Timeline of antisemitism

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This timeline of antisemitism chronicles events in the history of antisemitism, hostile actions or discrimination against Jews as members of a religious and/or ethnic group. It includes events in Jewish history and the history of antisemitic thought, actions which were undertaken in order to counter antisemitism or alleviate its effects, and events that affected the prevalence of antisemitism in later years. The history of antisemitism can be traced from ancient times to the present day.


Some authors prefer to use the terms anti-Judaism or religious antisemitism in reference to religious sentiments against Judaism which were prevalent before the rise of racial antisemitism in the 19th century. For events which specifically pertain to expulsions and exoduses of Jews, see Jewish refugees.

Antiquity  ·Century C.E.: 1st  · 2nd  · 3rd  · 4th  · 5th  · 6th  · 7th  · 8th  · 9th  · 10th  · 11th  · 12th  · 13th  · 14th  · 15th  · 16th  · 17th  · 18th  · 19th  · 20th  · 21st


740 BCE
The Assyrian captivity (or the Assyrian exile) is the period in the history of Ancient Israel and Judah during which several thousand Israelites of ancient Samaria were resettled as captives by Assyria. The Northern Kingdom of Israel was conquered by the Neo-Assyrian Empire.
586 BCE
During the reign of King Nebuchadnezzar II, the Neo-Babylonian Empire destroys the temple in Jerusalem, and captures the Kingdom of Judah and 10,000 Jewish families.
475 BCE
Haman attempts genocide against the Jews. (Purim).
175 BCE–165 BCE
The Deuterocanonical First and Second Books of the Maccabees record that Antiochus IV Epiphanes attempts to erect a statue of Zeus in Jerusalem. The festival of Hanukkah commemorates the uprising of the Maccabees against this attempt.
139 BCE
Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Hispanus expels all Jews from the city of Rome.
124 BCE
The woman with seven sons was a Jewish martyr, described in 2 Maccabees 7 (2 Maccabees was written c. 124 BCE) and other sources. Although unnamed in 2 Maccabees, she is known variously as Hannah, [1] Miriam, [2] and Solomonia. [3] 2 Maccabees states that shortly before the revolt of Judas Maccabeus (2 Maccabees 8), Antiochus IV Epiphanes arrested a mother and her seven sons, and tried to force them to eat pork. When they refused, he tortured and killed the sons one by one. The narrator mentions that the mother "was the most remarkable of all, and deserves to be remembered with special honour. She watched her seven sons die in the space of a single day, yet she bore it bravely because she put her trust in the Lord." [4] Each of the sons makes a speech as he dies, and the last one says that his brothers are "dead under God's covenant of everlasting life". [5] The narrator ends by saying that the mother died, without saying whether she was executed, or died in some other way.

The Talmud tells a similar story, but with the refusal to worship an idol replacing the refusal to eat pork. Tractate Gittin 57b cites Rabbi Judah saying that "this refers to the woman and her seven sons" and the unnamed king is referred to as the "Emperor" and "Caesar". The woman commits suicide in this rendition of the story: she "also went up on to a roof and threw herself down and was killed". [6]

Other versions of the story are found in 4 Maccabees (which suggests that the woman might have thrown herself into the flames, 17:1) and Josippon (which says that she fell dead on her sons' corpses [1] ).

63 BCE
12,000 Jews die and many more are sent into the diaspora as a result of Pompey's conquest of the East.
59 BCE
Cicero criticizes Jews for being too influential in public assemblies. He also refers to Jews and Syrians as "races born to be slaves." [7]

First century

19 CE
Roman Emperor Tiberius expels Jews from Rome. Their expulsion is recorded by the Roman historical writers Suetonius, Josephus, and Cassius Dio.
38 CE
Thousands of Jews killed by mobs in the Alexandrian pogrom, as recounted by Philo of Alexandria in Flaccus. Synagogues are defiled, Jewish leaders are publicly scourged, and the Jewish population is confined to one quarter of the city. [8]
50 CE
Jews are ordered by Roman Emperor Claudius "not to hold meetings", in the words of Cassius Dio (Roman History, 60.6.6). Claudius later expelled Jews from Rome, according to both Suetonius ("Lives of the Twelve Caesars", Claudius, Section 25.4) and Acts 18:2.
66 CE
Under the command of Tiberius Julius Alexander, Roman soldiers killed about 50,000 Jews in the Alexandria riot.
66–73 CE
The First Jewish–Roman War against the Romans is crushed by Vespasian and Titus. Titus refuses to accept a wreath of victory, because there is "no merit in vanquishing people forsaken by their own God." (Philostratus, Vita Apollonii)[ citation needed ]. The events of this period were recorded in detail by the Jewish–Roman historian Josephus. His record is largely sympathetic to the Roman point of view and it was written in Rome under Roman protection; hence it is considered a controversial source. Josephus describes the Jewish revolt as being led by "tyrants," to the detriment of the city, and he describes Titus as having "moderation" in his escalation of the Siege of Jerusalem (70).
70 CE
Over 1,000,000 Jews perish and 97,000 are taken as slaves following the destruction of the Second Temple. [9]
73 CE
Almost all historical information on Masada is from first-century Jewish Roman historian Josephus. [10] [11] A Roman governor had a legion lay siege to Masada, a mountain fortress. [11] They built a 114 m (375 ft) high assault ramp, during probably two to three months of siege, and then breached the fortress with a battering ram on 16 April. [12] According to Josephus, presumably based upon Roman commander commentaries accessible to him, when Romans entered the fortress they found its defendants had set all buildings but food storerooms ablaze and committed mass suicide or killed each other, 960 men, women, and children in total. [11] Israel Defense Forces (IDF) Chief of staff, Moshe Dayan, began having the swearing-in ceremony of Armoured Corps soldiers on top of Masada, ending with, "Masada shall not fall again.". [10]
94 CE
Fabrications of Apion in Alexandria, Egypt, including the first recorded case of blood libel. Juvenal writes anti-Jewish poetry. Josephus picks apart contemporary and old antisemitic myths in his work Against Apion . [13]
96 CE
Titus Flavius Clemens, nephew of the Roman Emperor Vespasian and supposed convert to Judaism is put to death on charges of atheism.
100 CE
Tacitus writes anti-Jewish polemic in his Histories (book 5). He reports on several old myths of ancient antisemitism (including that of the donkey's head in the Holy of Holies), but the key to his view that Jews "regard the rest of mankind with all the hatred of enemies" is his analysis of the extreme differences between monotheistic Judaism and the polytheism common throughout the Roman world.

Second century

Thousands of Jews are killed during civil unrest in Egypt, Cyprus, and Cyrenaica, as recounted by Cassius Dio.
Roman Emperor Hadrian bans circumcision, making Judaism de facto illegal.
Crushing of the Bar Kokhba revolt. According to Cassius Dio 580,000 Jews are killed. Hadrian orders the expulsion of Jews from Judea, which is merged with Galilee in order to form the province of Syria Palaestina. Although large Jewish populations remain in Samaria and Galilee, with Tiberias as the headquarters of exiled Jewish patriarchs, this is the start of the Jewish diaspora. Hadrian constructs a pagan temple to Jupiter at the site of the Temple in Jerusalem, builds Aelia Capitolina among the ruins of Jerusalem. [14]
Hadrian renames Jerusalem to Aelia Capitolina and builds a Roman monument over the site of the Temple Mount. Jews are banned from visiting. Judea is renamed to Syria Palestina, referring to the Greek words for both the Levant as well as the region at the time.
Earliest known accusation of Jewish deicide (the notion that Jews were held responsible for the death of Jesus), made in a sermon On the Passover, attributed to Melito of Sardis.
Apollinaris the Apologist writes two books against the Jews.

Third century

Emperor Caracalla allows all Jewish men within the Roman Empire to become full Roman citizens.[ relevant? ]
The Jewish community of Nehardea is destroyed.

