Holy day of obligation

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In the Catholic Church, holy days of obligation (also called holydays, holidays, or days of obligation) are days on which the faithful are expected to attend Mass, and engage in rest from work and recreation, according to the Third Commandment.

Catholic Church Largest Christian church, led by the Bishop of Rome

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with approximately 1.3 billion baptised Catholics worldwide as of 2017. As the world's oldest and largest continuously functioning international institution, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation. The church is headed by the Bishop of Rome, known as the pope. Its central administration is the Holy See.

Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy One of the Ten Commandments

"Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy" is one of the Ten Commandments found in the Hebrew Bible.

The expectation is attached to the holy day, even if transferred, as sometimes happens in the Roman Rite, to another date because of coinciding with a higher-ranking celebration. However, in some countries a dispensation is granted in such circumstances. [1]

Roman Rite Most widespread liturgical rite in the Latin Church

The Roman Rite is the main liturgical rite of the Latin Church, the main particular church sui iuris of the Catholic Church. It is the most widespread liturgical rite in Christianity as a whole. The Roman Rite gradually became the predominant rite used by the Western Church, developed out of many local variants from Early Christianity on, not amounting to distinctive rites, that existed in the medieval manuscripts, but have been progressively reduced since the invention of printing, most notably since the reform of liturgical law in the 16th century at the behest of the Council of Trent (1545–63) and more recently following the Second Vatican Council (1962–65).

In the jurisprudence of the canon law of the Catholic Church, a dispensation is the exemption from the immediate obligation of law in certain cases. Its object is to modify the hardship often arising from the rigorous application of general laws to particular cases, and its essence is to preserve the law by suspending its operation in such cases.

Latin Church

The holy days of obligation for Latin Catholics are indicated in canon 1246 of the 1983 Code of Canon Law:

The 1983 Code of Canon Law, also called the Johanno-Pauline Code, is the "fundamental body of ecclesiastical laws for the Latin Church". It is the second and current comprehensive codification of canonical legislation for the Latin Church sui iuris of the Catholic Church. It was promulgated on 25 January 1983 by John Paul II and took legal effect on the First Sunday of Advent 1983. It replaced the 1917 Code of Canon Law, promulgated by Benedict XV on 27 May 1917.

Can. 1246. §1. Sunday, on which by apostolic tradition the paschal mystery is celebrated, must be observed in the universal Church as the primordial holy day of obligation. The following days must also be observed: the Nativity of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Epiphany, the Ascension, the Body and Blood of Christ, Holy Mary the Mother of God, her Immaculate Conception, her Assumption, Saint Joseph, Saint Peter and Saint Paul the Apostles, and All Saints.

§2. With the prior approval of the Apostolic See, however, the conference of bishops can suppress some of the holy days of obligation or transfer them to a Sunday.

Holy See Episcopal jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, Italy

The Holy See, also called the See of Rome, refers to the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome, known as the pope, which includes the apostolic episcopal see of the Diocese of Rome with universal ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the worldwide Catholic Church, as well as a sovereign entity of international law.

Placed in the order of the civil calendar, the ten days (apart from Sundays) that this canon mentions are:

Solemnity of Mary, Mother of God Feast day in the Roman Catholic Church

The Solemnity of Mary, the Holy Mother of God is a feast day of the Blessed Virgin Mary under the aspect of her motherhood of Jesus Christ, whom Christians see as the Lord, Son of God. It is celebrated by the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church on 1 January, the Octave (8th) day of Christmastide.

Eastertide In Western Christianity, the period of fifty days from Easter Sunday to Pentecost Sunday.

Eastertide or Paschaltide is a festal season in the liturgical year of Christianity that focuses on celebrating the Resurrection of Jesus Christ. It begins on Easter Sunday, which initiates Easter Week in Western Christianity, and Bright Week in Eastern Christianity. There are several Eastertide customs across the Christian world, including sunrise services, exclaiming the Paschal greeting, clipping the church, and decorating Easter eggs, a symbol of the empty tomb. The Easter lily, a symbol of the resurrection, traditionally decorates the chancel area of churches throughout Eastertide. Other Eastertide customs include egg hunting, eating special Easter foods and watching Easter parades.

