Feast of Saints Peter and Paul

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Feast of Saints Peter and Paul
Mor-Christ-Conde.jpg
Official nameFeast of Saints Peter and Paul, Solemnity of Saints Peter and Paul
Observed by Eastern Orthodox Church
Catholic Church
Lutheran Church
Oriental Orthodoxy
Rome [1]
Ticino, Switzerland
Malta
Celebrations Mass
Date 29 June
Next time29 June 2020 (2020-06-29)
FrequencyAnnual

The Feast of Saints Peter and Paul or Solemnity of Saints Peter and Paul is a liturgical feast in honour of the martyrdom in Rome of the apostles Saint Peter and Saint Paul, which is observed on 29 June. The celebration is of ancient origin, the date selected being the anniversary of either their death or the translation of their relics. [2]

Rome Capital city and comune in Italy

Rome is the capital city and a special comune of Italy. Rome also serves as the capital of the Lazio region. With 2,872,800 residents in 1,285 km2 (496.1 sq mi), it is also the country's most populated comune. It is the fourth most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4,355,725 residents, thus making it the most populous metropolitan city in Italy. Rome is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio (Latium), along the shores of the Tiber. The Vatican City is an independent country inside the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city: for this reason Rome has been often defined as capital of two states.

Apostles The primary disciples of Jesus

In Christian theology and ecclesiology, apostles, particularly the Twelve Apostles, were the primary disciples of Jesus. During the life and ministry of Jesus in the 1st century AD, the apostles were his closest followers and became the primary teachers of the gospel message of Jesus.

Saint Peter apostle and first pope

Saint Peter, also known as Simon Peter, Simeon, Simon, Cephas, or Peter the Apostle, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, and the first leader of the early Church.

Contents

Western Christianity

For Eastern Orthodox and some Eastern Catholic Christians this feast also marks the end of the Apostles' Fast (which began on the Monday following All Saints' Sunday, i.e., the second Monday after Pentecost). It is considered a day of recommended attendance, whereon one should attend the All-Night Vigil (or at least Vespers) on the eve, and the Divine Liturgy on the morning of the feast (there are, however, no "Days of Obligation" in the Eastern Church). For those who follow the traditional Julian calendar, 29 June falls on the Gregorian calendar date of 12 July.

Apostles Fast fast observed by Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Eastern Catholic Christians; begins on the 2nd (In the Byzantine tradition) or 1st (in the Coptic/Syriac traditions) 2nd Monday after Pentecost; ends on the Feast of Sts. Peter and Paul

The Apostles Fast, also called the Fast of the Holy Apostles, the Fast of Peter and Paul, or sometimes St. Peter's Fast, is a fast observed by Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Eastern Catholic, and Reformed Orthodox Christians. In the Byzantine tradition, the Fast begins on the second Monday after Pentecost, whereas in the Coptic and old Syriac traditions, the Fast begins on the first Monday after Pentecost. It continues until the Feast of Saints Peter and Paul on June 29. Its duration varies from eight to forty-two days because of the moveable nature of Pascha (Easter).

Pentecost Christian holy day commemorating the New Testament account of Holy Spirits descent upon the Apostles

The Christian holy day of Pentecost, which is celebrated fifty days after Easter Sunday, commemorates the descent of the Holy Spirit upon the Apostles and other followers of Jesus Christ while they were in Jerusalem celebrating the Feast of Weeks, as described in the Acts of the Apostles.

Vespers sunset evening prayer service in the Orthodox, Roman Catholic and Eastern Catholic, Anglican, and Lutheran liturgies of the canonical hours

Vespers is a sunset evening prayer service in the Orthodox, Roman Catholic and Eastern Catholic, Anglican, and Lutheran liturgies of the canonical hours. The word comes from the Greek ἑσπέρα ("hespera") and the Latin vesper, meaning "evening". It is also referred to in the Anglican tradition as evening prayer or evensong. The term is also used in some Protestant denominations to describe evening services.

In the Russian Orthodox tradition, Macarius of Unzhacarm's Miracle of the Muzhar is said to have occurred during the Apostles' Fast and the Feast of Saints Peter and Paul that followed it.

Western Christian tradition

In the General Roman Calendar, the celebration is a solemnity. In earlier editions, it was ranked as a Double (Tridentine Calendar), Double of the First Class (e.g., General Roman Calendar of 1954), or First-Class Feast (General Roman Calendar of 1960). Prior to the liturgical reforms of Pope Pius XII, this feast was followed by a common octave.

The General Roman Calendar is the liturgical calendar that indicates the dates of celebrations of saints and mysteries of the Lord in the Roman Rite, wherever this liturgical rite is in use. These celebrations are a fixed annual date; or occur on a particular day of the week ; or relate to the date of Easter. National and diocesan liturgical calendars, including that of the diocese of Rome itself as well as the calendars of religious institutes and even of continents, add other saints and mysteries or transfer the celebration of a particular saint or mystery from the date assigned in the General Calendar to another date.

A solemnity is, in the liturgical calendar of the Roman Rite, a feast day of the highest rank celebrating a mystery of faith such as the Trinity, an event in the life of Jesus, his mother Mary, or another important saint. The observance begins with the vigil on the evening before the actual date of the feast. Unlike feast days of the rank of feast or those of the rank of memorial, solemnities replace the celebration of Sundays outside Advent, Lent, and Easter.

