Coptic Catholic Church

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Coptic Catholic Church
Cathedral of Our Lady of Egypt.jpg
Classification Eastern Catholic
Orientation Coptic
Polity Episcopal
Structure Patriarchate
Pope Francis
Primate Patriarch Ibrahim Isaac Sidrak
Associations Congregation for the Oriental Churches
RegionEgypt, with communities in Asia, Australia, Europe, and North America
Language Alexandrian Rite
Headquarters Cathedral of Our Lady of Egypt, Cairo, Egypt
Congregations166 (2016)
Members187,320 (2017) [1]
Ministers 243 [2]
Official website coptcatholic.net

The Coptic Catholic Church is an Eastern Catholic particular church in full communion with the Catholic Church. The Coptic Catholic Church uses the Alexandrian Rite. Uniquely among Eastern Catholic Churches, it uses the Coptic language (derived from Ancient Egyptian, hence the name) in its liturgy, whereas the Ethiopian Catholic Church and Eritrean Catholic Church use the Alexandrian Rite in the Ge'ez language.

Eastern Catholic Churches Autonomous, self-governing particular Churches in full communion with the Pope

The Eastern Catholic Churches or Oriental Catholic Churches, also called the Eastern-rite Catholic Churches, and in some historical cases Uniate Churches, are twenty-three Eastern Christian particular churches sui iuris in full communion with the Pope in Rome, as part of the worldwide Catholic Church. Headed by patriarchs, metropolitans, and major archbishops, the Eastern Catholic Churches are governed in accordance with the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches, although each church also has its own canons and laws on top of this, and the preservation of their own traditions is explicitly encouraged. The total membership of the various churches accounts for about 18 million, according to the Annuario Pontificio, thus making up about 1.5 percent of the Catholic Church, with the rest of its more than 1.3 billion members belonging to the Latin Church, also known as the Western Church or the Roman Catholic Church.

Full communion is a communion or relationship of full understanding among different Christian denominations that share certain essential principles of Christian theology. Views vary among denominations on exactly what constitutes full communion, but typically when two or more denominations are in full communion it enables services and celebrations, such as the Eucharist, to be shared among congregants or clergy of any of them with the full approval of each.

Catholic Church Largest Christian church, led by the Bishop of Rome

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with approximately 1.3 billion baptised Catholics worldwide as of 2017. As the world's oldest and largest continuously functioning international institution, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation. The church is headed by the Bishop of Rome, known as the pope. Its central administration, the Holy See, is in the Vatican City, an enclave within the city of Rome in Italy.

Contents

The current Coptic Catholic Patriarch of Alexandria is Ibrahim Isaac Sidrak, who replaced Antonios Naguib in 2013. The offices of the Patriarchate are located in Cairo. The patriarchal Cathedral of Our Lady of Egypt is in Nasr City, a suburb of Cairo.

Ibrahim Isaac Sidrak Coptic Catholic Patriarch

Ibrahim Isaac Sidrak is the current Coptic Catholic Patriarch of Alexandria.

Antonios I Naguib is the Coptic Catholic Patriarch emeritus of Alexandria, and a Cardinal.

Patriarchate is an ecclesiological term in Christianity, designating the office and jurisdiction of an ecclesiastical patriarch.

History

Beginnings

In the 17th century, missionaries, primarily Franciscans, started to come to the Copts. In 1630, a Cairo mission of the Capuchin Order was founded. The Jesuits came in 1675. [3] In 1713, the Coptic Patriarch of Alexandria again submitted to Rome but, as in 1442, the union was not of long duration. [4]

In 1741, Coptic bishop Anba Athanasius of Jerusalem became a Catholic. [4] In 1781, he was appointed by Pope Benedict XIV as vicar apostolic of the less than 2,000 Egyptian Coptic Catholics. [3] Eventually, Athanasius returned to the Coptic Orthodox Church and others served as Catholic vicar apostolic. [3]

Jerusalem City in the Middle East

Jerusalem is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea. It is one of the oldest cities in the world, and is considered holy to the three major Abrahamic religions—Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Both Israel and the Palestinian Authority claim Jerusalem as their capital, as Israel maintains its primary governmental institutions there and the State of Palestine ultimately foresees it as its seat of power; however, neither claim is widely recognized internationally.

Pope Benedict XIV 18th-century Catholic pope

Pope Benedict XIV, born Prospero Lorenzo Lambertini, was head of the Catholic Church from 17 August 1740 to his death in 1758.

Patriarchate

Under the assumption that the Ottoman viceroy wanted a Catholic patriarch for the Coptic Catholics in 1824, the Pope established the Patriarchate of Alexandria [3] from the Apostolic Vicariate of Syria, Egypt, Arabia and Cyprus [5] but it was basically titular. [3] The Ottomans in 1829 allowed the Coptic Catholics to build their own churches. [3]

A titular see in various churches is an episcopal see of a former diocese that no longer functions, sometimes called a "dead diocese".

The number of Catholics of this Rite increased to the point that Leo XIII in 1895 restored the Catholic patriarchate. [4] He initially named Bishop Cyril Makarios as Patriarchal Vicar. Makarios then presided over a synod, which led to the introduction of some Latin practices. In 1899, Leo appointed Makarios as Patriarch of Alexandria of the Copts, taking the name Cyril II. He resigned in 1908 at the request of the Pope over a controversy. The patriarchate seat remained vacant until an election in 1947 [3] and was administered by Apostolic Administrator. [5]

Pope Leo XIII 256th Pope of the Catholic Church

Pope Leo XIII was head of the Catholic Church from 20 February 1878 to his death. He was the oldest pope, and had the third-longest confirmed pontificate, behind that of Pius IX and John Paul II.