Fourth century

The Synod of Elvira bans intermarriage and sexual intercourse between Christians and Jews and forbides Jews and Christians from eating together. [15]
Constantine I enacts various laws regarding the Jews: Jews are not allowed to own Christian slaves or to circumcise their slaves. Conversion of Christians to Judaism is outlawed. Congregations for religious services are restricted, but Jews are also allowed to enter the restituted Jerusalem on the anniversary of the Temple's destruction.
Jews are expelled and banned from Jerusalem.
First Ecumenical Council of Nicaea. The Christian Church separates the calculation of the date of Easter from the Jewish Passover: "It was ... declared improper to follow the custom of the Jews in the celebration of this holy festival, because, their hands having been stained with crime, the minds of these wretched men are necessarily blinded.... Let us, then, have nothing in common with the Jews, who are our adversaries. ... avoiding all contact with that evil way. ... who, after having compassed the death of the Lord, being out of their minds, are guided not by sound reason, but by an unrestrained passion, wherever their innate madness carries them. ... a people so utterly depraved. ... Therefore, this irregularity must be corrected, in order that we may no more have any thing in common with those parricides and the murderers of our Lord. ... no single point in common with the perjury of the Jews." [16] [17]
Rabbah bar Nahmani is forced to flee to the forest where he dies.
Intermarriage between Christians and Jews is banned in the Roman Empire, declaring the punishment death.
Book burning of Jewish texts in Persia.[ citation needed ]
Jewish revolt against Constantius Gallus. Jews rise up against the corrupt rule of Gallus. Many towns are destroyed, thousands are killed.
Constantius II institutes a law stating that any Christian who converts to Judaism will have their property confiscated.
Roman Emperor Julian the Apostate, allows the Jews to return to "Holy Jerusalem which you have for many years longed to see rebuilt" and to rebuild the Temple.[ relevant? ]
St. Gregory of Nyssa calls Jews "murders of the Lord, assassins of the prophets, rebels and detesters of God, companions of the devils, a race of vipers."
John Chrysostom of Antioch writes eight homilies called Adversus Judaeos (lit: Against the Judaizers). See also: Christianity and antisemitism.
1 August: A Christian mob incited by the local bishop plunders and burns down a synagogue in Callinicum. Theodosius I orders that those responsible be punished, and the synagogue is rebuilt at the Christians' expense. Ambrose of Milan insists in his letter that the whole case be dropped. He interrupts the liturgy in the emperor's presence with an ultimatum that he will not continue until the case is dropped. Theodosius complies. [18]
The Western Roman Emperor Honorius calls Judaism superstitio indigna (unworthy superstition) and confiscates gold and silver collected by the synagogues for Jerusalem.

Fifth century

Roman laws pass which prohibit Jews from setting fire to Haman, stating that they are mocking Christianity.
A Jewish uprising in Alexandria claims the lives of many Christians. [19] Bishop Cyril forces his way into the synagogue, expels the Jews (some authors estimate the numbers of Jews expelled up to 100 thousand [20] [21] ) and gives their property to the mob. Later, near Antioch, Jews are accused of ritual murder during Purim. [22] Christians confiscate the synagogue. Jews call it "415 C.E. Alexandria Expulsion". [23]
An edict issued by the Emperors Honorius and Theodosius II ban building new Synagogues and converting non-Jews to Judaism.
The first record of Jews being forced to convert or face expulsion. Bishop Severus of Menorca, claimed to have forced 540 Jews to accept Christianity upon conquering the island. The synagogue in Magona, now Port Mahon the capital of Menorca, is burned.
The monk Barsauma (not to be confused with the famous Bishop of Nisibis) gathers a group of followers and for the next three years, he destroys synagogues throughout the province of Palestine.
The final nasi of the ancient Sanhedrin Gamliel VI is executed by the Roman Empire. This subsequently ended the Jewish patriarchate.
The East Roman Emperor Theodosius II orders that all funds raised by Jews to support their schools be turned over to his treasury.
Theodosius II's wife visits Jerusalem, and arranges for Jews to visit and pray at the ruins of the Temple Mount. This leads to Jews emigrating to Jerusalem, where some are killed after being stabbed and stoned by local monks. At the trial for the deaths the monks claimed that the stones fell from heaven and thus they were acquitted.
The Codex Theodosianus , the first imperial compilation of laws. Jews are prohibited from holding important positions involving money, including judicial and executive offices. The ban against building new synagogues is reinstated. The anti-Jewish statutes also apply to the Samaritans. The Code is also accepted by Western Roman Emperor, Valentinian III.
Sassanid ruler Yazdegerd II of Persia's decree abolishes the Sabbath and orders executions of Jewish leaders, including the Exilarch Mar Nuna.
Council of Vannes, Gaul prohibited the Christian clergy from participating in Jewish feasts.
Half of the Jewish population of Isfahan is put to death and their children are brought up as 'fire-worshippers' over the alleged killing of two Magi Priests.
Exilarch Huna V is executed as a result of persecution under King Peroz (Firuz) of Persia.

Sixth century

After the Jews of Babylon revolt and gain a short period of independence, the Persian King Kobad crucifies the Exilarch Mar-Zutra II on the bridge of Mahoza.
Synagogue of Daphne is destroyed and its inhabitants are massacred by a Christian mob celebrating the result of a chariot race.
Christians are banned from participating in Jewish feasts as a result of the Council of Epaone.
Ravenna, Italy. After the local synagogues were burned down by the local mob, the Ostrogothic king Theodoric the Great orders the town to rebuild them at its own expense.
Byzantine Emperor Justinian the Great publishes Corpus Juris Civilis . New laws restrict citizenship to Christians. These regulations determined the status of Jews throughout the Empire for hundreds of years: Jewish civil rights restricted: "they shall enjoy no honors". The principle of Servitus Judaeorum (Servitude of the Jews) is established: the Jews cannot testify against Christians. The emperor becomes an arbiter in internal Jewish matters.[ clarification needed ] The use of the Hebrew language in worship is forbidden. Shema Yisrael ("Hear, O Israel, the Lord is one"), sometimes considered the most important prayer in Judaism, is banned as a denial of the Trinity. Some Jewish communities are converted by force, their synagogues turned into churches.
Emperor Justinian rules that Jews cannot testify against Christians. Jewish liturgy is censored for being "anti-trinitarian."
Synagogue of Borion is closed and all Jewish practices are prohibited by order of Justinian.
The First Council of Clermont prohibits Jews from holding public office. [15]
The Third Council of Orléans forbids Jews to employ Christian servants or possess Christian slaves. Jews are prohibited from appearing in the streets during Passion Week: [15] "their appearance is an insult to Christianity". The Merovingian king Childebert approves the measure.
Jews and Samaritans of Caesarea are massacred after revolting.
In Clermont, Gaul, Bishop Avitus offers Jews a choice: accept Christianity or leave Clermont. Most emigrate to Marseilles.
The Merovingians order that all Jews of the kingdom are to be baptized.
The Council of Narbonne, Septimania, forbids Jews from chanting psalms while burying their dead. Anyone violating this law is fined 6 ounces of gold. The third Council of Toledo, held under Visigothic King Reccared, bans Jews from slave ownership and holding positions of authority, and reiterates the mutual ban on intermarriage. [24] Reccared also rules children out of such marriages to be raised as Christians.
Pope Gregory I defends the Jews against forced conversion.
The Exilarch Haninai is executed by Khosrau II for supporting Mihrevandak. This halted all forms of Jewish self-governance for over 50 years.
The entire Jewish population of Antioch is punished because a Jew violated a law. [25]
Bishop Victor of Palermo seizes the local synagogues and repurposes them into churches. [26]

Seventh century

Massacres of Jews all across the Byzantine Empire.
After many of his anti-Jewish edicts were ignored, King Sisebur prohibits Judaism in Hispania and Septimania. Those not baptized fled. This was the first incidence where a prohibition of Judaism affected an entire country.
Fifth Council of Paris decrees that all Jews holding military or civil positions must accept baptism, together with their families.
The Jewish revolt against Heraclius. The last serious attempt to gain Jewish autonomy in the Land of Israel prior to modern times.
Italy. The earliest referral to the Juramentum Judaeorum (the Jewish Oath): the concept that no heretic could be believed in court against a Christian. The oath became standardized throughout Europe in 1555.
After breaking their promise of Jewish autonomy in Jerusalem, the Persians forbid Jews from settling within three miles of the city.
Mohammed watches as 600 Jews are decapitated in Medina in one day.
The Council of Clichy declared that any Jew who accepts public office must convert.
Between 600 to 900 jewish male captives including any boys showing signs of puberty are beheaded by Muslims on Muhammed's orders, many in front of their families, and the rest of the jews are taken or sold into slavery in the Massacre of Banu Qurayza.
93 Jews are killed in the Battle of Khaybar. Among others, the 17 year old jew Safiyya bint Huyayy is enslaved by Muslims, bought by Muhammed to his bed on the very night of the day when her husband was tortured and beheaded and her family is slaughtered, and later manumitted and married to him. [27]
Byzantine Emperor Heraclius with his army marches into Jerusalem. Jewish inhabitants support him after his promise of amnesty. Upon his entry into Jerusalem the local priests convince him that killing Jews is a good deed. The only Jews that survived were the ones who fled to Egypt or the mountains.
Frankish King Dagobert I, encouraged by Byzantine Emperor Heraclius, expels all Jews from the kingdom.
The first case of officially sanctioned forced baptism. Emperor Heraclius violates the Codex Theodosianus, which protected them from forced conversions.
Jews are expelled by Caliph Umar from Arabia.
The Jews of Toledo are forced to convert or be expelled.
The Twelfth Council of Toledo enacts antisemitic laws including the burning of the Talmud and Jewish books. [15]
Visigothic king Erwig begins his reign by enacting 28 anti-Jewish laws. He presses for the "utter extirpation of the pest of the Jews" and decrees that all converts must be registered by a parish priest, who must issue travel permits. All holidays, Christian and Jewish, must be spent in the presence of a priest to ensure piety and to prevent the backsliding.
Quinisext Council in Constantinople forbids Christians on pain of excommunication to bathe in public baths with Jews, employ a Jewish doctor or socialize with Jews.
17th Council of Toledo. King Ergica believes rumors that the Jews had conspired to ally themselves with the Islamic invaders and forces Jews to give all land, slaves and buildings bought from Christians, to his treasury. He declares that all Jewish children over the age of seven should be taken from their homes and raised as Christians.