Feast of the Ascension religious holiday

The Feast of the Ascension of Jesus Christ, also called Ascension Day, Ascension Thursday, or sometimes Holy Thursday, commemorates the Christian belief of the bodily Ascension of Jesus into heaven. It is one of the ecumenical feasts of Christian churches, ranking with the feasts of the Passion, of Easter, and Pentecost. Ascension Day is traditionally celebrated on a Thursday, the fortieth day of Easter, although some Christian denominations have moved the observance to the following Sunday. In the Catholic Church in the United States, the day of observance varies by ecclesiastical province.

The number of holy days of obligation was once much greater. With the motu proprio Supremi disciplinae of 2 July 1911, Pope Pius X reduced the number of such non-Sunday holy days from 36 to 8: the above 10 dates (1 January was then the Feast of the Circumcision of Christ) minus the feasts the Body and Blood of Christ, and Saint Joseph. [2] The present list was established in canon 1247 of the 1917 Code of Canon Law, [3] now canon 1246 of the current Code of Canon Law.

In law, motu proprio describes an official act taken without a formal request from another party. Some jurisdictions use the term sua sponte for the same concept.

Supremi disciplinae was a motu proprio that reduced the number of Holy Days of Obligation within the Roman Catholic Church.

Pope Pius X Catholic Pope and saint

Pope Pius X, born Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto, was head of the Catholic Church from August 1903 to his death in 1914. Pius X is known for vigorously opposing modernist interpretations of Catholic doctrine, promoting liturgical reforms and orthodox theology. He directed the production of the 1917 Code of Canon Law, the first comprehensive and systemic work of its kind.

In many countries the bishops had obtained, even before the time of Pius X, the Holy See's approval to diminish the number of non-Sunday holy days of obligation, making it far less than 36. Today too, Episcopal Conferences have availed themselves of the authority granted them in law to reduce the number below the ten mentioned above.

Non-Sunday holy days of obligation all have the rank of solemnity. Accordingly, if in Ordinary Time one of them falls on a Sunday, the Sunday celebration gives way to it; but the Sundays of Advent, Lent and Eastertide take precedence over all solemnities, which are then transferred to another day [4] (but the precept is not). Very occasionally, the Feast of the Sacred Heart may fall on Ss. Peter and Paul's feast day, in which case it takes precedence over the Solemnity of Ss. Peter and Paul; the precept then applies to the feast of the Sacred Heart.

Working holy days

While episcopal conferences may suppress holy days of obligation or transfer them to Sunday, some of them have maintained as holy days of obligation some days that are not public holidays. For most people, such days are normal working days, and they therefore cannot observe the obligation "to abstain from those works and affairs which hinder the worship to be rendered to God, the joy proper to the Lord's day, or the suitable relaxation of mind and body". However, they remain bound by the obligation to participate in Mass. For these days, referred to as "working holy days", churches may have a special timetable, with Mass available outside the normal working hours and on the previous evening. [5]

In Ireland the only holy days of obligation that are also public holidays are Christmas and Saint Patrick's Day, so that it has five working holy days. Similarly, Slovakia has only four holy days of obligation that are also public holidays: Christmas, Solemnity of Mary Mother of God, Epiphany and All Saints', leaving it with five working holy days. In the Netherlands, the bishops conference decreed that, with effect from 1 January 1991, the feasts of the Assumption and All Saints, each of which it had previously decided to celebrate on the following Sunday, were to be of obligation as regards Mass, but not for abstaining from work. [6]

Observance by country

In Vatican City, but not in the rest of the Diocese of Rome, Sundays and all 10 days listed in canon 1246 are observed as holy days of obligation. This is also the case in the Diocese of Lugano (covering the Swiss canton of Ticino), but perhaps nowhere else.

