Anglican Use

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The Canterbury Cross, a variation of which was adopted as its logo by the Anglican Use Society, which later changed its name to Anglicanorum Coetibus Society Cantercross.svg
The Canterbury Cross, a variation of which was adopted as its logo by the Anglican Use Society, which later changed its name to Anglicanorum Coetibus Society

The Anglican Use is an officially approved form of liturgy used by former members of the Anglican Communion who joined the Catholic Church while wishing to maintain the treasures of the Anglican tradition.

Liturgy is the customary public worship performed by a religious group. As a religious phenomenon, liturgy represents a communal response to and participation in the sacred through activity reflecting praise, thanksgiving, supplication or repentance. It forms a basis for establishing a relationship with a divine agency, as well as with other participants in the liturgy.

Anglican Communion International association of churches

The Anglican Communion is the third largest Christian communion. Founded in 1867 in London, England, the communion currently has 85 million members within the Church of England and other national and regional churches in full communion. The traditional origins of Anglican doctrines are summarised in the Thirty-nine Articles (1571). The Archbishop of Canterbury in England acts as a focus of unity, recognised as primus inter pares, but does not exercise authority in Anglican provinces outside of the Church of England.

Catholic Church Largest Christian church, led by the Bishop of Rome

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with approximately 1.3 billion baptised Catholics worldwide as of 2017. As the world's oldest and largest continuously functioning international institution, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation. The church is headed by the Bishop of Rome, known as the pope. Its central administration, the Holy See, is in the Vatican City, an enclave within the city of Rome in Italy.

Contents

Definition

The Toronto parish of the Personal Ordinariate of the Chair of Saint Peter defines Anglican Use as "the liturgy of The Book of Divine Worship [...] formulated and authorized in response to Pope John Paul II's 1980 Pastoral Provision that allowed Episcopalian priests and laity in the United States to join the Catholic church while preserving elements proper to their Anglican tradition." It gives the name "Ordinariate Use" to the liturgy, since December 2015, of the personal ordinariates for former Anglicans, [3] which is that contained in Divine Worship: The Missal and Divine Worship: Occasional Services. At a time when a specific liturgy for the personal ordinariates was still under preparation, the Anglican Use community in Indianopolis applied the term "Anglican Use" to the Book of Divine Worship liturgy that was then the interim liturgy of the North-American personal ordinariate. [4] The Pasadena parish calls the present form "the Ordinariate Form" and adds that it is unofficially but popularly known as the "Anglican Use". [5] The American National Catholic Register has also distinguished between "Anglican Use" and "Ordinariate Use". [6] These sources are all associated with a geographical area where the Book of Divine Worship has been in use.

Toronto Provincial capital city in Ontario, Canada

Toronto is the provincial capital of Ontario and the most populous city in Canada, with a population of 2,731,571 in 2016. Current to 2016, the Toronto census metropolitan area (CMA), of which the majority is within the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), held a population of 5,928,040, making it Canada's most populous CMA. The city is the anchor of the Golden Horseshoe, an urban agglomeration of 9,245,438 people surrounding the western end of Lake Ontario. Toronto is an international centre of business, finance, arts, and culture, and is recognized as one of the most multicultural and cosmopolitan cities in the world.

Personal Ordinariate of the Chair of Saint Peter

The Personal Ordinariate of the Chair of Saint Peter is a personal ordinariate of the Catholic Church—a jurisdiction within the Church, the equivalent of a diocese, for priests and laypeople from an Anglican background, that enables them to retain elements of their Anglican patrimony after entering the Catholic Church. Its territory extends over the United States and Canada. Former Methodists and former members of denominations such as the United Church of Canada are also included, as they are considered members of "ecclesial communion[s]" of "Anglican heritage".

The Book of Divine Worship (BDW) was an adaptation of the American Book of Common Prayer (BCP) by the Roman Catholic Church. It was used primarily by former members of the Episcopal Church within Anglican Use parishes of the Pastoral Provision and the Personal Ordinariates. It has been replaced by a new book to be used worldwide, titled Divine Worship: The Missal.

With the promulgation of Divine Worship: The Missal for use beginning 29 November 2015, the Book of Divine Worship began to be phased out. [7]

<i>Divine Worship: The Missal</i> missal for Anglican Use Catholics

Divine Worship: The Missal (DW:™️) is the liturgical book containing the instructions and texts for the celebration of Mass by the former Anglicans within the Roman Catholic Church in the three personal ordinariates of Great Britain, United States and Canada, and Australia. The rite contained in this missal is a variant of the Roman Rite eucharistic liturgy. It was approved for use beginning on the first Sunday of Advent, November 29, 2015.

