Paul VI in 1969. It was published by him in the 1970 edition of the Roman Missal and the revised 1975 edition, and as further revised by Pope John Paul II in 2000 and published in the third Vatican II edition (2002).

Paschal Triduum Good Friday, Holy Saturday, and Easter Sunday

The Paschal Triduum or Easter Triduum, Holy Triduum, or the Three Days, is the period of three days that begins with the liturgy on the evening of Maundy Thursday, reaches its high point in the Easter Vigil, and closes with evening prayer on Easter Sunday. It is a moveable observance recalling the Passion, Crucifixion, Death, burial, and Resurrection of Jesus, as portrayed in the canonical Gospels.

Kyrie Common name of a Christian liturgical prayer

Kyrie, a transliteration of Greek Κύριε, vocative case of Κύριος (Kyrios), is a common name of an important prayer of Christian liturgy, also called the Kyrie eleison.

Sanctus Hymn in Christian liturgy

The Sanctus is a hymn in Christian liturgy. It may also be called the epinikios hymnos when referring to the Greek rendition.

Christian liturgy Pattern for worship used by a Christian congregation or denomination

Christian liturgy is a pattern for worship used by a Christian congregation or denomination on a regular basis. The term liturgy comes from Greek and means "public work".

Christian worship Act of attributing reverent honour and homage to God

In Christianity, worship is the act of attributing reverent honour and homage to God. In the New Testament, various words are used to refer to the term worship. One is proskuneo which means to bow down to God or kings.

Words of Institution

The Words of Institution are words echoing those of Jesus himself at his Last Supper that, when consecrating bread and wine, Christian Eucharistic liturgies include in a narrative of that event. Eucharistic scholars sometimes refer to them simply as the verba.

Anaphora (liturgy)

The Anaphora is the most solemn part of the Divine Liturgy, or the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass, during which the offerings of bread and wine are consecrated as the body and blood of Christ. This is the usual name for this part of the Liturgy in Greek-speaking Eastern Christianity. In western Christian traditions which have a comparable rite, the Anaphora is more often called the Eucharistic Prayer for the four modern anaphoras in the Latin liturgy, with the first anaphora having the additional name of the Roman Canon. When the Roman Rite had a single Eucharistic Prayer, it was called the Canon of the Mass.

Eucharistic discipline

Eucharistic discipline is the term applied to the regulations and practices associated with an individual preparing for the reception of the Eucharist. Different Christian traditions require varying degrees of preparation, which may include a period of fasting, prayer, repentance, and confession.

The ordinary, in Roman Catholic and other Western Christian liturgies, refers to the part of the Eucharist or of the canonical hours that is reasonably constant without regard to the date on which the service is performed. It is contrasted to the proper, which is that part of these liturgies that varies according to the date, either representing an observance within the liturgical year, or of a particular saint or significant event, or to the common which contains those parts that are common to an entire category of saints such as apostles or martyrs.

Roman Rite Most widespread liturgical rite in the Latin Church

The Roman Rite is the main liturgical rite of the Latin or Western Church, the largest of the sui iuris particular Churches that make up the Catholic Church. It developed in the Latin language in the city of Rome and, while distinct Latin liturgical rites such as the Ambrosian Rite remain, the Roman Rite has over time been adopted almost everywhere in the Western Church. In medieval times there were very many local variants, even if they did not all amount to distinct rites, but uniformity grew as a result of the invention of printing and in obedience to the decrees of the 1545–1563 Council of Trent. Several Latin liturgical rites that survived into the 20th century were abandoned voluntarily in the wake of the Second Vatican Council. The Roman Rite is now the most widespread liturgical rite not only in the Latin Church but in Christianity as a whole.

Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament

Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament, also called Benediction with the Blessed Sacrament or the Rite of Eucharistic Exposition and Benediction, is a devotional ceremony, celebrated especially in the Roman Catholic Church, but also in some other Christian traditions such as Anglo-Catholicism, whereby a bishop, priest, or a deacon blesses the congregation with the Eucharist at the end of a period of adoration.