In the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church, days throughout the liturgical year are given varying ranks. These ranks determine which Mass takes precedence when two liturgical days coincide on the same day, as well as when a feast falls on a Sunday or certain other, higher-ranking days. In addition, higher-ranking liturgical days are also privileged by certain liturgical elements: for instance, the Mass of a solemnity will include recitation or singing of the Gloria in Excelsis and the Credo, while that of a feast will have the Gloria but not the Credo, whereas a memorial will have neither.

It is a holy day of obligation in the Latin Church, although individual conferences of bishops can suppress the obligation. [3] In England, Scotland and Wales the feast is observed as a holy day of obligation while in the United States and Canada, it is not. In Malta it is a public holiday and in Maltese known as L-Imnarja.

In the Catholic Church, holy days of obligation are days on which the faithful are expected to attend Mass, and engage in rest from work and recreation, according to the Third Commandment.

Latin Church Automonous particular church making up of most of the Western world Catholics

The Latin Church is the largest particular church of the Catholic Church, employing the Latin liturgical rites. It is one of 24 sui iuris churches, the 23 others forming the Eastern Catholic Churches. It is headed by the bishop of Rome, the pope – traditionally also called the Patriarch of the West – with cathedra in this role at the Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran in Rome, Italy. The Latin Church traces its history to the earliest days of Christianity, according to Catholic tradition, through its direct leadership under the Holy See.

Malta island republic in Europe

Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta, is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea. It lies 80 km (50 mi) south of Italy, 284 km (176 mi) east of Tunisia, and 333 km (207 mi) north of Libya. With a population of about 475,000 over an area of 316 km2 (122 sq mi), Malta is the world's tenth smallest and fifth most densely populated country. Its capital is Valletta, which is the smallest national capital in the European Union by area at 0.8 km². The official languages are Maltese and English, with Maltese officially recognised as the national language and the only Semitic language in the European Union.

In 1577 Jan Rubens named his son Peter Paul, because he was born during the office of vespers of this day. [4]

Jan Rubens Flemish politician, father of Peter Paul Rubens

Jan Rubens (1530–1587) was a Flemish magistrate of Antwerp, best known today as the father of Peter Paul Rubens.

On this feast, newly created metropolitan archbishops receive from the pope the primary symbol of their office, the pallium.

The Lutheran Churches celebrate 29 June as the Feast of Saints Peter and Paul; it holds the rank of a Lesser Festival. [5]

The Voice of the Martyrs, an NGO that aids persecuted Christians, has designated 29 June as the "Day of the Christian Martyr", in honour of the marytrdom of Saints Peter and Paul, as well as all martyrs for the Christian faith. [6]

Oriental Orthodox tradition

The Coptic Orthodox Church and the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church are also celebrated on the day 5 Epip which is also the end of the fast of the apostles. [7]

Spiritual Christian tradition

Although the Canadian Doukhobors, a Spiritual Christian denomination, do not venerate saints, the Feast of St. Peter and St. Paul has traditionally been a day of celebration for them. Since 1895, it has acquired a new significance as a commemoration of the "Burning of the Arms", the Doukhobors' destruction of their weapons, as a symbol of their refusal to participate in government-sponsored killing. [8] It is celebrated now by their descendants as simply "Peter's Day" (Russian: Petro den.), sometimes referred to as the "Doukhobor Peace Day". [9] [10]

Public holiday

The feast is observed in Rome because St. Paul and St. Peter are patron saints of the Eternal City. It is also a public holiday of the Canton of Ticino, Switzerland, as well as parts of the Swiss cantons of Lucerne and Graubünden. It is a public holiday in Peru, in Malta, and in various municipalities of the Philippines.

See also

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References

  1. "Festa di San Pietro e Paolo a Roma". www.regioni-italiane.com.
  2. The Catholic Encyclopedia , Volume XI (Robert Appleton Company, New York, 1911), s.v. "St. Paul", accessed 4 June 2007.
  3. Codex Iuris Canonici (1983), canon 1246.
  4. Historische levensbeschryving van P.P. Rubens Door Jean Francois Marie Michel p.14
  5. "Feasts and Festivals". Lutheran Church--Missouri Synod . Retrieved 29 June 2019.
  6. "The Day of the Christian Martyr - 29 June 2019". Release International. 29 June 2019. Retrieved 29 June 2019.
  7. https://st-takla.org/Full-Free-Coptic-Books/Synaxarium-or-Synaxarion/11-Abeeb/05-Abeeb.html
  8. Tarasoff, Koozma J. "Historic 1895 Burning of Guns: descriptions, selections and translations". Spirit-Wrestlers.com. Retrieved 23 June 2016.
  9. Tarasoff, Koozma J. The Doukhobor Peace Day, May 4, 2002
  10. Tarasoff, Koozma J., with Andrei Conovaloff. "Historic 1895 Burning of Guns descriptions, selections and translations". Spirit Wrestlers. Spirit Wrestlers Publishing. Retrieved 20 May 2018.