What had been called the Anglican Use Society changed its name in 2016 to Anglicanorum Coetibus Society, echoing the incipit of Pope Benedict XVI's apostolic constitution authorizing the establishment of personal ordinariates for former Anglicans. [1] [2]

Incipit first few words of the opening line of a poem, song, or book, often used in lieu of a title

The incipit of a text is the first few words of the text, employed as an identifying label. In a musical composition, an incipit is an initial sequence of notes, having the same purpose. The word incipit comes from Latin and means "it begins". Its counterpart taken from the ending of the text is the explicit.

Pope Benedict XVI 265th pope of the Catholic Church

Pope Benedict XVI is a retired prelate of the Catholic Church who served as head of the Church and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 2005 until his resignation in 2013. Benedict's election as pope occurred in the 2005 papal conclave that followed the death of Pope John Paul II. Benedict chose to be known by the title "pope emeritus" upon his resignation.

An apostolic constitution is the most solemn form of legislation issued by the Pope. The use of the term constitution comes from Latin constitutio, which referred to any important law issued by the Roman emperor, and is retained in church documents because of the inheritance that the canon law of the Roman Catholic Church received from Roman law.

Personal parishes and personal ordinariates

The personal parishes in the United States founded by former members of the Episcopal Church in the United States were first established in accordance with the Pastoral Provision granted by Pope John Paul II on 20 June 1980, [8] which permitted the ordination as Catholic priests of married former clergy of the Episcopal Church for ministry either in such personal parishes or elsewhere in Catholic dioceses of the United States. [9] They were referred to interchangeably as either "Anglican Use" or "Pastoral Provision" parishes, the former term referring to their Anglican liturgical patrimony and the latter referring to the canonical provision that established them as parishes with a distinct character.

United States Federal republic in North America

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country comprising 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe, which is 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the most populous city is New York City. Most of the country is located contiguously in North America between Canada and Mexico.

Episcopal Church (United States) Anglican denomination in the United States

The Episcopal Church (TEC) is a member church of the worldwide Anglican Communion based in the United States with dioceses elsewhere. It is a mainline Christian denomination divided into nine provinces. The presiding bishop of the Episcopal Church is Michael Bruce Curry, the first African-American bishop to serve in that position.

The Pastoral Provision, in the context of the Catholic Church in the United States, is a set of practices and norms by which bishops are authorized to provide spiritual care for Roman Catholics coming from the Anglican tradition, by establishing parishes for them and ordaining priests from among them. The Pastoral Provision still provides a way for individuals to become priest in territorial dioceses, even though Anglicanorum Coetibus was declared which led to the establishment of Personal Ordinariates, another mechanism for former Anglicans to join the Catholic Church.

On 9 December 2009, Pope Benedict XVI issued the apostolic constitution Anglicanorum coetibus , authorizing the establishment of personal ordinariates for former Anglicans. The first to be established was the Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of Walsingham for England and Wales in January 2011, followed by the Personal Ordinariate of the Chair of Saint Peter for the United States in January 2012 and the Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of the Southern Cross for Australia in June 2012. While Pastoral Provision parishes were part of the local geographical Latin Church dioceses, the ordinariates are distinct from the territorial dioceses and have an independent personal jurisdiction over their members.

A personal ordinariate, sometimes called a "personal ordinariate for former Anglicans" or more informally an "Anglican ordinariate", is a canonical structure within the Catholic Church established in accordance with the apostolic constitution Anglicanorum coetibus of 4 November 2009 and its complementary norms. The ordinariates were established in order to enable "groups of Anglicans" to join the Catholic Church while preserving elements of their liturgical and spiritual patrimony. They are juridically equivalent to a diocese, "a particular church in which and from which exists the one and unique Catholic Church", but may be erected in the same territory as other dioceses "by reason of the rite of the faithful or some similar reason".

Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of Walsingham

The Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of Walsingham in England and Wales is a personal ordinariate of the Roman Catholic Church immediately subject to the Holy See within the territory of the Catholic Bishops' Conference of England and Wales, of which its ordinary is a member, and encompassing Scotland also. It was established on 15 January 2011 for groups of former Anglicans in England and Wales in accordance with the apostolic constitution Anglicanorum coetibus of Pope Benedict XVI.

Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of the Southern Cross

The Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of the Southern Cross is a personal ordinariate of the Roman Catholic Church primarily within the territory of the Australian Catholic Bishops Conference for groups of Anglicans who desire full communion with the Catholic Church in Australia and Asia. As a personal ordinariate it is immediately subject to the Holy See in Rome. The motto of the ordinariate is Mea Gloria Fides.