Reserved sacrament

During the Mass of the Faithful, the second part of the Mass, the elements of bread and wine are considered to have been changed into the veritable Body and Blood of Jesus Christ. The manner in which this occurs is referred to by the term transubstantiation, a theory of St. Thomas Aquinas, in the Roman Catholic Church. Members of the Orthodox, Anglican, and Lutheran communions also believe that Jesus Christ is really and truly present in the bread and wine, but they believe that the way in which this occurs must forever remain a sacred mystery. In many Christian churches some portion of the consecrated elements is set aside and reserved after the reception of Communion and referred to as the reserved sacrament. The reserved sacrament is usually stored in a tabernacle, a locked cabinet made of precious materials and usually located on, above, or near the high altar. In Western Christianity usually only the Host, from Latin: hostia, meaning "victim", is reserved, except where wine might be kept for the sick who cannot consume a host.

Anglican eucharistic theology

Anglican eucharistic theology is diverse in practice, reflecting the comprehensiveness of Anglicanism. Its sources include prayer book rubrics, writings on sacramental theology by Anglican divines, and the regulations and orientations of ecclesiastical provinces. The principal source material is the Book of Common Prayer, specifically its eucharistic prayers and Article XXVIII of the Thirty-Nine Articles. Article XXVIII comprises the foundational Anglican doctrinal statement about the Eucharist, although its interpretation varies among churches of the Anglican Communion and in different traditions of churchmanship such as Anglo-Catholicism and Evangelical Anglicanism.

Mass in the Catholic Church Central liturgical ritual of the Roman Catholic Church

The Mass is the central liturgical rite in the Catholic Church, encompassing the Liturgy of the Word and the Liturgy of the Eucharist, where the bread and wine are consecrated and become the Body and Blood of Christ. As defined by the Church at the Council of Trent, in the Mass, "the same Christ who offered himself once in a bloody manner on the altar of the cross, is present and offered in an unbloody manner". The Church describes the Mass as the "source and summit of the Christian life". It teaches that the sacramental bread and wine, through consecration by an ordained priest, become the sacrificial body, blood, soul, and divinity of Christ as the sacrifice on Calvary made truly present once again on the altar. The Catholic Church permits only baptised members in the state of grace to receive Christ in the Eucharist.

Divine Service (Lutheran)

The Divine Service is a title given to the Eucharistic liturgy as used in the various Lutheran churches. It has its roots in the Pre-Tridentine Mass as revised by Martin Luther in his Formula missae of 1523 and his Deutsche Messe of 1526. It was further developed through the Kirchenordnungen of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries that followed in Luther's tradition.

Mass of the Lords Supper Beginning of the Paschal Triduum

The Mass of the Lord's Supper, also known as A Service of Worship for Maundy Thursday, is a Holy Week service celebrated on the evening of Maundy Thursday. It inaugurates the Easter Triduum, and commemorates the Last Supper of Jesus with his disciples, more explicitly than other celebrations of the Mass.

Order of Mass is an outline of a Mass celebration, describing how and in what order liturgical texts and rituals are employed to constitute a Mass.

<i>Divine Worship: The Missal</i> Current Anglican Use Missal of the Catholic Church

Divine Worship: The Missal (DW:TM) is the liturgical book containing the instructions and texts for the celebration of Mass by the former Anglicans within the Catholic Church in the three personal ordinariates of Great Britain, United States and Canada, and Australia. The rite contained in this missal is the Anglican Use, a variant of the Roman Rite eucharistic liturgy. It was approved for use beginning on the first Sunday of Advent, November 29, 2015.

