Timeline of Christianity

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The purpose of this timeline is to give a detailed account of Christianity from the beginning of the current era (AD) to the present. Question marks ('?') on dates indicate approximate dates.

Timeline Universe events since the Big Bang 13.8 billion years ago

A timeline is a display of a list of events in chronological order. It is typically a graphic design showing a long bar labelled with dates paralleling it, and usually contemporaneous events; a Gantt chart is a form of timeline used in project management.

Christianity is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth. Its adherents, known as Christians, believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and the savior of all people, whose coming as the Messiah was prophesied in the Hebrew Scriptures of Judaism, called the Old Testament in Christianity, and chronicled in the New Testament. It is the world's largest religion with over 2.4 billion followers.

Contents

The year one is the first year in the Christian calendar (there is no year zero), which is the calendar presently used (in unison with the Gregorian calendar) almost everywhere in the world. Traditionally, this was held to be the year Jesus was born; however, most modern scholars argue for an earlier or later date, the most agreed upon being between 6 BC and 4 BC.

<i>Anno Domini</i> Western calendar era

The terms anno Domini (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars. The term anno Domini is Medieval Latin and means "in the year of the Lord", but is often presented using "our Lord" instead of "the Lord", taken from the full original phrase "anno Domini nostri Jesu Christi", which translates to "in the year of our Lord Jesus Christ".

Year zero does not exist in the Anno Domini (AD) system usually used to number years in the Gregorian calendar and in its predecessor, the Julian calendar. In this system, the year 1 BC is followed by AD 1. However, there is a year zero in astronomical year numbering and in ISO 8601:2004 as well as in all Buddhist and Hindu calendars.

The Gregorian calendar is the calendar used in most of the world. It is named after Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in October 1582. The calendar spaces leap years to make the average year 365.2425 days long, approximating the 365.2422-day tropical year that is determined by the Earth's revolution around the Sun. The rule for leap years is:

Every year that is exactly divisible by four is a leap year, except for years that are exactly divisible by 100, but these centurial years are leap years if they are exactly divisible by 400. For example, the years 1700, 1800, and 1900 are not leap years, but the year 2000 is.

Herod Archelaus Ethnarch of Samaria/Judea/Idumea from 4 BC to 6 AD

Herod Archelaus was ethnarch of Samaria, Judea, and Idumea, including the cities Caesarea and Jaffa, for a period of nine years. Archelaus was removed by Roman Emperor Augustus when Judaea province was formed under direct Roman rule, at the time of the Census of Quirinius. He was the son of Herod the Great and Malthace the Samaritan, and was the brother of Herod Antipas, and the half-brother of Herod II. Archelaus came to power after the death of his father Herod the Great in 4 BC, and ruled over one-half of the territorial dominion of his father.

Augustus First emperor of the Roman Empire

Augustus was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first emperor of the Roman Empire, reigning from 27 BC until his death in AD 14. His status as the founder of the Roman Principate has consolidated an enduring legacy as one of the most effective and controversial leaders in human history. The reign of Augustus initiated an era of relative peace known as the Pax Romana. The Roman world was largely free from large-scale conflict for more than two centuries, despite continuous wars of imperial expansion on the Empire's frontiers and the year-long civil war known as the "Year of the Four Emperors" over the imperial succession.

Samaria region of ancient Israel

Samaria is a historical and biblical name used for the central region of the ancient Land of Israel, also was known as Palestine, bordered by Galilee to the north and Judaea to the south. For the beginning of the Common Era, Josephus set the Mediterranean Sea as its limit to the west, and the Jordan River as its limit to the east. Its territory largely corresponds to the biblical allotments of the tribe of Ephraim and the western half of Manasseh; after the death of Solomon and the splitting-up of his empire into the southern Kingdom of Judah and the northern Kingdom of Israel, this territory constituted the southern part of the Kingdom of Israel. The border between Samaria and Judea is set at the latitude of Ramallah.

