Timeline of Jainism

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Jainism is an ancient Indian religion belonging to the śramaṇa tradition. It prescribes ahimsa (non-violence) towards all living beings to the greatest possible extent. The three main teachings of Jainism are ahimsa, anekantavada (non-absolutism), aparigraha (non-possessiveness). Followers of Jainism take five main vows: ahimsa, satya (not lying), asteya (non stealing), brahmacharya (chastity), and aparigraha. Monks follow them completely whereas śrāvakas (householders) observe them partially. Self-discipline and asceticism are thus major focuses of Jainism.


Before common era (BCE)

Common era (CE)

Sculpture depicting Acharya Kundkund Acharya KundaKunda.jpg
Sculpture depicting Acharya Kundkund

Middle Ages

British India


See also


  1. "NamiNatha Bhagwan". jainmuseum.com.
  2. "About Tonks Of 24 Jain Tirthankaras On Parasnath Hills Information-Topchanchi". hoparoundindia.com.
  3. Zimmer 1953, p. 226.
  4. Jinasena, Acharya; Jain (Sahityacharya), Dr. Pannalal (2008). Harivamsapurana [Harivamsapurana]. Bhartiya Jnanpith (18, Institutional Area, Lodhi Road, New Delhi - 110003). ISBN   978-81-263-1548-2.
  5. Fisher, Mary Pat (1997). Living Religions: An Encyclopedia of the World's Faiths. London: I.B.Tauris. ISBN   1-86064-148-2. p. 115
  6. "Parshvanatha". Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 2007. Retrieved 22 October 2007.
  7. Bowker, John (2000). "The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions". Parsva. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. ISBN   978-0-19-280094-7 . Retrieved 22 October 2007.
  8. Deo, Shantaram Bhalchandra (1956). History of Jaina monachism from inscriptions and literature. Poona [Pune, India]: Deccan College Post-graduate and Research Institute. pp. 59–60.
  9. "Mahavira." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 2006. Answers.com 28 Nov. 2009. http://www.answers.com/topic/mahavira
  10. Rapson, "Catalogue of the Indian coins of the British Museum. Andhras etc...", p XVII.
  11. Full text of the Hathigumpha Inscription in English Archived 17 November 2006 at the Wayback Machine
  12. Cort 2009, p. 39-41.
  13. 1 2 Kerkar & TNN 2014.
  14. "Gazette of India notification 27th January 2014" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 March 2022. Retrieved 18 March 2022.
  15. "Inclusion of Jains as a minority community under Section 2(c) of the National Commission for Minorities (NCM) Act, 1992". 18 March 2022. Archived from the original on 18 March 2022. Retrieved 18 March 2022.

Related Research Articles

Jainism, also known as Jain Dharma, is an Indian religion. Jainism traces its spiritual ideas and history through the succession of twenty-four tirthankars, with the first in the current time cycle being Rishabhadeva, whom the tradition holds to have lived millions of years ago, the twenty-third tirthankara Parshvanatha, whom historians date to the 9th century BCE, and the twenty-fourth tirthankara Mahavira, around 600 BCE. Jainism is considered to be an eternal dharma with the tirthankaras guiding every time cycle of the cosmology. The three main pillars of Jainism are ahiṃsā (non-violence), anekāntavāda (non-absolutism), and aparigraha (asceticism).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mahavira</span> Final tirthankara of Jainism

Mahavira, also known as Vardhamana, was the 24th tirthankara of Jainism. He was the spiritual successor of the 23rd tirthankara Parshvanatha. Mahavira was born in the early part of the 6th century BCE into a royal Kshatriya Jain family in ancient India. His mother's name was Trishala and his father's name was Siddhartha. They were lay devotees of Parshvanatha. Mahavira abandoned all worldly possessions at the age of about 30 and left home in pursuit of spiritual awakening, becoming an ascetic. Mahavira practiced intense meditation and severe austerities for twelve and a half years, after which he attained Kevala Jnana (omniscience). He preached for 30 years and attained Moksha (liberation) in the 6th century BCE, although the year varies by sect.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Śvētāmbara</span> Branch of Jainism

The Śvētāmbara is one of the two main branches of Jainism, the other being the Digambara. Śvētāmbara means "white-clad", and refers to its ascetics' practice of wearing white clothes, which sets it apart from the Digambara "sky-clad" Jains, whose ascetic practitioners go nude. Śvētāmbaras do not believe that ascetics must practice nudity.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Shikharji</span> Jain pilgrimage centre and hill forest in Jharkhand, India

Shikharji, also known as Sammed or Sammet Shikharji, is one of the Holiest pilgrimage sites for Jains, in Giridih district, Jharkhand. It is located on Parasnath hill, the highest mountain in the state of Jharkhand. It is the most important Jain Tirtha, for it is the place where twenty of the twenty-four Jain tirthankaras along with many other monks attained Moksha. It is one of the five principal pilgrimage destinations along with Girnar, Pawapuri, Champapuri, Dilwara, Palitana and Ashtapad Kailash.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Parshvanatha</span> 23rd Tirthankara in Jainism

Parshvanatha, also Pārśvanātha, Parshva, Pārśva and Parasnath, was the 23rd of 24 Tirthankaras of Jainism. He is the only Tirthankara who gained the title of Kalīkālkalpataru.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Namokar Mantra</span> Jain mantra