References

  1. John Trigilio, Kenneth Brighenti (2 March 2007). The Catholicism Answer Book. Sourcebooks, Inc. The term "Mass", used for the weekly Sunday service in Catholic churches as well as services on Holy Days of Obligation, derives its meaning from the Latin term Missa.
  2. "Article XXIV (XII): Of the Mass". Book of Concord . Retrieved 7 January 2020.
  3. 1 2 Joseph Augustus Seiss (1871). Ecclesia Lutherana: a brief survey of the Evangelical Lutheran Church. Lutheran Book Store. Melancthon, the author of the Augsburg Confession, states, that he uses the words Mass and theLord's Supper as convertible terms: "The Mass, as they call it, or, with the Apostle Paul, to speak more accurately, the celebration of the Lord's Supper," &c. The Evangelical Princes, in their protest at the Diet of Spires, April 19th, 1529, say, "Our preachers and teachers have attacked and utterly confuted the popish Mass, with holy, invincible, sure Scripture, and in its place raised up again the precious, priceless SUPPER OF OUR DEAR LORD AND SAVIOUR JESUS CHRIST, which is called THE EVANGELICAL MASS. This is the only Mass founded in the Scriptures of God, in accordance with the plain and incontestable institution of the Saviour.
  4. Seddon, Philip (1996). "Word and Sacrament". In Bunting, Ian (ed.). Celebrating the Anglican Way. London: Hodder & Stoughton. p. 100.
  5. Lacy, Donald Charles (1 January 1983). Methodist Mass. Fairway Press. ISBN   089536977X.
  6. Sterling, Jeff. "Methodist Mass at St. Paul's United Methodist Church". The United Methodist Church. Archived from the original on 2 January 2016. Retrieved 25 December 2015. An Open Mass is a church service that features responsive readings from the liturgy, music, cantoring, a short homily, and the taking of Communion, or the Eucharist as it is sometimes called.
  7. Brad Harper, Paul Louis Metzger (1 March 2009). Exploring Ecclesiology. Brazos Press. ISBN   9781587431739. Luther also challenged the teaching that Christ is sacrificed at the celebration of the mass. Contrary to popular Protestant opinion,[ citation needed ] Magisterial Roman Catholic teaching denies that Christ is, in the Mass, sacrificed time and time again. According to The Catechism of the Catholic Church, "The Eucharist is thus a sacrifice because it re-presents (makes present) the sacrifice of the cross, because it is its memorial and because it applies its fruit."
  8. Bosworth-Toller, s.v. sendness (citing Wright, Vocabularies vol. 2, 1873), "mæsse" (citing Ælfric of Eynsham).
  9. It is used by Caesarius of Arles (e.g. Regula ad monachos, PL 67, 1102B Omni dominica sex missas facite). Before this, it occurs singularly in a letter attributed to Saint Ambrose (d. 397), Ego mansi in munere, missam facere coepi (ep. 20.3, PL 16, 0995A ). F. Probst, Liturgie der drei ersten christlichen Jahrhunderte, 1870, 5f.). "the fragment in Pseudo-Ambrose, 'De sacramentis' (about 400. Cf. P.L., XVI, 443), and the letter of Pope Innocent I (401-17) to Decentius of Eugubium (P.L., XX, 553). In these documents we see that the Roman Liturgy is said in Latin and has already become in essence the rite we still use." (Fortescue 1910).
  10. The Germanic word is likely itself an early loan of Latin mensa "table". "The origin and first meaning of the word, once much discussed, is not really doubtful. We may dismiss at once such fanciful explanations as that missa is the Hebrew missah ("oblation" — so Reuchlin and Luther), or the Greek myesis ("initiation"), or the German Mess ("assembly", "market"). Nor is it the participle feminine of mittere, with a noun understood ("oblatio missa ad Deum", "congregatio missa", i.e., dimissa — so Diez, "Etymol. Wörterbuch der roman. Sprachen", 212, and others). Fortescue, A. (1910). Liturgy of the Mass. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  11. De vocabuli origine variæ sunt Scriptorum sententiæ. Hanc enim quidam, ut idem Baronius, ab Hebræo Missah, id est, oblatio, arcessunt : alii a mittendo, quod nos mittat ad Deum Du Cange, et al., Glossarium mediae et infimae latinitatis, éd. augm., Niort : L. Favre, 1883‑1887, t. 5, col. 412b, s.v. 4. missa.