Eighth century

Caliph Omar II bans Jewish worship on the Temple Mount. [28]
Byzantine emperor Leo III forcibly converts all Jews and Montanists in the empire into mainstream Byzantine Christianity.
First Archbishop of York Ecgbert bans Christians from eating with Jews. [29]
Empress Irena decries the practice of forced conversion against Jews.
Idriss I attacks Jewish communities, imposes high per capita taxes, and forces them to provide annual virgins for his harem for refusing to attack other Jewish communities. According to Maghrebi tradition, the Jewish tribe Ubaid Allah left and settled in Djerba. [30]

Ninth century

Agobard, Archbishop of Lyons, declares in his essays that Jews are accursed and demands a complete segregation of Christians and Jews. In 826 he issues a series of pamphlets to convince Emperor Louis the Pious to attack "Jewish insolence", but fails to convince the Emperor.
Ahmad ibn Tulun flattens Jewish cemeteries and replaces them with Muslim tombs.
Basil I decrees that all Byzantine Jews are to be baptized, by force if necessary. [31]
Basil I reinforces law that prohibits Jews from holding any civil or military position in Epanagoge.
Church council in Metz forbids Christians and Jews from eating together. [32]
Charles the Simple donates all Jewish owned land to the Bishop of Narbonne. There is no recourse against the action.[ dubious ]

Tenth century

French king Charles the Simple confiscates Jewish-owned property in Narbonne and donates it to the Church.
Jews of Oria are raided by a Muslim mob during a series of attacks on Italy. At least ten rabbinical leaders and many more are taken as captives. Among those captured is 12-year-old Shabbetai Donnolo, who would go on later to be a famous physician and astronomer.
Bishop Ratherius of Verona begs the town elders to expel the Jews from the city until they agree to temporarily expel them.
Romanos I Lekapenos decreed that all Jews should be forced to convert and subjugated if they refuse. This leads to the death of hundreds of Jews and the destruction of numerous synagogues. [33]
The Jewish quarter of Bari, Italy is destroyed by a mob and a number of Jews are killed. [34]
Byzantine Jews from all over the Empire flee from persecution into Khazaria. The King of Khazaria at the time, who was Jewish, subsequently cut ties with the Byzantine Empire.
Venice bans Jews from using Venetian vessels.
Entire Jewish population of Sparta is expelled after Nikon the Metanoeite says it will rid the city of a plague. [35]
A number of Jewish residents in Barcelona are killed by the Muslim leader Almanzor. All Jewish owned land is handed over to the Count of Barcelona. [36]

Eleventh century

Caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah ("the Mad") issues severe restrictions against Jews in the Fatimid Empire. All Jews are forced to wear a heavy wooden "golden calf" around their necks. Christians had to wear a large wooden cross and members of both groups had to wear black hats.
Caliph al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah orders the destruction of synagogues, Torah scrolls and Jewish artifacts among other non-Muslim buildings. [37]
The Jews of Limoges are given the choice of baptism or exile.
The Abbasid Caliph Al-Qadir publishes the Baghdad Manifesto, which accuses the Fatimids of being descended from Jews, instead of being "family of the prophet."
A Muslim mob attacks a Jewish funeral procession, resulting in the arrest of 23 Jews. [38]
Pogrom against Sephardic Jews in Córdoba by a Muslim mob. [39]
One of the first known persecutions of Jews in Germany: Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor expels Jews from Mainz.
During the fall of the city, Sulayman's troops looted Córdoba and massacred citizens of the city, including many Jews. Prominent Jews in Córdoba, such as Samuel ibn Naghrela were forced to flee to the city in 1013.
The Jewish community of Kairouan, Tunisia is forced to choose between conversion and expulsion. [40]
A violent earthquake occurs, which some Greeks maintain is caused by a desecration of Jesus by the Jews. For this a number of Roman Jews are burnt at the stake. [41]
Probable date of the chronicle of Raoul Glaber. The French chronicler blamed the Jews for the destruction of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, which was destroyed in 1009 by Islamic Caliph Al-Hakim. As a result, Jews were expelled from Limoges and other French towns.
Abul Kamal Tumin conquers Fez, Morocco and decimates the Jewish community, massacring 6,000 Jews.
Following their conquest of the city from the Maghrawa tribe, the forces of Tamim, chief of the Zenata Berber Banu Ifran tribe, perpetrated a massacre of Jews in Fez. Fez massacre
Sixty Jews are put to death in Castrojeriz during a revolt, because the Jews were considered "property" of the kingdom by the locals. [42] [43]
A Muslim mob raids the palace of the Jewish vizier and kills him after the ruler al-Mondhir is assassinated.
Exilarch Hezekiah Gaon is imprisoned and tortured to death by the Buyyids. The death of Hezekiah ended the line of the Geonim, which had begun four centuries earlier.
Council of Narbonne, France forbids Christians to live in Jewish homes.
Granada massacre: Muslim mob stormed the royal palace in Granada, crucified Jewish vizier Joseph ibn Naghrela and massacred most of the Jewish population of the city. "More than 1,500 Jewish families, numbering 4,000 persons, fell in one day." [44]
Jerusalem falls to the Seljuk Turks, many synagogues are destroyed and life for Jews in Jerusalem becomes much more restricted.
Council of Girona decrees Jews to pay taxes for support of the Catholic Church to the same extent as Christians. [15]
The Jewish community of Granada, which had recovered after the attacks of 1066, attacked again at the hands of the Almoravides led by Yusuf ibn Tashfin, bringing the golden age of Jewish culture in Spain to end.
The Synod of Szabolcs prohibits Jews from working on Sunday [15] or marrying Christians.
The First Crusade. Three hosts of crusaders pass through several Central European cities. The third, unofficial host, led by Count Emicho, decides to attack the Jewish communities, most notably in the Rhineland, under the slogan: "Why fight Christ's enemies abroad when they are living among us?" Eimicho's host attacks the synagogue at Speyer and kills all the defenders. 800 are killed in Worms. Another 1,200 Jews commit suicide in Mainz to escape his attempt to forcibly convert them (see German Crusade, 1096), and 600 are massacred in Mainz on 27 May. [45] Attempts by the local bishops remained fruitless. All in all, 5,000 Jews were murdered. [46]
Jews fight side by side with Muslim soldiers to defend Jerusalem against the Crusaders and face massacres when it falls. [47] According to the Muslim chronicle of Ibn al-Qalanisi, "The Jews assembled in their synagogue, and the Franks burned it over their heads." [48] However, a contemporary Jewish communication does not corroborate the report that Jews were actually inside of the Synagogue when it was set on fire. [49] This letter was discovered among the Cairo Geniza collection in 1975 by historian Shelomo Dov Goitein. [50] Historians believe that it was written just two weeks after the siege, making it "the earliest account on the conquest in any language." [50] However, all sources agree that a synagogue was indeed burned during the siege.