Jesus begins his ministry after his baptism by John and during the rule of Pilate, preaching: "Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is near" ( Matthew 4:1217 ). While the historicity of the gospel accounts is questioned to some extent by some critical scholars and non-Christians, the traditional view states the following chronology for his ministry: Temptation, Sermon on the Mount, Appointment of the Twelve, alleged Miracles, Temple Money Changers, Last Supper, Arrest, Trial, Passion, Crucifixion on Nisan 14th (John 19:14 , Mark 14:2 , Gospel of Peter) or Nisan 15th (Synoptic Gospels), entombment by Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus, professed Resurrection by God and claimed Resurrection appearances of Jesus to Mary Magdalene and other women (Mark 16:9 , John 20:1018 ), Simon Peter (Luke 24:34 ), and others, ( 1Cor.15:39 ), Great Commission, Ascension, Second Coming Prophecy to fulfill the rest of Messianic prophecy such as the Resurrection of the dead, the Last Judgment, and establishment of the Kingdom of God and the Messianic Age.

Ministry of Jesus

In the Christian gospels, the ministry of Jesus begins with his baptism in the countryside of Roman Judea and Transjordan, near the river Jordan, and ends in Jerusalem, following the Last Supper with his disciples. The Gospel of Luke states that Jesus was "about 30 years of age" at the start of his ministry. A chronology of Jesus typically has the date of the start of his ministry estimated at around AD 27–29 and the end in the range AD 30–36.

The historicity of Jesus is the question of whether Jesus of Nazareth can be regarded as a historical figure. Nearly all New Testament scholars and Near East historians, applying the standard criteria of historical-critical investigation, find that the historicity of Jesus is effectively certain, although they differ about the beliefs and teachings of Jesus as well as the accuracy of the details of his life that have been described in the gospels.

Biblical criticism scholarly study of biblical writings that seeks to make discerning judgments about these writings

Biblical criticism is an umbrella term for those methods of studying the Bible that embrace two distinctive perspectives: the concern to avoid dogma and bias by applying a non-sectarian, reason-based judgment, and the reconstruction of history according to contemporary understanding. Biblical criticism uses the grammar, structure, development, and relationship of language to identify such characteristics as the Bible's literary structure, its genre, its context, meaning, authorship, and origins.

Apostolic Age

Shortly after the death and resurrection of Jesus (Nisan 14 or 15), the Jerusalem church is founded as the first Christian church with about 120 Jews and Jewish Proselytes (Acts 1:15), followed by Pentecost (Sivan 6), the Ananias and Sapphira incident, Pharisee Gamaliel's defense of the Apostles (5:34-39), the stoning of Saint Stephen (see also Persecution of Christians) and the subsequent dispersion of the Apostles (7:54-8:8, also Mark 16:20) which leads to the baptism of Simon Magus in Samaria (8:9-24), and also an Ethiopian eunuch (8:26-40). Paul's "Road to Damascus" conversion to "Apostle to the Gentiles" is first recorded in 9:13-16, cf. Gal 1:11-24. Peter baptizes the Roman Centurion Cornelius, who is traditionally considered the first Gentile convert to Christianity (10). The Antioch church is founded, it was there that the term Christian was first used (11:26).

Nisan Month of the Assyrian and Hebrew calendars

Nisan on the Assyrian calendar is the first month, and on the Hebrew calendar is the first month of the ecclesiastical year and the seventh month of the civil year. The name of the month is of Assyrian-Babylonian origin; in the Torah it is called the month of the Aviv. Assyrians today refer to the month as the "month of happiness." It is a spring month of 30 days. Nisan usually falls in March–April on the Gregorian calendar. In the Book of Esther in the Tanakh it is referred to as Nisan. Karaite Jews interpret it as referring to the month in which barley was ripe.

Pentecost Christian holy day commemorating the New Testament account of Holy Spirits descent upon the Apostles

The Christian holy day of Pentecost, which is celebrated fifty days after Easter Sunday, commemorates the descent of the Holy Spirit upon the Apostles and other followers of Jesus Christ while they were in Jerusalem celebrating the Feast of Weeks, as described in the Acts of the Apostles.

Sivan month of the Hebrew calendar

Sivan is the ninth month of the civil year and the third month of the ecclesiastical year on the Hebrew calendar. It is a spring month of 30 days. Sivan usually falls in May–June on the Gregorian calendar.