  12. De divinis officiis, formerly attributed to Alcuin but now dated to the late 9th or early 10th century, partly based on the works of Amalarius and Remigius of Auxerre. M.-H. Jullien and F. Perelman, Clavis Scriptorum Latinorum Medii Aevii. Auctores Galliae 735-987. II: Alcuin, 1999, 133ff.; R. Sharpe, A Handlist of the Latin Writers of Great Britain and Ireland before 1540 (1997, p. 45) attributes the entire work to Remigius.
  13. In Migne, PL 101: Alcuinus Incertus, De divinis officiis, caput XL, De celebratione missae et eius significatione (1247A)
  14. this explanation is attributed by Du Cange to Gaufridus S Barbarae in Neustria (Godfrey of Saint Victor, fl. 1175), but it is found in the earlier De divinis officiis by Rupert of Deutz (Rupertus Tuitiensis), caput XXIII, De ornatu altaris vel templi: Sacrosanctum altaris ministerium idcirco, ut dictum est, missa dicitur, quia ad placationem inimicitiarum, quae erant inter Deum et homines, sola valens et idonea mittitur legatio. PL 170, 52A.
  15. "Mass: Music". Encyclopedia Britannica. 11 October 2007. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
  16. 1 2 Eisen, Cliff; Keefe, Simon, eds. (2006). The Cambridge Mozart Encyclopedia. pp. 271–274. ISBN   9781139448789.
  17. 1 2 Walter Senn, NMA Series I: Geistliche Gesangwerke, Group I (Masses and Requiem), Division I: Masses, Volume 2, Preface, pp. VIII-IX 1975.
  18. La Petite Messe Solennelle de Rossini… Archived 2015-05-04 at the Wayback Machine in Le petit journal, 10 April 2014
  19. Brian Newbould. Schubert: The Music and the Man, pp. 284-285. University of California Press, 1999. ISBN   0520219570 ISBN   9780520219571
  20. "Catechism of the Catholic Church - IntraText". www.vatican.va. Retrieved 2020-06-22.
  21. Bahr, Ann Marie B. (1 January 2009). Christianity. Infobase Publishing. p. 66. ISBN   9781438106397. Anglicans worship with a service that may be called either Holy Eucharist or the Mass. Like the Lutheran Eucharist, it is very similar to the Catholic Mass.
  22. Herl, Joseph (1 July 2004). Worship Wars in Early Lutheranism. Oxford University Press. p. 35. ISBN   9780195348309. There is evidence that the late sixteenth-century Catholic mass as held in Germany was quite similar in outward appearance to the Lutheran mass
  23. Dimock, Giles (2006). 101 Questions and Answers on the Eucharist. Paulist Press. p. 79. ISBN   9780809143658. Thus Anglican Eucharist is not the same as Catholic Mass or the Divine Liturgy celebrated by Eastern Catholics or Eastern Orthodox. Therefore Catholics may not receive at an Anglican Eucharist.
  24. 1 2 "Unitatis Redintegratio (Decree on Ecumenism), Section 22". Vatican. Retrieved 8 March 2013. Though the ecclesial Communities which are separated from us lack the fullness of unity with us flowing from Baptism, and though we believe they have not retained the proper reality of the eucharistic mystery in its fullness, especially because of the absence of the sacrament of Orders, nevertheless when they commemorate His death and resurrection in the Lord's Supper, they profess that it signifies life in communion with Christ and look forward to His coming in glory. Therefore the teaching concerning the Lord's Supper, the other sacraments, worship, the ministry of the Church, must be the subject of the dialogue.
  25. Rausch, Thomas P. (2005). Towards a Truly Catholic Church: An Ecclesiology for the Third Millennium. Liturgical Press. p. 212. ISBN   9780814651872.
  26. "Guidelines for the Distribution of Holy Communion to the Incarcerated". Archdiocese of Santa Fe. Retrieved 2020-06-22.
  27. Grigassy, Daniel (1991). New Dictionary of Sacramental Worship. Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press. pp. 944f. ISBN   9780814657881.
  28. Pecklers, Keith (2010). The Genius of the Roman Rite. Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press. ISBN   9780814660218.