Twelfth century

Son of Yusuf ibn Tashfin decrees the death penalty for any Jews living in Marrakesh.
Moroccan Almoravid ruler Yusuf ibn Tashfin ordered all Moroccan Jews to become muslim or leave.
Many Jews are massacred and their houses and synagogues are burned following a Muslim victory at the Battle of Uclés (1108). Of those murdered is Solomon ibn Farissol, the leader of the Castile community. This incident greatly impacted the Hebrew poet Judah HaLevi, and completely shifted the focus of his poetry.
Upon the death of Sviatopolk II, leader of the Kievan Rus', widespread riots and plundering of Jewish homes commenced. [51]
The Jewish Quarter of Kiev is destroyed by arson.
A Muslim mob in Córdoba storms into Jewish homes, takes their possessions and kills a number of them.
During the fight for succession between Matilde and Stephen (The Anarchy), the Jews of Oxford are forced to pay ransom to both sides of the conflict or their houses are to be burned.
150 Jews are killed in Ham, France. [52]
The case of William of Norwich, a contrived accusation of murder by Jews in Norwich, England.
Abd al-Mu'min gives the Jewish population of Sijilmasa the choice of converting to Islam or death. At least 150 Jews who refuse to convert are massacred.
100,000 Jews are massacred by the Almohad Caliphate in Fez, Morocco and 120,000 in Marrakesh. [53]
Jews are expelled from Arab-Islamic Spain. [54]
The mostly-Jewish town Lucena is captured by the Almohad Caliphate. The local Jews are given the choice of Islam or death. This was the end of the Jewish community of Lucena.
The rule of the Almohad Caliphate in al-Andalus. Only Jews who had converted to Christianity or Islam were allowed to live in Granada. One of the refugees was Maimonides, who settled in Fez and later in Fustat near Cairo.
Appalled by the annual practice of beating Jews during Palm Sunday, Bishop William issues an order which would excommunicate any priest who continues the practice. [55]
Forced mass conversions of jews to Islam in Yemen.
New Almohad ruler decrees that all Jews in Fez must convert to Islam or face death. Judah ha-Kohen ibn Shushan is burnt alive for refusing, and famous Rabbi Maimonides is displaced and permanently leaves for Egypt. [56]
Harold of Gloucester is found floating in a river. The local Benedictine monks use the discovery to claim that "the child had been spirited away by the Jews on the 21st February for them to torture him to death on the night of 16th March". It established that the mythology created around William's death could be used as a template for explaining later deaths.
In Blois, France 31 Jews were burned at the stake for blood libel.
Jews of Bologna are expelled for no known reason. [57]
Following multiple church-inspired riots against the Jews of Poland, Mieszko III forbids all kinds of violence against the Jews.
King Alfonso II, Spain, creates a charter which defines the status of Jews in Teruel. Jews are defined as "slaves of the king, belonging entirely to the royal treasury." The fee for killing a Jew is half of what the fee is for killing a Christian, and is to be paid directly to the king (since Jews are considered property of the crown).
The Third Lateran Council, Canon 26, forbids Jews to be plaintiffs or witnesses against Christians in the courts or withhold inheritance from descendants who had accepted Christianity. [15]
The body of a Christian girl is found near the shore. The Jews of Boppard are blamed for her death, resulting in 13 Jews being murdered.
Philip Augustus of France after four months in power, imprisons all the Jews in his lands and demands a ransom for their release.
Philip Augustus annuls all loans made by Jews to Christians and takes a percentage for himself. A year later, he confiscates all Jewish property and expels the Jews from Paris.
The Assize of Arms of 1181 orders that all weapons held by Jews must be confiscated, claiming they have no use for them. This led to the Jewish community of England being a lot more vulnerable during Anti-Jewish riots.
Jews are expelled from Orléans.
Jewish martyr Elhanan, the son of Ri is murdered for refusing to convert. [58]
Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa orders priests not to preach against Jews.
A Jewish deputation attending coronation of Richard the Lionheart was attacked by the crowd. Pogroms in London followed and spread around England.
All the Jews of Norwich, England found in their houses were slaughtered, except a few who found refuge in the castle.
57 Jews in St. Edmunds are killed in a massacre on Palm Sunday. [59]
500 Jews of York were massacred after a six-day siege by departing Crusaders, backed by a number of people indebted to Jewish money-lenders. [60]
Saladdin takes over Jerusalem from Crusaders and lifts the ban for Jews to live there.
More than 80 Jews in Bray-sur-Seine are burned at the stake after trying to execute a murderer who had killed an Israelite. [61]
After falsely being accused of ritual murder with no evidence, the daughter of Rabbi Isaac bar Asher ha-Levi is murdered, dismembered and her body parts are hung around the market place for days. Ha-Levi was killed the following day along with 8 other Jews after trying to recover what was left of his daughter's body from the mob.
In an attempt to isolate the Jewish population economically, Christians were barred from buying food from Jews or having conversations with them under the threat of excommunication. [62]
Philip Augustus readmits Jews to Paris, only after another ransom was paid and a taxation scheme was set up to procure funds for himself. August: Saladdin's nephew al-Malik, caliph of Yemen, summons all the Jews and forcibly converts them.