Caligula Third Emperor of Ancient Rome

Caligula was Roman emperor from 37 to 41 AD. The son of the popular Roman general Germanicus and Augustus's granddaughter Agrippina the Elder, Caligula was born into the first ruling family of the Roman Empire, conventionally known as the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Germanicus's uncle and adoptive father, Tiberius, succeeded Augustus as emperor of Rome in 14.

Epistle of James book of the Bible

The Letter of James, the Epistle of James, or simply James, is one of the 21 epistles in the New Testament.

The anonymous Historia Compostelana is based on the relation of events by a writer in the immediate circle of Diego Gelmírez, second bishop (1100–1120) then first archbishop (1120–1140) of Compostela, one of the major figures of the Middle Ages in Galicia. The narrative of the Historia Compostelana spans the years 1100 – 1139, the years of Gelmírez' tenure, in three books. Its twofold central agenda is to extol the Archbishop's doings, while establishing the foundation and rights of Santiago de Compostela, including its founding legend, which provided apostolic connections with Saint James the Great. The bishopric had been transferred from Iria Flavia to Compostela as recently as 1095.

Ante-Nicene Period

First Seven Ecumenical Councils

Constantine called the First Council of Nicaea in 325 to unify Christology, also called the first great Christian council by Jerome, the first ecumenical, decreed the Original Nicene Creed, but rejected by Nontrinitarians such as Arius, Theonas, Secundus of Ptolemais, Eusebius of Nicomedia, and Theognis of Nicaea who were excommunicated, also addressed Easter controversy and passed 20 Canon laws such as Canon VII which granted special recognition to Jerusalem.