  29. Leon-Dufour, Xavier (1988). Sharing the Eucharist Bread: The Witness of the New Testament Xavier Leon-Dufour. Continuum. ISBN   978-0225665321.
  30. Weil, Louis (1991). New Dictionary of Sacramental Worship. Collegeville, MN. pp. 949ff. ISBN   9780814657881.
  31. GIRM, paragraph 66
  32. "Homily". The Catholic Encyclopedia (1910).
  33. GIRM, paragraph 68
  34. GIRM, paragraph 69
  35. GIRM, paragraph 73
  36. Luke 22:19; 1 Corinthians 11:24–25
  37. GIRM, paragraph 151
  38. GIRM, paragraph 79c
  39. Jungmann, SJ, Josef (1948). Mass of the Roman Rite (PDF). pp. 101–259.
  40. GIRM, paragraph 160
  41. Compendium of the Catechism of the Catholic Church # 291 . Retrieved 20 August 2019.
  42. GIRM, paragraph 86
  43. Catholic Sacramentary (PDF). ICEL. 2010.
  44. "Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America". www.antiochian.org. Retrieved 2020-06-22.
  45. "The Catechism (1979 Book of Common Prayer): The Holy Eucharist" . Retrieved November 19, 2011.
  46. 1 2 MacCulloch, Diarmaid (1996). Thomas Cranmer . London: Yale UP. p.  412.
  47. MacCulloch, Diarmaid (1996). Thomas Cranmer . London: Yale UP. pp.  404–8 & 629.
  48. Neill, Stephen (1960). Anglicanism. London: Penguin. p. 152,3.
  49. Seddon, Philip (1996). "Word and Sacrament". In Bunting, Ian (ed.). Celebrating the Anglican Way. London: Hodder & Stoughton. p. 107,8.
  50. Book of Common Prayer p. 355 Holy Eucharist Rite II
  51. Denominational Differences –Other Denominations. Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod. Differences remain about both the number and the nature of the sacraments. Catholics speak of seven sacraments, while Lutherans tend to speak of only two (or three). More important than number is how the sacraments are understood. To take a single example, Lutherans believe that in the Sacrament of the Altar (Communion) Christ's body and blood are truly present in the bread and wine of the Lord's Supper, but they do not accept the Roman Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation, which teaches that the elements are permanently changed from the substances of bread and wine to the substances of body and blood. Transubstantiation is rejected for several reasons: It is a philosophical explanation for a work of Christ's almighty Word which we can only believe, not explain. In seeking to explain a mystery it changes the plain and simple meanings of God's Word (Scripture refers to the elements as both bread and wine and body and blood, 1 Cor 11:26-27).
  52. Hope, Nicholas (1995). German and Scandinavian Protestantism 1700 to 1918. Oxford University Press, Inc. p. 18. ISBN   0-19-826994-3 . Retrieved November 19, 2011.; see also Deutsche Messe
  53. Preus, Klemet. "Communion Every Sunday: Why?" . Retrieved November 18, 2011.
  54. "Why and how do we move to weekly communion?" (PDF). Evangelical Lutheran Church of America. 2018. Retrieved June 22, 2020.
  55. Wainwright, Geoffrey (2006). The Oxford History of Christian Worship. Oxford University Press. p. 602. ISBN   9780195138863.
  56. Beckwith, R.T. Methodism and the Mass. Church Society. p. 116.
  57. 1 2 David W. Kendall; Barbara Fox; Carolyn Martin Vernon Snyder, eds. (2008). 2007 Book of Discipline. Free Methodist Church. pp. 219–223.
  58. Carpenter, Marian (2013). "Donald C. Lacy Collection: 1954 - 2011" (PDF). Indiana Historical Society. Retrieved 15 April 2018. Lacy also published fourteen books and pamphlets. His first pamphlet, Methodist Mass (1971), became a model for current United Methodist liturgical expression. Lacy’s goal was to make ecumenism a reality by blending the United Methodist Order for the Administration of the Sacrament of the Lord’s Supper or Holy Communion and "The New Order of Mass" in the Roman Catholic Church.

Bibliography

Further reading

Roman Catholic doctrine

Present form of the Roman rite of the Mass

Tridentine form of the Roman rite of the Mass

(For links on Post-Tridentine vs. "Tridentine" controversy, see Mass of Paul VI)

Anglican Doctrine and practice

Lutheran doctrine