Thirteenth century

Judensau at the Cathedral of St. Peter in Regensburg Regensburger Dom Judensau 2004.jpg
Judensau at the Cathedral of St. Peter in Regensburg
13th century
Germany. Appearance of Judensau : obscene and dehumanizing imagery of Jews, ranging from etchings to Cathedral ceilings. Its popularity lasted for over 600 years.
Jewish quarter of Constantinople is burned down by crusaders during the Siege of Constantinople (1203).
In 1204 the papacy required Jews to segregate themselves from Christians and to wear distinctive clothing. [63]
Jews are expelled from villages and towns all around Spain by Muslims. [64]
Jewish homes are burned, looted, Israelites are killed and the remaining Jewish population of Halle is expelled. [65]
Béziers is stormed and its inhabitants are massacred. Among those were 200 Jews. All Jewish children who survived and didn't flee were forcibly baptized. [66]
Raymond VI, Count of Toulouse, humiliated and forced to swear that he would implement social restrictions against Jews.
King John of England imprisoned much of the Jewish population until they paid up 66,000 marks.
Forced conversions and mass murder of the Jewish community of Toledo.
The Fourth Lateran Council headed by Pope Innocent III declares: "Jews and Saracens of both sexes in every Christian province and at all times shall be marked off in the eyes of the public from other peoples through the character of their dress." (Canon 68). See Judenhut. The Fourth Lateran Council also noted that the Jews' own law required the wearing of identifying symbols. Pope Innocent III also reiterated papal injunctions against forcible conversions, and added: "No Christian shall do the Jews any personal injury...or deprive them of their possessions...or disturb them during the celebration of their festivals...or extort money from them by threatening to exhume their dead." [67]
French noblewoman Alix de Montmorency imprisons the Jewish population of Toulouse for refusing to convert. She eventually released them all except for children under six, who were taken and adopted by Christians.
An anti-Jewish riot erupts in Erfurt, where the Jewish quarter is destroyed along with two synagogues. Around 26 Jews are killed, and others throw themselves into fire rather than be forcibly converted. Samuel of Speyer was among those martyred. [68]
Council of Oxford: Archbishop of Canterbury Stephen Langton forbids Jews from building new synagogues, [69] owning slaves or mixing with Christians.
Louis VIII of France prohibits his officials from recording debts owed to Jews, reversing his father's policy of seeking such debts.
The Synod of Narbonne reaffirms the anti-Semitic decrees of the Fourth Lateran Council.
Raymond VII, Count of Toulouse, heir of Raymond VI, also forced to swear that he would implement social restrictions against Jews.
Treaty of Jaffa is signed between Frederick II and the Sultan Al-Kamil of Egypt. Jews are once again banned from residing in Jerusalem.
Theodore Komnenos Doukas is defeated. Since Theodore decreed many anti-Jewish laws and seized Jewish property, he was handed over to two Jews by John Asen II to personally kill him. After having pity on him and refusing to kill Theodore, the Czar had the Jews thrown off a cliff.
Forced mass conversions in Marrakesh, over 1,000 Moroccan Jews are killed.
The Jews of Fulda, Germany were accused of ritual murder. To investigate the blood libel, Emperor Frederick II held a special conference of Jewish converts to Christianity at which the converts were questioned about Jewish ritual practice. Letters inviting prominent individuals to the conference still survive. At the conference, the converts stated unequivocally that Jews do not harm Christian children or require blood for any rituals. In 1236 the Emperor published these findings and in 1247 Pope Innocent IV, the Emperor's enemy, also denounced accusations of the ritual murder of Christian children by Jews. In 1272, the papal repudiation of the blood libel was repeated by Pope Gregory X, who also ruled that thereafter any such testimony of a Christian against a Jew could not be accepted unless it is confirmed by another Jew. Unfortunately, these proclamations from the highest sources were not effective in altering the beliefs of the Christian majority and the libels continued. [70]
Crusaders attack Jewish communities of Anjou and Poitou and attempt to baptize all the Jews. Those who resisted (est. 3,000) were slaughtered.
A Jew and a Christian fisherman get into a heated argument about prices, which turns physical. It ends when the Jew deals a devastating blow to the Gentile's head which leads to his death. This enrages the local Christian population, who attack the Jewish quarter of Narbonne. Don Aymeric, the governor of Narbonne prevents a massacre and restores all stolen Jewish property to their rightful owner. [71] [72]
Duke Jean le Roux expels Jews from Brittany.
Disputation of Paris. Pope Gregory IX puts Talmud on trial on the charges that it contains blasphemy against Jesus and Mary and attacks on the Church.
A pogrom against the Jews of Frankfurt takes place after conflicts over Jewish-Christian marriages and the enforced baptism of interfaith couples. 180 Jews are killed as a result and 24 agree to be baptized. This became known as the Judenschlacht (German for Slaughter of the Jews).
In England, first of a series of royal levies against Jewish finances, which forced the Jews to sell their debts to non-Jews at cut prices. [73]
Following a show trial, the Talmud is "convicted" of corrupting the Jews. 24 cart-loads of hand-written Talmudic manuscripts, some 10,000 volumes and comprising most of the extant volumes in France, are burned in the streets of Paris.
James I of Aragon orders Jews to listen to conversion sermons and to attend churches. Friars are given power to enter synagogues uninvited.
The first ever accusation of Host Desecration. The entire Jewish population of Beelitz was burned at the stake after being accused of torturing Jesus and the spot it happened was named "Judenberg."
11 Jews are tortured to death following a blood libel in Kitzingen Germany. [74]
Pope Innocent IV orders Louis IX of France to burn all Talmud copies.
Alphonse of Poitiers orders the expulsion of all Jews in Poitou.
Saragossa Spain: death of a choirboy Saint Dominguito del Val prompts ritual murder accusation. His sainthood was revoked in the 20th century but reportedly a chapel dedicated to him still exists in the Cathedral of Saragossa.
Henry III of England introduces harsh anti-Jewish laws. [75]
Louis IX expels the Jews from France, their property and synagogues confiscated. Most move to Germany and further east, however, after a couple of years, some were readmitted back.
Henry III of England sells his rights to the Jews (regarded as royal "chattels") to his brother Richard for 5,000 marks.
The Badge of shame is imposed locally on the Italian Jews.
Mongols are defeated and Syria is brought under Mamluk rule. Anti-Jewish laws are once again decreed, and Jewish life becomes a lot more restricted in the Levant.
Jews are banned from ascending above the 7th step on the Cave of the Patriarchs. This ban would last 700 years.
Thomas Aquinas publishes Summa Contra Gentiles , a summary of Christian faith to be presented to those who reject it. The Jews who refuse to convert are regarded as "deliberately defiant" rather than "invincibly ignorant".
Disputation of Barcelona.
Pope Clement IV assigns Talmud censorship committee.
Simon de Montfort inspires massacre of Jews in London. [76]
German-Jewish convert Abraham of Augsburg publicly assails Christianity, severs the heads of crucifix figurines and is sentenced to torture and death by burning.
In a special session, the Vienna city council forces Jews to wear Pileum cornutum (a cone-shaped headdress, prevalent in many medieval illustrations of Jews). This distinctive dress is an addition to Yellow badge Jews were already forced to wear.
The Synod of Vienna forbids Christians from attending Jewish ceremonies, and Jews from debating with "simple Christian people" about the beliefs of the Catholic religion. [69]
The Synod of Breslau orders Jews to live in a segregated quarter. [69]
After an accusation from an old woman that the Jews had bought a Christian child from her to kill, the entire Jewish community of Pforzheim face massacres and expulsion. Rabbi Samuel ben Yaḳar ha-Levi, Rabbi Isaac ben Eliezer and Rabbi Abraham ben Gershom commit suicide to escape the cruel torture they feared.
King Edward I of England passes the Statute of the Jewry forcing Jews over the age of seven to wear an identifying yellow badge, and making usury illegal, in order to seize their assets. Scores of English Jews are arrested, 300 hanged and their property goes to the Crown. In 1280 he orders Jews to be present as Dominicans preach conversion. In 1287 he arrests heads of Jewish families and demands their communities pay ransom of 12,000 pounds.
Massacre in Fez to kill all Jews stopped by intervention of the Emir [77]
The Edict of Pope Nicholas III requires compulsory attendance of Jews at conversion sermons.
The Synod of Ofen forbids Christians to sell or rent real estate to or from Jews. [69]
John Pectin, Archbishop of Canterbury, orders all London synagogues to close and prohibits Jewish physicians from practicing on Christians.
Philip III of France causes mass migration of Jews by forbidding them to live in the small rural localities.
10 Jews are slain in Mainz after claims of blood libel. [78]
Blood libel in Munich, Germany results in the death of 68 Jews. 180 more Jews are burned alive at the synagogue.
A 16-year-old boy is found dead in the Rhine. Immediately the Jews of Oberwesel are accused of killing the boy. Over 40 men, women and children were killed by rioters as a response.
Jews are arrested and accused of coin clippage. Even without evidence, the whole community is convicted and expelled.
The Jewish population of Troyes is accused of ritual murder. 13 Jewish martyrs are burned at the stake, sacrificing themselves to spare the rest of the community. [79]
104 Jews in Bonn, Germany are killed during a pogrom. [80]
Jews are expelled from Gascony and Anjou.
Edict of Expulsion: Edward I expels all Jews from England, allowing them to take only what they could carry, all the other property became the Crown's. Official reason: continued practice of usury.
A Jewish man named Jonathan and his wife are accused of stabbing the wafer to torture Jesus. They are both burned at the stake, their house is destroyed and replaced with a chapel. [81]
The Jews of Baghdad are massacred.
18 July Edward I of England issues Edict of Expulsion, decreeing all Jews to be expelled from England.
Philip the Fair publishes an ordinance prohibiting the Jews to settle in France.
Jewish physician and grand vizier Sa'ad al-Dawla is killed by Muslims who felt it a degradation to have a Jew placed over them. Persian Jews suffer a long-period of violent persecution by the Muslim population.
Forced conversion and expulsion of the Italian Jewish community.
Accusations of Host desecration against the German Jews. More than 140 Jewish communities face forced conversions.
During the civil war between Adolph of Nassau and Albrecht of Austria, German knight Rintfleisch claims to have received a mission from heaven to exterminate "the accursed race of the Jews". Under his leadership, the mob goes from town to town destroying Jewish communities and massacring about 100,000 Jews, often by mass burning at stake. Among 146 localities in Franconia, Bavaria and Austria are Röttingen (20 April), Würzburg (24 July), Nuremberg (1 August). [82]