After the establishment in 2012 of a personal ordinariate for former Anglicans in the United States, several Pastoral Provision parishes joined the ordinariate. Among them was St. Mary the Virgin Parish in Arlington, Texas, which in 1994 had become the first Episcopal parish in the United States to transfer corporately into the Catholic Church, being thus, in the words of Monsignor Jeffrey N. Steenson, the ordinariate's first Ordinary, "received into the Catholic Church under the Anglican Use". [10] Others kept their separate identity and were known as Anglican-use parishes, but in 2017 the Holy See declared that it expected all such parishes to be integrated into the ordinariate. [11] [12]

History

Origins

The remote origins of the demand for such an arrangement has been ascribed to the Oxford Movement in nineteenth-century England.

In 1977, some of those Anglicans and Episcopalians who desired union with the Catholic Church contacted individual Catholic bishops, the Apostolic Delegate (Archbishop Jean Jadot) and the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith in Rome, to inquire about the possibility for married Anglican priests to be received into the Catholic Church and function as Catholic priests.

After the United States National Conference of Catholic Bishops and the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith had reacted favorably to the proposals that had been put before them, a formal request for union was presented in Rome on 3 November 1979 for acceptance into the Roman Catholic Church, for steps to be taken to eliminate any defects that might be found in their priestly orders, and that they be granted the oversight, direction, and governance of a Catholic bishop. [13]

Pastoral Provision

The decision of the Holy See was officially communicated in a letter of 22 July 1980 from the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith to the president of the United States episcopal conference, who published it on 20 August 1980.

Though admittance of the Episcopalians in question to the Catholic Church was considered as reconciliation of individuals, the pastoral provision gave them a common group identity. [14] After a period of being subject to the local Latin Church bishop, the bishop could set up personal parishes for them, with the use, within the group, of a form of liturgy that retained certain elements of the Anglican liturgy; and married Episcopalian priests could on a case-by-case basis be ordained as Catholic priests, but not as bishops. [15]

An ecclesiastical delegate, a Catholic and preferably a bishop, was to be appointed to oversee the implementation of the decision and to deal with the Congregation. [16]

Implementation

In March 1981, Bishop Bernard Francis Law was appointed ecclesiastical delegate. He was replaced by the Archbishop of Newark, John J. Myers, in 2003 and Kevin W. Vann in 2011. William H. Stetson, a priest of the Prelature of Opus Dei, also served as secretary to the ecclesiastical delegate. [8]

In 1983, the first Anglican Use parish, Our Lady of the Atonement, was established in San Antonio, Texas. Our Lady of Walsingham parish in Houston, Texas, followed the next year. [17] Since 1983, over 100 former Anglicans have been ordained for priestly ministry in various Catholic dioceses of the United States. [9] [18]

Personal ordinariates

On 9 December 2009, Pope Benedict XVI issued the Apostolic Constitution Anglicanorum coetibus , authorizing the establishment of personal ordinariates for former Anglicans. The first to be established was the Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of Walsingham for England and Wales in January 2011, followed by the Personal Ordinariate of the Chair of Saint Peter for the United States in January 2012 and the Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of the Southern Cross for Australia in June 2012. These "Anglican Use ordinariates" [19] were a response to Anglicans outside the United States, and hence beyond the remit of the Pastoral Provision, but they also supplied some of the perceived needs of that previous provision. [20]

Canonical differences between the Anglican Use parishes and the personal ordinariate are outlined in a study published in the 23 January 2012 issue of the National Catholic Reporter . [21] Some of the Anglican Use parishes have joined the ordinariate, but some have not.

Anglican Use liturgy

The Anglican Use is an authorized liturgical variant of the Roman Rite of the Latin Church. The Latin Church includes among its liturgical rites the widespread Roman Rite, the Ambrosian Rite of Milan, the Mozarabic Rite celebrated in the Cathedral of Toledo, the Braga Rite in some parts of northern Portugal, and specific uses of religious orders. The Catholic Church also includes several Eastern Catholic churches, which are equal in dignity, and in communion with the Latin Church.