Some countries have as holy days of obligation feasts that are not among those listed in canon 1246. Ireland has Saint Patrick's Day. [7] Germany and Hungary has St. Stephen on the "Second Christmas Day" (26 December), Easter Monday and Pentecost Monday (Whit Monday). [8]

In countries where they are not holy days of obligation, three of the ten feast days listed above are assigned to a Sunday as their proper day: [9]

If they are thus assigned to a Sunday, they are not included in the following national lists of holy days of obligation, since in every country all Sundays are holy days of obligation.

Argentina

Australia

Austria

Bahrain

Belgium

No formal legislative norm of the Episcopal Conference of Belgium exists in which the holy days of obligation are listed. However, the four days mentioned above have been Belgium's holy days of obligation since the concordat of 1801 (which itself is not recognized as legally binding in Belgium since independence). Therefore, the current system is in force because of canon 5 of the 1983 Code of Canon Law. [10]

Brazil

Brunei

Canada

China

In Mainland China, there are two holy days of obligation according to the Chinese Patriotic Catholic Association: Christmas and Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary. [12] However, since the CPCA is not recognized by the Holy See, it is not clear if a Holy See-approved regulation exists. If not, it is likely that the 10 holy days of obligation would apply in Mainland China.

However, this situation only exists in Mainland China. In the Diocese of Hong Kong, Christmas is the only holy day of obligation. [13] The same seems to be true for Taiwan. [14] In the diocese of Macau, no regulations seem to exist, suggesting the 10 holy days of obligations apply.

Colombia

Croatia

Czech Republic

In Czech Republic, holy days of obligation are, by Czech Bishops' Conference, reduced to only two days, which are also public holidays in the Czech Republic: [15]

Since the other holy days of obligation mentioned in the Code of Canon Law are not public holidays, the Czech Bishops' Conference does not make attendance at Mass obligatory for Catholics, but only recommends it, as it does also on the feast days of Saints Cyril and Methodius (5 July) and Saint Wenceslas (28 September). Attendance at Mass is of course obligatory on all Sundays.

Denmark

Dominican Republic

The following day is also a holy day of obligation in all of the Dominican Republic:

El Salvador

England and Wales

(See Liturgy Office)

According to a 1984 decision of the Catholic Bishops' Conference of England and Wales, Holydays which fall on a Saturday or a Monday (with the exception of Christmas) are transferred to the adjacent Sunday. In 2006, the Epiphany, Ascension and Corpus Christi were transferred to the nearest Sunday. On 17 November 2016 meeting in Leeds, the Bishops' Conference determined that the Epiphany and the Ascension should be celebrated on their official days, or on the adjacent Sunday when 6 January is a Saturday or a Monday. This decision was approved by the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments and became effective from 3 December 2017. [16] [17]

There are different regulations for Scotland and for Ireland.

Finland

(See Catholic Church in Finland: Practical Matters)

France

Germany

The following days are also holy days of obligation in all of Germany:

In addition, almost all dioceses have one or more of the following holy days of obligation:

The solemnities of Saint Joseph, Saints Peter and Paul and the Immaculate Conception of Mary are observed nowhere in Germany as holy days of obligation – these days are also not usually transferred to a Sunday (though for Sts. Peter and Paul, this is theoretically possible). Attendance at the liturgical service (which is not Mass) on Good Friday, a public holiday, is also generally observed, although it is not a holy day of obligation.

(See Feiertagsregelung)

Greece

Instead of being transferred to the following Sunday, the Feast of the Ascension of Our Lord, though not a holy day of obligation in Greece, is kept on the Thursday of the sixth week of Easter, in order to celebrate it on the same day as the Orthodox Church of Greece.

Haiti

Hungary

Iceland

India

Indonesia

Bishops' Conference of Indonesia has not issued regulation about holy day of obligation, so ten holy days on Can. 1246 § 1 applied. [19] [20]

Ireland

The following day is also a holy day of obligation in all of Ireland:

(See "Working holy days", above)

“Ireland” includes the entire island of Ireland, i.e. both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland.

Italy

Japan

Kenya

Korea

“Korea” includes the entire Korean Peninsula.