Fourteenth century

Riots break out in Egypt, which are encouraged by the Mamluks. Many Jews are forcibly converted to Islam, including the entire Jewish population of Bilbeis. Many synagogues are appropriated into mosques. [83]
Philip IV of France seizes all Jewish property (except the clothes they wear) and expels them from France (approx. 100,000). His successor Louis X of France allows French Jews to return in 1315.
Jews of Sens, Yonne department of France, are expelled. This was the third and final expulsion (after those in 876 and 1198). [84]
Jews expelled from Castelsarrasin, France. [85]
The Synod of Mainz defines the adoption of Judaism by a Christian or the return of a baptized Jew to Judaism as heresy subject to punishment. [69]
Frederick II of Aragon adopts anti-Jewish laws, which require them to mark their clothes and shops with the yellow badge. Jews were also forbidden from having any relationship with Catholics.
Rashid-al-Din Hamadani, a Persian Jewish convert to Islam was executed on fake charges of poisoning Öljeitü and for several days crowds carried his head around his native city of Tabriz, chanting "This is the head of the Jew who abused the name of God; may God's curse be upon him!"
Jews are expelled from Breslau. [86]
Jews are expelled from Milan during a persecution of so-called heretics. [87]
152 Jews massacred in Castelsarrasin, France. [88]
Shepherds' Crusade attacks the Jews of 120 localities in southwest France.
King Henry II of Castile forces Jews to wear Yellow badge.
Jews in central France accused of ordering lepers to poison wells. After massacre of est. 5,000 Jews, King Philip V admits they were innocent.
A Muslim mob destroys a synagogue in Damascus. [89]
King Charles IV expels Jews from France.
5,000 Jews are massacred and their houses are burned down following anti-Jewish preaching by a Franciscan friar.
Jewish martyr Aaron ben Zerah, along with his wife and four of his sons are executed.
Forced mass conversions in Baghdad
Persecutions against Jews in Franconia and Alsace led by lawless German bands, the Armleder under the highwayman Arnold von Uissigheim. Roughly 1500 Jews are killed.
The Aleinu prayer is banned in Castile. [90]
Host desecration accusations. Violence spreads to over 51 Jewish communities.
Pogroms over host desecration in Wolfsberg. The Jews are accused of stealing the bread of the Eucharist and trying to burn it. Over 70 Jews are burned at the stake and the entire Jewish community is destroyed. [91]
Pre-Easter massacres spread from Germany across Western Europe. Jews fleeing persecution are welcomed in Poland by Casimir the Great.
The citizens ask the King's permission to confiscate the houses of the Jews for the cities benefit – he grants their request. [92]
European Jews are blamed for the plague in the Black Death persecutions. Charge laid to the Jews that they poisoned the wells. Massacres spread throughout Spain, France, Germany and Austria. More than 200 Jewish communities destroyed by violence. Many communities have been expelled and settle down in Poland.
Basel: 600 Jews burned at the stake, 140 children forcibly baptized, the remaining city's Jews expelled. The city synagogue is turned into a church and the Jewish cemetery is destroyed.
1349 burning of Jews (from a European chronicle written on the Black Death between 1349 and 1352) Doutielt1.jpg
1349 burning of Jews (from a European chronicle written on the Black Death between 1349 and 1352)
The Erfurt massacre was a massacre of around 3,000 Jews as a result of Black Death Jewish persecutions
The entire Jewish population of Speyer is destroyed. All Jews are either killed, converted, or fled. All their property and assets was confiscated. Part of the Black Death Jewish persecutions.
600 Jews are burned at the stake and the entire Jewish community of Zurich is annihilated as a part of the Black Death Jewish persecutions.
The Jewish community of Worms is completely destroyed as a result of the Black Death Jewish persecutions. Hundreds of Jews set fire to their homes to avoid the oncoming torture. Their property was seized by the locals.
Jews of Berlin are expelled and many are killed as a part of the Black Death Jewish persecutions. [93]
Jews of Breslau are expelled as part of the Black Death Jewish persecutions. [86]
60 Jews are murdered in Breslau. The city claims all property and synagogues, while the Emperor was given the cemetery and all Jewish debts.
The Jewish quarter of Cologne is destroyed by an angry mob, and the most of the community is killed. All of their property was split up between the ransackers. It was part of the Black Death Jewish persecutions. [94]
The Strasbourg massacre was a part of the Black Death persecutions, where several hundred Jews were publicly burned to death, and the rest of them were expelled. It was one of the first and worst pogroms in pre-modern history.
24 August 1349
6,000 Jews are burned to death in Mainz as a part of the Black Death Jewish persecutions. When the angry mob charged, the Jews initially fought back, killing around 200 of their attackers. [95] [96]
Brussels Jewish community is decimated after they are blamed for the Plague.
Church officials order the expulsion of Jews from Bulgaria for "heretical activity."
12,000 Jews are massacred throughout Spain following a bloody civil war.
Charles V of France allows Jews to return for a period of 20 years in order to pay ransom for his father John II of France, imprisoned in England. The period is later extended beyond the 20 years.
Jews are expelled from Breslau. [86]
Furious with a pogrom against Castilian Jews in Miranda de Ebro, Peter of Castile publicly boils one of the perpetrators, roasts another, and executes others with an axe.
Sephardic Jew Samuel ben Meir Abulafia is arrested and tortured to death in prison for no apparent reason. His lands are confiscated by the king. [97]
Jews of Lorraine are expelled after their presence is cited as the cause of lightning strikes which destroyed twenty-two houses.
Host desecration trials are held against the Jews of Barcelona. They were initiated by the crown prince Don Juan of Aragon.
Some 6,000 Jews are killed during a siege in Toledo.
1368 The Synod of Lavour prohibits the sale or transfer of Church property to Jews. [69]
The entire Jewish population of Brussels is massacred over allegations of host desecration. It was an end of the Hebrew community in Brussels. The event was commemorated by local Christians as the Sacrament of Miracle.
Jews are expelled from Hungary. Most of them flee south into Greece and neighboring areas. [98]
Another Host desecration trial is held against Jews in Teruel and Huesca. The person behind it, as with the previous trial, is the crown prince Don Juan of Aragon. Many Jews are tortured and burned alive publicly. [99]
16 Jews are murdered in the Mailotin Riots.
200 Jews are killed in Noerdlingen and the community ceases to exist. [100]
Wenceslaus, Holy Roman Emperor, expels the Jews from the Swabian League and Strasbourg and confiscates their property.
John of Castile reinforces previous anti-Jewish legislation.
All Jews in the Swabian League are arrested, and their books are confiscated.
18 March, a Jewish boy is accused of plotting against a priest. The mob slaughters approx. 3,000 of Prague's Jews, destroys the city's synagogue and Jewish cemetery. Wenceslaus insists that the responsibility lay with the Jews for going outside during Holy Week.
Anti-Jewish riots led by Ferrand Martinez erupt in Seville.
Led by Ferrand Martinez, countless massacres devastate the Sephardic Jewish community, especially in Castile, Valencia, Catalonia and Aragon. The Jewish quarter in Barcelona is completely destroyed. By the end of the pogroms, at least 10,000 Jews are murdered and thousands more are forcibly converted.
Pogrom against the Jews of Toledo on the Seventeenth of Tammuz. Jewish martyrs Israel Alnaqua and Judah ben Asher died at the stake together.
Over 250 Jews are massacred by a mob in Valencia.
All Jewish inhabitants of Palma, Majorca are either converted or killed.
More than 400 Jews are massacred in Barcelona.
The Jews of Damascus are accused by Muslims of setting fire to the central mosque. Although there was no evidence presented, one Jew was burned alive, the leaders of the community were tortured, and the local synagogue was appropriated into a mosque. [89]
Sicilian Jews are forced to live in Ghettos and severe persecution breaks out in Erice, Catania and Syracuse. [101]
3 November, Charles VI of France expels all Jews from France.
Jewish ghettos across Slovenia are set on fire by an anonymous mob.
A Christian woman is accused of stealing hosts and giving them to Jews for the purpose of desecration. Thirteen members of the Jewish community of Posen, along with the woman are all tortured and burned alive slowly. The community is then forced to pay a special tax every year until the 18th century.
80 Jews are murdered in Prague after a converted Jew named Peter accuses them of denigrating Christianity. A number of Jews are also jailed, including Yom-Tov Lipmann-Muhlhausen.