The Ṇamōkāra mantra or Navkar Mantra is the most significant mantra in Jainism, and one of the oldest mantras in continuous practice. This is the first prayer recited by the Jains while meditating. The mantra is also variously referred to as the Pancha Namaskāra Mantra, Namaskāra Mantra, Navakāra Mantra, Namaskāra Mangala or Paramesthi Mantra.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jain meditation</span> About meditation practices in Jainism

Jain meditation (dhyāna) has been the central practice of spirituality in Jainism along with the Three Jewels. Jainism holds that emancipation can only be achieved through meditation or Shukla Dhyana. According to Sagarmal Jain, it aims to reach and remain in a state of "pure-self awareness or knowership." Meditation is also seen as realizing the self, taking the soul to complete freedom, beyond any craving, aversion and/or attachment. The practitioner strives to be just a knower-seer (Gyata-Drashta). Jain meditation can be broadly categorized to the auspicious and inauspicious. The 20th century saw the development and spread of new modernist forms of Jain Dhyana, mainly by monks and laypersons of Śvētāmbara Jainism.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Shantinatha</span> 16th Tirthankara in Jainism in current cycle of Jain cosmology

Śhāntinātha or Śhānti is the sixteenth Tīrthaṅkara of Jainism in the present age. According to traditional accounts, he was born to King Vishvasena and Queen Aćira of the Ikshvaku dynasty in the north Indian city of Hastinapur. His birth date is the thirteenth day of the Jyest Krishna month of the Indian calendar. He was also a Chakravartin and a Kamadeva. He ascended to the throne when he was 25 years old. After over 25,000 years on the throne, he became a Jain monk and started his penance.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Neminatha</span> 22nd Jain Tirthankara

Neminātha, also known as Nemi and Ariṣṭanemi, is the twenty-second Tīrthaṅkara of Jainism in the present age. Neminatha lived 81,000 years before the 23rd Tirthankara Parshvanatha. According to traditional accounts, he was born to King Samudravijaya and Queen Shivadevi of the Yadu dynasty in the north Indian city of Sauripura. His birth date was the fifth day of Shravana Shukla of the Jain calendar. Krishna, who was the 9th and last Jain Vasudev, was his first cousin.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jain symbols</span> Symbols pertaining to Jainism

Jain symbols are symbols based on the Jain philosophy.

This article contains the index of articles related to Jainism.

Jainism is a religion founded in ancient India. Jains trace their history through twenty-four tirthankara and revere Shree Rishabhnatha Bhagwan as the first tirthankara. The last two tirthankara, the 23rd tirthankara Parshvanatha and the 24th tirthankara Mahavira are considered historical figures. According to Jain texts, the 22nd Tirthankara Neminatha lived about 5,000 years ago and was the cousin of Sri Krishna Bhagwaan.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Digambara</span> One of the two major schools of Jainism

Digambara is one of the two major schools of Jainism, the other being Śvētāmbara (white-clad). The Sanskrit word Digambara means "sky-clad", referring to their traditional monastic practice of neither possessing nor wearing any clothes.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jain sculpture</span> Images depicting Tirthankaras (teaching gods)

Jain sculptures or Jain idols are the images depicting Tirthankaras. These images are worshiped by the followers of Jainism. The sculpture can depict any of the twenty-four tirthankaras with images depicting Parshvanatha, Rishabhanatha, or Mahāvīra being more popular. Jain sculptures are an example of Jain art. There is a long history of construction of Jain sculptures. Early examples include Lohanipur Torsos which has been regarded to be from the Maurya period, and images from the Kushan period from Mathura.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ranakpur Jain temple</span> Jain temple in Rajasthan, India

Ranakpur Jain temple or Chaturmukha Dharana Vihara is a Śvētāmbara Jain temple at Ranakpur dedicated to Tirthankara Rishabhanatha. The temple is located in a village of Ranakpur near Sadri town in the Pali district of Rajasthan.

Panch Kalyanaka are the five chief auspicious events that occur in the life of tirthankara in Jainism. They are commemorated as part of many Jain rituals and festivals.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jain schools and branches</span> Major schools of thought

Jainism is an Indian religion which is traditionally believed to be propagated by twenty-four spiritual teachers known as tirthankara. Broadly, Jainism is divided into two major schools of thought, Digambara and Svetambara. These are further divided into different sub-sects and traditions. While there are differences in practices, the core philosophy and main principles of each sect is the same.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jain art</span> Works of art associated with Jainism

Jain art refers to religious works of art associated with Jainism. Even though Jainism has spread only in some parts of India, it has made a significant contribution to Indian art and architecture.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mahavira Jain temple, Osian</span>

The Mahavira Jain temple is built in Osian of Jodhpur District, Rajasthan. The temple is an important pilgrimage of the Oswal Jain community. This temple is the oldest surviving Jain temple in Western India and was built during the reign of Mahārāja Śrī Vatsarāja of Imperial Pratihāras. The temple is visited by both Jain and Hindu.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ahichchhatra Jain temples</span> Jain temple in the state of Uttar Pradesh

The Ahichchhatra Jain temples is a group of Jain temples in Ahichchhatra village in Aonla tehsil of Bareilly district in Uttar Pradesh, North India. Ahichchhatra is believed to be the place where Parshvanatha, the 23rd Tirthankar of Jainism, attained Kevala Jnana.