Middle Ages

Renaissance

Reformation

17th century

18th century

19th century

20th century

21st century

Sources

See also

Footnotes

  1. H.H. Ben-Sasson, A History of the Jewish People, Harvard University Press, 1976, ISBN   0-674-39731-2, page 246: "When Archelaus was deposed from the ethnarchy in 6 CE, Judea proper, Samaria and Idumea were converted into a Roman province under the name Iudaea."
  2. John P. Meier's A Marginal Jew , v. 1, ch. 11; also H.H. Ben-Sasson, A History of the Jewish People, Harvard University Press, 1976, ISBN   0-674-39731-2, page 251: "But after the first agitation (which occurred in the wake of the first Roman census) had faded out, we no longer hear of bloodshed in Judea until the days of Pilate."
  3. Suetonius, Lives of the Twelve Caesars, Tiberius 36;
    • Jewish Encyclopedia: Rome: Expelled Under Tiberius: "The Jewish deputation which petitioned for the deposition of the royal house of the Idumeans was joined by 8,000 Jewish residents of Rome. Several Romans adopted Jewish customs, and some, as the rhetor Cilicius of Kalakte, a friend of Dionysius of Halicarnassus, even embraced Judaism (Müller, "Fragmenta Historicorum Græcorum", iii. 331). The reign of Tiberius (until the removal of his minister Sejanus) was fraught with misfortune for the Jews. When the cult of Isis was driven out of Rome (19 CE.) the Jews also were expelled, because a Roman lady who inclined toward Judaism had been deceived by Jewish swindlers. The synagogues were closed, the vessels burned, and 4,000 Jewish youths were sent upon military service to Sardinia. After the death of Sejanus (31) the emperor allowed the Jews to return.";
    • Haim Hillel Ben-Sasson (and Abraham Malamat contributor) A History of the Jewish People , Harvard University Press, 1976, ISBN   978-0674397316, page 288 quote: "Explicit evidence of a systematic attempt to propagate the Jewish faith in the city of Rome is found as early as 139 BCE. With the increase of the Jewish population of Rome, the Jews intensified their efforts to make converts among the Romans. Although the activity of Jewish missionaries in Roman society caused Tiberius to expel them from that city in 19 CE, they soon returned, and Jewish religious propaganda was resumed and maintained even after the destruction of the Temple. Tacitus mentions it regretfully (Histories 5.5), and Juvenal, in his Fourteenth Satire (11. 96ff.), describes how Roman families 'degenerated' into Judaism: the fathers permitted themselves to adopt some of its customs and the sons became Jews in every respect." ... [last sentence of next paragraph:] "In addition, the Bible provided the apostles of Judaism with a literature unparalleled in any other religion."
  4. G. J. Goldberg. "John the Baptist and Josephus" . Retrieved 2006-08-16.
  5. H.H. Ben-Sasson, A History of the Jewish People, Harvard University Press, 1976, ISBN   0-674-39731-2, The Crisis Under Gaius Caligula, pages 254-256: "The reign of Gaius Caligula (37-41) witnessed the first open break between the Jews and the Julio-Claudian empire. Until then if one accepts Sejanus' heyday and the trouble caused by the census after Archelaus' banishment there was usually an atmosphere of understanding between the Jews and the empire ... These relations deteriorated seriously during Caligula's reign, and, though after his death the peace was outwardly re-established, considerable bitterness remained on both sides. ... Caligula ordered that a golden statue of himself be set up in the Temple in Jerusalem. ... Only Caligula's death, at the hands of Roman conspirators (41), prevented the outbreak of a Jewish-Roman war that might well have spread to the entire East."
  6. A. J. MAAS (2003). Origin of the Name of Jesus Christ. Retrieved January 23, 2006. Walter Bauer's et al. Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, 1979, under Christos notes: "as a personal name; the Gentiles must have understood Christos in this way to them it seemed very much like Chrestos [even in pronunciation ...], a name that is found in lit."
  7. Suetonius, Lives of the Twelve Caesars, Claudius XXV.4; Jewish Encyclopedia: Rome: Expelled Under Tiberius: "... in 49-50, in consequence of dissensions among them regarding the advent of the Messiah, they were forbidden to hold religious services. The leaders in the controversy, and many others of the Jewish citizens, left the city."
  8. Catholic Encyclopedia: Judaizers see section titled: "THE INCIDENT AT ANTIOCH"
  9. Cumming, John (1998). Butler's Lives of the Saints. Collgeville, Minnesota: The Liturgical Press. p. 24
  10. Pauline Chronology: His Life and Missionary Work, from Catholic Resources by Felix Just, S.J.
  11. https://web.archive.org/web/20110208073816/http://stthoma.com/
  12. Staff Reporter. "'More studies needed at Pattanam'". The Hindu. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  13. "stthoma.com". Archived from the original on 8 February 2011. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  14. In the earliest extant manuscript containing Annales 15:44, the second Medicean, the e in "Chrestianos", Chrestians, has been changed into an i; cf. Gerd Theißen, Annette Merz, Der historische Jesus: ein Lehrbuch, 2001, p. 89. The reading Christianos, Christians, is therefore doubtful.
  15. Jewish Encyclopedia: Fiscus Iudaicus, Suetonius's Domitian XII: "Besides other taxes, that on the Jews [A tax of two drachmas a head, imposed by Titus in return for free permission to practice their religion; see Josephus, Bell. Jud. 7.6.6] was levied with the utmost rigor, and those were prosecuted who, without publicly acknowledging that faith, yet lived as Jews, as well as those who concealed their origin and did not pay the tribute levied upon their people [These may have been Christians, whom the Romans commonly assumed were Jews]. I recall being present in my youth when the person of a man ninety years old was examined before the procurator and a very crowded court, to see whether he was circumcised."