Fifteenth century

Two Jews are burned to death for an alleged host desecration in Glogau. [102]
Many members of the Jewish community of Salzburg and Hallein is burned alive on charged of host desecration. [99]
Blood libel accusations against the Jews of Kraków led by a fanatic priest result in anti-Jewish riots.
Oppressive legislation against Jews in Spain as an outcome of the preaching of the Dominican friar Vicente Ferrer.
Disputation of Tortosa, Spain, staged by the Avignon Pope Benedict XIII, is followed by forced mass conversions.
All Jews living in Trier are expelled.
All Jews are expelled from Lyons.
Persecutions of Jews in Vienna, known as Wiener Gesera (Vienna Edict), confiscation of their possessions, and forced conversion of Jewish children. 270 Jews burned at stake.
All Viennese Jews are expelled following persecution.
Pope Martin V issues a Bull reminding Christians that Christianity was derived from Judaism and warns the friars not to incite against the Jews. The Bull was withdrawn the following year on allegations that the Jews of Rome attained it by fraud.
The Jewish population of Zurich is exiled. [103]
Jews are expelled and banned from Cologne.
Jews are expelled from Iglau after they are accused of being in league with the Hussites. [104]
All Jews living in Bern are expelled and their property is seized. [105]
Jews are expelled from Fribourg. [106]
Pogrom in Aix-en-Provence breaks out in which 9 Jews are killed, many more are injured and 74 are forcibly converted. [107]
Council of Basel, Sessio XIX, forbids Jews to obtain academic degrees and to act as agents in the conclusion of contracts between Christians. [69]
Massacre and forced conversion of Majorcan Jews.
Jews are expelled from Speyer "forever."
Jews of Zurich are expelled. [103]
Jewish inhabitants of Augsburg and Düsseldorf are expelled.
Establishment of mellahs (ghettos) in Morocco.
Synagogues and other Jewish buildings are destroyed by a riot of Glogau. [102]
Jews are expelled from Upper Bavaria. [108]
Jewish population of Utrecht are expelled. [109]
Casimir IV renews all the rights of Jews of Poland and makes his charter one of the most liberal in Europe. He revokes it in 1454 at the insistence of Bishop Zbigniew.
The Statute of Toledo introduces the rule of purity of blood discriminating Conversos. Pope Nicholas V condemns it.
Louis IX, Duke of Bavaria expels all Jews who reject baptism.
Around 40 Jews in Breslau are burned at the stake on charges of host desecration, while the head Rabbi hung himself to avoid the torture. Jewish children under 7 were stolen and forcibly baptized. The few Jews remaining were banished from Breslau. [110]
Pope Caliextus III issues a papal bull which prohibits Jews from testifying against Christians, but permits Christians to testify against a Jew.
The city council of Erfurt, Germany votes to expel the Jews.
Pope Nicholas V authorizes the establishment of the Inquisition to investigate heresy among the Marranos. See also Crypto-Judaism.
The Moroccan revolt against the Marinid dynasty, accusations against one Jewish Vizier lead to a massacre of the entire Jewish population of Fes.
Over 30 Jews in Cracow are killed by an angry mob. [111]
Many Jewish homes and plundered and a number are killed during anti-Jewish in Posen. [112]
Sultan Qaitbay forces Jews of Cairo to pay 75,000 gold pieces or be expelled. This severely impoverished the local Jewish community. [113]
The Jewish community of Bavaria are expelled, many migrate into Bulgaria. [114]
Massacres of Marranos of Valladolid, Cordova, Segovia, Ciudad Real, Spain
On Assumption day 15 August 1474, Christians wreaked brutal havoc on the Jewish dwellers of the Cartellone area of Modica. It was the first and most horrible massacre of Sicilian Jews. During the evening a number of Christians slaughtered about 360 Jews causing a total and fierce devastation in La Giudecca. They ran through the streets chanting: "Hurrah for Mary! Death to the Jews!" (Viva Maria! Morte ai Giudei!).
Simon of Trent blood libel. Illustration in Hartmann Schedel's Weltchronik, 1493 Schedel judenfeindlichkeit.jpg
Simon of Trent blood libel. Illustration in Hartmann Schedel's Weltchronik, 1493
A student of the preacher Giovanni da Capistrano, Franciscan Bernardine of Feltre, accuses the Jews in murdering an infant, Simon. The entire community is arrested, 15 leaders are burned at the stake, the rest are expelled. In 1588, Pope Sixtus V confirmed Simon's cultus. Saint Simon was considered a martyr and patron of kidnap and torture victims for almost 500 years. In 1965, Pope Paul VI declared the episode a fraud, and decanonized Simon's sainthood.
Jews of Passau are expelled. [108]
The Spanish Inquisition is instituted.
Pogrom against the Jewish section of Arles. A number of Jews are killed and 50 men are forced to convert.
Bishop Gennady exposes the heresy of Zhidovstvuyushchiye (Judaizers) in Eastern Orthodoxy of Muscovy.
Tomás de Torquemada burns 6,000 volumes of Jewish manuscripts in Salamanca.
Jews are expelled from Geneva and not allowed to return for over 300 years.
The blood libel in La Guardia, Spain, where the alleged victim Holy Child of La Guardia became revered as a saint.
Muhammad al-Maghili orders the expulsion and murder of the Jewish community in Tlemcen.
The Jewish population of Tuat is massacred in a pogrom inspired by the preacher al-Maghili. [115]
Ferdinand II and Isabella issue General Edict on the Expulsion of the Jews from Spain: approx. 200,000. Some return to the Land of Israel. As many localities and entire countries expel their Jewish citizens (after robbing them), and others deny them entrance, the legend of the Wandering Jew, a condemned harbinger of calamity, gains popularity.
Jews of Mecklenburg, Germany are accused of stabbing a consecrated wafer. 27 Jews are burned, including two women. The spot is still called the Judenberg. All the Jews are expelled from the Duchy.
Askia Mohammad I decrees that all Jews must convert to Islam, leave or be killed. Judaism becomes illegal in Mali. This was based on the advice of Muhammad al-Maghili. The region of Timbuktu had previously been tolerant of other religions before Askia got into power.
John II of Portugal deports several hundred Jewish children to the colony of São Tomé, where most of them die.
Expulsion from Sicily: approx. 37,000.
16 Jews are burned at the stake after a blood libel in Trnava.
After a fire destroys the Jewish quarter of Cracow, the Polish king Jan I Olbracht transfers the Jews to Kazimierz, which would become the first Polish ghetto. Jews were confined to the ghetto until 1868.
Jews in Lithuania are expelled and their property is seized. They were allowed to return 8 years later. [116]
The Jews of Lecce are massacred and the Jewish quarter is burned to the ground.
The French conquer Naples and persecute the local Jews.
Jews living in Styria are expelled and all their property is confiscated. [117]
Forced conversion and expulsion of Jews from Portugal. This included many who fled Spain four years earlier.
Entire Jewish community of Graz is expelled.
Manuel I of Portugal decrees that all Jews must convert or leave Portugal without their children.
Prince Alexander of Lithuania forces most of the Jews to forfeit their property or convert. The main motivation is to cancel the debts the nobles owe to the Jews. Within a short time trade grinds to a halt and the Prince invites the Jews back in.
French Jews are expelled from most of France.
Jews of Nuremberg are expelled.
Jews are banished from Verona. The Jews who were money lenders were replaced with Christian usurers who oppressed the poor so bad that the Jews were very shortly called to return. [118]
All New Christians are prohibited from leaving Portugal, even those who were forcibly baptized. [119]