Kyrillos Makarios also written as Cyrillus Macaire was a leader of the Coptic Catholic Church, an Eastern Catholic sui juris particular church of the Catholic Church. He served as Patriarch of Alexandria from 1899 to 1908 when he resigned.

Hierarchy

The Coptic Catholic Church sui juris comprises a single ecclesiastical province, covering Egypt only. The Patriarch is the sole Metropolitan Archbishop, retaining the ancient title Alexandria but his actual see is in Egypt's modern capital Cairo.

He has seven suffragan bishops, throughout Egypt, comprising the only Coptic Catholic ecclesiastical province  : the eparchies of Alexandria (Patriarch's original home see), Assiut, Guizeh (Gizah), Ismayliah, Luqsor (Luxor), Minya and Sohag.

Religious orders

The Coptic Catholic Church does not have Coptic monasteries. Instead the Church has religious congregations such as the three communities for women: the Sisters of the Sacred Heart, the Coptic Sisters of Jesus and Mary (both based in Egypt) and the Egyptian Province of the Little Sisters of Jesus. There is also a community of male Franciscans. [3]

Educational and health services

Most candidates for the priesthood are trained at St. Leo's Patriarchal Seminary, in suburban Cairo. More than 100 Coptic Catholic parishes administer primary schools, and some have secondary schools as well. The church maintains a hospital, a number of medical dispensaries and clinics, and several orphanages. [6]

See also

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The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria is an Oriental Orthodox Christian church based in Egypt, Africa and the Middle East. The head of the Church and the See of Alexandria is the Patriarch of Alexandria on the Holy See of Saint Mark, who also carries the title of Coptic Pope. The See of Alexandria is titular, and today the Coptic Pope presides from Saint Mark's Coptic Orthodox Cathedral in the Abbassia District in Cairo. The church follows the Alexandrian Rite for its liturgy, prayer and devotional patrimony. With 18–22 million members worldwide, whereof about 15 to 20 million are in Egypt, it is the country's largest Christian church.

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The Coptic Catholic Patriarchate of Alexandria is the Patriarchal and only Metropolitan see of the head of the Eastern sui iuris Coptic Catholic Church, a particular Church in the Catholic Church in full communion with the Holy See, which follows the Alexandrian Rite in its own Coptic language. He is thus the superior of all Coptic dioceses, mostly in and around Egypt, the word Copt(ic) being a corruption of the Greek word for Egypt(ian).

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The Apostolic Vicariate of Alexandria of Egypt, or in full - of Alexandria of Egypt-Heliopolis-Port Said is the Roman Catholic Apostolic vicariate in Egypt, named after its cathedral see in Alexandria, a port city and former Catholic patriarchate.

Coptic history

Coptic history is part of history of Egypt that begins with the introduction of Christianity in Egypt in the 1st century AD during the Roman period, and covers the history of the Copts to the present day. Many of the historic items related to Coptic Christianity are on display in many museums around the world and a large number is in the Coptic Museum in Coptic Cairo.

Stéphanos I Sidarouss was a Cardinal and leader of the Coptic Catholic Church, an Eastern Catholic sui juris particular church of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as Patriarch of Alexandria from 1958 to 1986, and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1965.

Markos II Khouzam in Arabic مرقس الثاني خزام was a leader of the Coptic Catholic Church, an Eastern Catholic sui juris particular church of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as Patriarch of Alexandria from 1947 to 1958.

The Coptic Catholic Eparchy of Minya is a suffragan eparchy of the Coptic Catholic Church in its sole ecclesiastical province, that of the Coptic Catholic Patriarch of Alexandria.

Cathedral of Our Lady of Egypt Church in Cairo, Egypt

The Our Lady of Egypt Cathedral also called Coptic Catholic Cathedral of Cairo is a religious building in Cairo, affiliated with the Catholic Church. It follows the Coptic or Alexandrian rite and is located at 39 Mustafa Fahmi Street.

The Coptic Catholic Eparchy of Giza is an Eastern Catholic diocese in Giza. It is one of the suffragan sees comprising the sole ecclesiastical province of the Coptic Catholic Patriarch of Alexandria, the head of the Coptic Catholic Church, a Particular church sui iuris.

References

  1. The Eastern Catholic Churches 2017
  2. Roberson, Ronald G. "The Eastern Catholic Churches 2010" (PDF). Eastern Catholic Churches Statistics. Catholic Near East Welfare Association. Retrieved 28 December 2011.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Roberson, Ronald G. "The Coptic Catholic Church". Eastern Catholic Churches. Catholic Near East Welfare Association. Retrieved 27 January 2012.
  4. 1 2 3 PD-icon.svg Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Eastern Churches". Catholic Encyclopedia . New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  5. 1 2 "Patriarchal See of Alexandria". Catholic Dioceses in the World. GCatholic.org. Retrieved 27 January 2012.
  6. "Pontifical Mission - The Coptic Catholic Church". www.cnewa.org. Retrieved 2017-01-20.