  16. Wylen, Stephen M., The Jews in the Time of Jesus: An Introduction, Paulist Press (1995), ISBN   0-8091-3610-4, Pp 190-192.; Dunn, James D.G., Jews and Christians: The Parting of the Ways, A.D. 70 to 135, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing (1999), ISBN   0-8028-4498-7, Pp 33-34.; Boatwright, Mary Taliaferro & Gargola, Daniel J & Talbert, Richard John Alexander, The Romans: From Village to Empire, Oxford University Press (2004), ISBN   0-19-511875-8, p. 426.;
  17. Jewish Encyclopedia: Tarfon: "R. Ṭarfon was extremely bitter against those Jews who had been converted to the new faith; and he swore that he would burn every book of theirs which should fall into his hands (Shab. 116a), his feeling being so intense that he had no scruples against destroying the Gospels, although the name of God occurred frequently in them."
  18. "ANTITHESIS" . Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  19. "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Dionysius" . Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  20. "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Caius (3rd Century)" . Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  21. "ANF05. Fathers of the Third Century: Hippolytus, Cyprian, Caius, Novatian, Appendix" . Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  22. "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Monarchians" . Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  23. Richard McBrien The Church (New York: HarperOne, 2008) 390
  24. "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Lapsi" . Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  25. "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Pope St. Eusebius" . Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  26. "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The Synods of Arles" . Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  27. "NPNF2-01. Eusebius Pamphilius: Church History, Life of Constantine, Oration in Praise of Constantine" . Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  28. The Canon Debate, McDonald & Sanders editors, 2002, pages 414-415
  29. Rapp, Stephen H., Jr (2007). "7 – Georgian Christianity". The Blackwell Companion to Eastern Christianity. John Wiley & Sons. p. 138. ISBN   978-1-4443-3361-9 . Retrieved 11 May 2012.
  30. "The Seventh Arian Confession". Archived from the original on 1 July 2015. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  31. Theodosian Code XVI.1.2 Medieval Sourcebook: Banning of Other Religions by Paul Halsall, June 1997, Fordham University, retrieved September 25, 2006; Theodosian Code XVI.1.2; Catholic Encyclopedia: Theodosius I: "In February, 380, he and Gratian published the famous edict that all their subjects should profess the faith of the Bishops of Rome and Alexandria (Cod. Theod., XVI, I, 2; Sozomen, VII, 4)."
  32. "Evagrius Scholasticus, Ecclesiastical History (AD431-594), translated by E. Walford (1846). Introduction" . Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  33. Paul Moses, "Mission Improbable: St. Francis and the Sultan" Commonweal 25 September 2009, 16.
  34. The Rosicrucian Fellowship: The Rosicrucian Interpretation of Christianity
  35. Albert Pike, Morals and Dogma of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry, XXX: Knight Kadosh , p. 822, 1872
  36. René Guénon, El Esoterismo de Dante , p. 5-6, 14, 15-16, 18-23, 1925
  37. Manly Palmer Hall, The Secret Teachings of All Ages: The Fraternity of The Rose Cross , p. 139, 1928
  38. "NOMBRE DE DIOS Mission in Spanish La Florida" . Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  39. "What think you, loving people, and how seem you affected, seeing that you now understand and know, that we acknowledge ourselves truly and sincerely to profess Christ, condemn the Pope, addict ourselves to the true Philosophy, lead a Christian life (...)".
  40. "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Evangelical Church" . Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  41. "KOREA: FACING ANOTHER THREAT…" . Retrieved 30 August 2007.
  42. "Beauraing 1932" . Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  43. "The Lady of All Nations – Family of Mary" . Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  44. "Messages of Our Lady at Akita Japan". Archived from the original on 8 November 2014. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  45. APPROVED APPARITIONS: Our Lady of Kibeho This was an ominious foreshadowing of the Rwanda Genocide of 1994.
  46. "Evangelicals and Catholics Together" . Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  47. "Alliance of Confessing Evangelicals, Inc" . Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  48. Independent Online – South Africa, Virgin Mary 'appears over Egyptian church', August 31, 2000
  49. Holy Lights in Assiut: Apparition in Assiut: Eyewitness Account, Upper Egypt March/April 2006
  50. Joan G. LaBarr, United Methodist Church, World Methodists approve further ecumenical dialogue
  51. "CNS STORY: Methodists adopt Catholic-Lutheran declaration on justification". Archived from the original on 25 July 2006. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  52. "Schism - By Travis Kavulla - The Corner - National Review Online".
  53. Cf. years 1909–1911 and 1920 in the 20th century section
  54. Cf. Fama Fraternitatis. 1614
  55. Note: Centennial anniversary (on November 13, 2009) of the publication of The Rosicrucian Cosmo-Conception or Mystic Christianity
  56. Cf. year 1313 in the Renaissance section and years 1614 to 1616 in the 17th century section
  57. Rosicrucian revival. The San Diego Union-Tribune. August 2009
  58. "Eyewitness: Baghdad church siege".
  59. "Gunman Kills at Least 26 in Attack on Rural Texas Church".

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