Kuwait

Lebanon

Luxembourg

Malta

The following is also a holy day of obligation:

Malaysia

Mexico

The following day is also a holy day of obligation in all of Mexico:

Moldova

Netherlands

(See "Working holy days", above)

New Zealand

Nicaragua

Norway

Panama

Paraguay

Peru

The following day is also a holy day of obligation in Peru:

Philippines

Poland

Portugal

Qatar

(See "Working holy days", above)

Saudi Arabia

Serbia

See Serbian Orthodox Church.

Scotland

According to a (Bishops' Conference of Scotland, 1986). Holydays which fall on Saturday or Monday (with the exception of Christmas) are transferred to the adjacent Sunday. There are different regulations for Ireland and for England and Wales.

Singapore

[25]

Slovakia

All the holy days of obligation listed in the Code of Canon Law except the Solemnity of Saint Joseph are maintained in Slovakia, although only Solemnity of Mary, Epiphany, All Saints' Day and Christmas are also public holidays. See "Working holy days", above.

Additionally, the Slovak Bishops' Conference recommends Mass attendance on the following solemnities, because of their nationwide importance:

South Africa

Spain

The following day is also a holy day of obligation in all of Spain:

(See Calendario Litúrgico Pastoral)

Sri Lanka

Sweden

[26]

Switzerland

The following days are also holy days of obligation in Switzerland:

In the Diocese of Lugano (covering the canton of Ticino), the following three days are also holy days of obligation:

This probably makes the diocese of Lugano the only diocese in the world (except for the Vatican City part of the Diocese of Rome) where all ten holy days of obligation are observed.

Ukraine

These regulations also apply on the Crimean peninsula, including Sevastopol,

United States

In most of the United States, the Ascension is transferred to the following Sunday (which would otherwise be the Seventh Sunday of Easter). It is only celebrated as a holy day of obligation on Thursday in the ecclesiastical provinces of Boston, Hartford, New York, Newark, Omaha, and Philadelphia, as well as by members of the Personal Ordinariate of the Chair of Saint Peter. [27] [28]

According to a complementary norm issued by the USCCB, "Whenever January 1, the solemnity of Mary, Mother of God, or August 15, the solemnity of the Assumption, or November 1, the solemnity of All Saints, falls on a Saturday or on a Monday, the precept to attend Mass is abrogated." [29]

In years when December 8 falls on Sunday, the Solemnity of the Immaculate Conception is normally transferred to December 9, as it is outranked by the Second Sunday of Advent. [30] In this case, the precept to attend Mass, however, is abrogated by the transfer. [1] Under the 1960 Code of Rubrics, still observed by some in accordance with Summorum Pontificum , the feast of the Immaculate Conception has precedence even over an Advent Sunday and is not transferred. [31]

In Hawaii, the Feast of the Immaculate Conception and Christmas are the only Holy Days of Obligation, as decreed by the Bishop of Honolulu in 1992, pursuant to an indult from the Holy See and as approved by the national episcopal conference. [32]

Venezuela

Vietnam

The Ecclesiastical Province of Hanoi observes the following four holy days of obligation, known as the "Four Seasons" (Vietnamese : Tứ Quý): [33]

The Ecclesiastical Provinces of Huế and Ho Chi Minh City only observe one recurring holy day of obligation, Christmas. Individual dioceses may observe additional holy days of obligation on an ad-hoc basis. [34]

Eastern Catholic Churches

The Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches (CCEO) lays down the relevant norms regarding holy days of obligations for Eastern Catholic Churches. There are five holy days of obligation, beyond Sundays, specified as common to all of the Eastern Churches: [35]

The CCEO provides that only the "supreme authority" of the Church can "establish, transfer or suppress feast days and days of penance which are common to all of the Eastern Churches," although the particular law of a sui juris Church can suppress one of these days or transfer it to Sunday, provided that said particular law has been approved by the Apostolic See. [36] The authority competent to establish the particular law of a sui iuris Church may constitute, transfer, or suppress other feast days and days of penance (i.e., ones that are not common to all the Eastern Churches), under certain conditions. [37]

The faithful of the Eastern Catholic Churches "are bound by the obligation to participate on Sundays and feast days in the Divine Liturgy or, according to the prescriptions or legitimate customs of their own Church sui iuris, in the celebration of the divine praises." [38]