The Congregation for Divine Worship gave provisional approval for the Anglican Use liturgy, the Book of Divine Worship , in 1984, an approval rendered definitive in 1987. This book incorporates elements of the 1928 Book of Common Prayer, but the Eucharistic liturgy is from the 1979 Book, with the eucharistic prayers taken from the Roman Missal and the ancient Sarum Rite (with the modern English Words of Institution inserted in the latter). New texts were promulgated by the congregation on 22 June 2012, the feast of English saints Thomas More and John Fisher, namely the Order for Funerals and the Order for the Celebration of Holy Matrimony. [22]

A new liturgy for use in all three personal ordinariates for former Anglicans that had been established from 2011 on was authorized in 2013 and came into use on 29 November 2015. [23] The Book of Divine Worship had been based closely on the United States Episcopal Church liturgy, which had developed in ways different from that of Anglican churches in England and Australia, making it unsuitable for imposing on all personal ordinariates for former Anglicans. Its Order of Mass drew elements also from the original Book of Common Prayer , from different later versions of it, from the Tridentine Mass and from the Roman Rite as revised after the Second Vatican Council. [24]

Those personal-ordinariate communities that had provisionally been using the 1984-approved Book of Divine Worship adopted this new liturgy at the end of 2013. The Holy See's 'Anglicanae Traditiones Commission' that developed the updated form of Anglican patrimonial liturgy used the Book of Divine Worship as its "lead" source. [25] In the new liturgical books for the personal ordinariates, the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith and the Congregation for Divine Worship retained the generic title, "Divine Worship", for the entire liturgical provision for the personal ordinariates, dropping the "Book of" naming convention in favour of "Divine Worship: The Missal". [26]

Divine Worship: The Missal , the missal containing the complete expression of the Divine Worship Mass liturgy, began to be used on 29 November 2015, and as of 1 January 2016 the Book of Divine Worship was no longer authorized for use in public worship. As a result, even the Pastoral Provision parishes at that time still remaining outside the ordinariates adopted Divine Worship: The Missal instead of the Book of Divine Worship.[ citation needed ]

The new missal is "a pastoral variation of the Roman Rite for the members of the Personal Ordinariates in the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada and the United States. [...] This is not an Anglican liturgy separate and distinct from the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church. This is not an Anglican Use Rite. It does not reflect Anglican Eucharistic theology. It is not a Protestant service dressed up as a Catholic Mass. It is the Catholic Mass of the Western Rite, filtered through the Anglican experience, corrected and expressed in an Anglican voice." [23]

See also

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References

  1. 1 2 Ordinariate News, 21 April 2016
  2. 1 2 Anglicanorum Coetibus Society
  3. The Catholic Parish of St. Thomas More, The Ordinariate of the Chair of St. Peter in Toronto: Further Information
  4. Pasadena ordinariate website
  5. Indianapolis ordinariate website
  6. Charlotte Hays, "Modified Liturgy Coming to Ordinariate Parishes in Advent" in National Catholic Register
  7. Smith, Peter Jesserer, Our Lady’s Dowry: New Ordinariate Missal Makes Advent History
  8. 1 2 Stetson, William H., "History of the Pastoral Provision", Office of the Ecclesiastical Delegate for the Pastoral Provision website
  9. 1 2 Office of the Ecclesiastical Delegate for the Pastoral Provision
  10. Another Anglican Use parish to enter the American Ordinariate
  11. Catholic Culture: "Texas Anglican-use parish adopted into Anglican ordinariate"
  12. Catholic News Agency, "US Anglican ordinariate expands to include prominent Texas parish"
  13. Cavanaugh, Steve (2011), "Appendix A", Anglicans and Roman Catholics, Ignatius Press, ISBN   9781586174996
  14. Letter of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, I, archived from the original on 4 June 2004
  15. Letter, II
  16. Letter, V
  17. Mueller, Mary Ann (17 June 2009). "'Anglican Use' Catholic Liturgy". Catholic.org. p. 1. Retrieved 12 March 2012.
  18. "Cardinal announces establishment of US Anglican ordinariate". 16 November 2011. Retrieved 12 March 2012.
  19. Bishop Elliott, Peter J., "Anglican Use Ordinariates and Ecumenism", The Messenger, No. 292, April-August 2010
  20. "Anglicanorum Coetibus applies the lessons learned [in North America's Pastoral Provision] to the entire Catholic Church..." Statement of the Executive of the Catholic League on Anglicanorum Coetibus, January 2010 The Messenger, No. 292, April-August 2010
  21. Fiteau, Jerry (23 January 2012), "New ordinariate and 1980 pastoral provision: An analysis", National Catholic Reporter
  22. http://www.anglicanuse.org/
  23. 1 2 The Personal Ordinariate of the Chair of Saint Peter: "Divine Worship: The Missal"
  24. Patrimony: The Order of Mass for the Anglican Ordinariates
  25. Sacra Liturgia, 9 July 2016, "Mgr Burnham speaks at Sacra Liturgia London 2016"
  26. 'New Liturgical Book for the Personal Ordinariates', 20 March 2014

Liturgy