See also

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References

  1. 1 2 McNamara, Edward (17 December 2013). "Feast of the Immaculate Conception". ZENIT News Agency. Retrieved 13 May 2017.Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (help)
  2. "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Supremi Disciplinae".
  3. Codex Iuris Canonici canon 1247 (1917).
  4. General Norms for the Liturgical Year and the Calendar § 5.
  5. For instance, Ballyroan Parish, Dublin, Churches and Religious Institutions in or near Old Louisville, United States, Churches in Krynica, Poland
  6. Analecta Aartsbisdom Utrecht, jaargang 63, november/december 1990, p. 294-295
  7. Liturgical Calendar
  8. Feiertagsregelung Archived 2009-03-25 at the Wayback Machine
  9. General Norms for the Liturgical Year and the Calendar, 7
  10. Celebrating the Season of Christmas, Canadian Conference of Catholic Bishops, 2002
  11. "A Catholic Should Know - Catholic Diocese of Hong Kong".
  12. NETservis s.r.o. xhtml,css-Jiri-Knytl. "Slavení je jeden z projevů křesťanského života".
  13. Catholic Bishops' Conference of England and Wales, Decree on the Observance of Holy Days of Obligation in the Dioceses of England and Wales, 1 September 2017
  14. Holydays of Obligation - England and Wales, published 2 September 2017, accessed 5 May 2018
  15. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-01-04. Retrieved 2015-01-03.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  16. Hari Raya, Pesta dan Peringatan (in Indonesian), katolisitas.org, retrieved 2 November 2015
  17. RD B. Justisianto, 10 Hari Raya yang disamakan dengan Hari Minggu (in Indonesian), Gereja Katolik Paroki Santo Yakobus - Surabaya, retrieved 2 November 2015
  18. Liturgical Calendar for Ireland 2012 (Veritas 2011 ISBN   978-1-84730-333-2), p. 10
  19. "despite bishops opposition new years day becomes holy day in japan - ucanews.com". ucanews.com.
  20. "Assumption speaks to Japan's Catholics, missionary says". Catholic News Agency.
  21. "Days of Obligation & Services". Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Singapore.
  22. Påbjudna helgdagar, Catholic Diocese of Stockholm
  23. Is Ascension a Holy Day of Obligation? Scott P. Richert, About.com
  24. Personal Ordinariate of the Chair of Saint Peter, 2016-2017 Ordo, quoted in Mahon, Christopher (17 April 2017). "Going against the flow to preserve our Anglican tradition". Anglicanorum Coetibus Society Blog. Retrieved 13 May 2017.
  25. "Complementary Norm to Canon 1246, §2 - Holy Days Of Obligation". United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. 17 November 1992. Retrieved 13 May 2017.
  26. Congregation for Divine Worship (14 February 1969). "General Norms for the Liturgical Year and the Calendar". EWTN. Retrieved 13 May 2017. See nos. 59-60.
  27. See "The Rubrics of the Roman Breviary and Missal," no. 91, printed in "The New Rubrics of the Roman Breviary and Missal" (PDF). Surry Hills, NSW: The Catholic Press Newspaper. 1960. Retrieved 13 May 2017.
  28. Liturgical Calendar for the Dioceses of the United States of America 2014, p. 6. no. 6.
  29. "Lịch phụng vụ Công giáo 2017 – 2018" [Catholic liturgical year 2017–2018] (in Vietnamese). Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Hanoi . Retrieved August 19, 2018.
  30. Huỳnh Phước Lâm (December 14, 2011). "Luật dự lễ ngày Chúa Nhật cùng các ngày lễ buộc" [Regulations about observing Sunday Mass and holy days of obligation] (in Vietnamese). Conggiao.info. Retrieved August 19, 2018.
  31. "Canon 880 §3". The relevant canon specifies the feasts by name and does not assign their celebration to a particular calendar date.
  32. "Canon 880 §§1,3".
  33. "Canon 880 §2".
  34. "Canon 881 §1".