Sixteenth century

Jews from Worms, Germany wear the mandatory yellow badge. A moneybag and garlic in the hands are an antisemitic stereotype (sixteenth-century drawing). Wormsjews.jpg
Jews from Worms, Germany wear the mandatory yellow badge. A moneybag and garlic in the hands are an antisemitic stereotype (sixteenth-century drawing).
French Jews living in Provence are expelled.
Jews living in Pilsen are expelled on charges of host desecration. [120]
Several Jewish scholars are burned at the stake for proselytizing in Moscow. [121]
Ten České Budějovice Jews are tortured and executed after being accused of killing a Christian girl; later, on his deathbed, a shepherd confesses to fabricating the accusation.
A marrano expresses his doubts about miracle visions at St. Dominics Church in Lisbon, Portugal. The crowd, led by Dominican friars, kills him, then ransacks Jewish houses and slaughters any Jew they could find. The countrymen hear about the massacre and join in. Over 2,000 marranos killed in three days.
A converted Jew Johannes Pfefferkorn receives authority of Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor to destroy the Talmud and other Jewish religious books, except the Hebrew Bible, in Frankfurt.
Forty Jews are executed in Brandenburg, Germany for allegedly desecrating the host; remainder expelled. 23 November. Less-wealthy Jews expelled from Naples; remainder heavily taxed. 38 Jews burned at the stake in Berlin.
Spanish gain control of Calabria and expel all Jews and New Christians. [122]
Spain gains control of Naples and expels the Jewish population.
The officials of Conegliano try to expel the Jewish population but are unsuccessful. [123]
Eight Roman Catholic converts from Judaism burned at the stake for allegedly reverting.
Most Apulian Jews are either expelled or are tortured to death. Jewish property is seized and Synagogues are replaced with Catholic Churches.
The Jewish population of Mittelberg is accused of host desecration.
Jews are expelled from Laibach. [124]
Jews are expelled from the city of Genoa, but are allowed back in a year later. [125]
Emperor Maximillian expels Jews from Ljubljana. [126]
The first ghetto is established, on one of the islands in Venice.
1517 Hebron attacks: Jews are beaten, raped and killed in Hebron, as their homes and businesses are looted and pillaged.
1517 Safed attacks: The Jews of Safed is attacked by Mamluk forces and local Arabs. Many Jews are killed and their homes are plundered.
The Jewish community of Ratisbon is expelled. The synagogue is destroyed and replaced with a chapel. Thousands of Jewish gravestones are taken and used for buildings.
Martin Luther leads Protestant Reformation and challenges the doctrine of Servitus Judaeorum "... to deal kindly with the Jews and to instruct them to come over to us". 21 February. All Jews expelled from Ratisbon/Regensburg.
Pope Leo X allows the Jews to print the Talmud in Venice.
The conquest of Cranganore by the Portuguese leads to the complete destruction of the local Jewish community. Most refugees fled to Cochin. [127]
Mexico bans immigration from those who can't prove four generations of Catholic ancestry. [128]
Jews are expelled from Hungary, Croatia, and Slovakia following the Battle of Mohács.
Jews are ordered to leave Florence, but the edict is soon rescinded.
Three judaizers are burned at the stake in Mexico City's first auto da fe.
30 Jewish men, women, and children are burned at the stake in Pezinok. [129]
Solomon Molcho is burned at the stake for refusing to return to Catholicism after reverting to Judaism.
After Spanish troops capture Tunis all the local Jews are sold into slavery.
Jews are expelled from Nauheim. [130]
Katarzyna Weiglowa, a Roman Catholic woman from the Kingdom of Poland who converted to Judaism is burned at the stake in Kraków under the charge of apostasy for refusing to call Jesus Christ the Son of God. She is regarded by Jews (among others) as a martyr.
All Jews are banished from Prague.
Moses Fishel of Cracow is accused of proselytizing and dies a martyr.
Jews are exiled from Basel. [131]
Jeronimo Diaz, a New Christian physician, is burned at the stake for holding heretical opinions in Goa, India. [132]
Bookcover of On the Jews and Their Lies 1543 On the Jews and Their Lies by Martin Luther.jpg
Bookcover of On the Jews and Their Lies
In his pamphlet On the Jews and Their Lies Martin Luther advocates an eight-point plan to get rid of the Jews as a distinct group either by religious conversion or by expulsion:
"...set fire to their synagogues or schools..."
"...their houses also be razed and destroyed..."
"...their prayer books and Talmudic writings... be taken from them..."
"...their rabbis be forbidden to teach henceforth on pain of loss of life and limb..."
"...safe-conduct on the highways be abolished completely for the Jews..."
"...usury be prohibited to them, and that all cash and treasure of silver and gold be taken from them..." and "Such money should now be used in ... the following [way]... Whenever a Jew is sincerely converted, he should be handed [certain amount]..."
"...young, strong Jews and Jewesses [should]... earn their bread in the sweat of their brow..."
"If we wish to wash our hands of the Jews' blasphemy and not share in their guilt, we have to part company with them. They must be driven from our country" and "we must drive them out like mad dogs."
Luther "got the Jews expelled from Saxony in 1537, and in the 1540s he drove them from many German towns; he tried unsuccessfully to get the elector to expel them from Brandenburg in 1543. His followers continued to agitate against the Jews there: they sacked the Berlin synagogue in 1572 and the following year finally got their way, the Jews being banned from the entire country." [133] (See also Martin Luther and the Jews)
Martin Luther's sermon Admonition against the Jews contains accusations of ritual murder, black magic, and poisoning of wells. Luther recognizes no obligation to protect the Jews.
Ivan the Terrible becomes ruler of Russia and refuses to allow Jews to live in or even enter his kingdom because they "bring about great evil" (quoting his response to request by Polish king Sigismund II).
10 out of the 30 Jews living in Asolo are killed and their houses are robbed. [134]
Dr. Joseph Hacohen is chased out of Genoa for practicing medicine; soon all Jews are expelled.
Pope Julius III forbids Talmud printing and orders burning of any copy found. Rome's Inquisitor-General, Cardinal Carafa (later Pope Paul IV) has Talmud publicly burnt in Rome on Rosh Hashanah, starting a wave of Talmud burning throughout Italy. About 12,000 copies were destroyed.
Cornelio da Montalcino, a Franciscan Friar who converted to Judaism, is burned alive in Rome.
In Papal Bull Cum nimis absurdum , Pope Paul IV writes: "It appears utterly absurd and impermissible that the Jews, whom God has condemned to eternal slavery for their guilt, should enjoy our Christian love." He renews anti-Jewish legislation and installs a locked nightly ghetto in Rome. The Bull also forces Jewish males to wear a yellow hat, females – yellow kerchief. Owning real estate or practicing medicine on Christians is forbidden. It also limits Jewish communities to only one synagogue.
The Martyrs of 1555. 25 Jews in Ancona are hung or burned at the stake for refusing to convert to Christianity as a result of Pope Paul IV's Bull of 1555.
A rumor is sent around that a poor woman in Sokhachev named Dorothy sold Jews the holy wafer received by her during communion, and that it was stabbed until it bled. The Bishop of Khelm accuses the local Jews, and eventually three Jews along with Dorothy Lazhentzka are arrested, put on the rack, and sentenced to death on charges of host desecration. [135] They were burned at the stake. Before their death, the martyred Jews made a declaration:

"We have never stabbed the host, because we do not believe that the host is the Divine body, knowing that God has no body nor blood. We believe, as did our forefathers, that the Messiah is not God, but His messenger. We also know from experience that there can be no blood in flour."

Jews are temporarily banished from Prague.
Recanati, Italy: a baptized Jew Joseph Paul More enters synagogue on Yom Kippur under the protection of Pope Paul IV and tries to preach a conversion sermon. The congregation evicts him. Soon after, the Jews are expelled from Recanati.
Pope Pius IV allows Talmud on conditions that it is printed by a Christian and the text is censored.
The Goa Inquisition begins.
Ferdinand I takes an oath to expel the Jews. Mordechai Zemach runs to Rome and convinces Pope Pius IV to cancel the decree.
Russian troops take Polotsk from Lithuania, Jews are given ultimatum: embrace Russian Orthodox Church or die. Around 300 Jewish men, women and children were thrown into ice holes of Dvina river.
Brest-Litovsk: the son of a wealthy Jewish tax collector is accused of killing the family's Christian servant for ritual purposes. He is tortured and executed in line with the law. King Sigismund II of Poland forbids future charges of ritual murder, calling them groundless.
Jews are temporarily banished from Prague.
Antonio Ghislieri elected and, as Pope Pius V, reinstates the harsh anti-Jewish laws of Pope Paul IV. In 1569 he expels Jews dwelling outside of the ghettos of Rome, Ancona, and Avignon from the Papal States, thus ensuring that they remain city-dwellers.
Jews are allowed to live in France.
Pope Pius V expels all the Jews of Bologna. He then gave their cemetery away and commended all Jewish gravestones to be destroyed. [136]
Pope Pius V issues the Bull Hebraeorum gens sola which orders the expulsion of all Jews who refuse to convert.
Jews in Berlin are forced to leave and their property is confiscated. [93]
The Mexican Inquisition begins.
First auto-da-fé in Mexico.
Pope Gregory XIII issues a Bull which prohibits the use of Jewish doctors.
Three Portuguese conversos are burned at the stake in Rome. [137]
Pope Sixtus V forbids printing of the Talmud.
Jewish quarter of Mikulov (Nikolsburg) burns to ground and 15 people die while Christians watch or pillage. King Philip II of Spain orders expulsion of Jews from Lombardy. His order is ignored by local authorities until 1597, when 72 Jewish families are forced into exile.
Philip II, King of Spain, banished all Jews from the duchy of Milan. [138]
Esther Chiera is executed with one of her sons by the Sultan Murad III's calvary. [139]
Pope Clement VIII confirms the Papal bull of Paul III that expels Jews from Papal states except ghettos in Rome and Ancona and issues Caeca et obdurata ("Blind Obstinacy"): "All the world suffers from the usury of the Jews, their monopolies and deceit. ... Then as now Jews have to be reminded intermittently anew that they were enjoying rights in any country since they left Palestine and the Arabian desert, and subsequently their ethical and moral doctrines as well as their deeds rightly deserve to be exposed to criticism in whatever country they happen to live."
At least 900 are expelled from Bologna. [136]
10 people are accused of practicing Judaism in Lima, Peru. Four of them are released and one named Francisco Rodríguez, is burned alive. [140]
Francisca Nuñez de Carabajal was a Marrana (Jewish convert to Christianity) in New Spain executed by the Inquisition for "judaizing" in 1596. One of her children, Isabel, in her twenties at the time, was tortured until she implicated the whole of the Carabajal family. The whole family was forced to confess and abjure at a public auto-da-fé, celebrated on Saturday, 24 February 1590. Luis de Carabajal the younger (one of Francisca's sons), along with Francisca and four of her daughters, was condemned to perpetual imprisonment, and another one of Francisca's sons, Baltasar, who had fled upon the first warning of danger, was, along with his deceased father Francisco Rodriguez de Matos, burnt in effigy. In January 1595, Francisca and her children were accused of a relapse into Judaism and convicted. During their imprisonment they were tempted to communicate with one another on Spanish pear seeds, on which they wrote touching messages of encouragement to remain true to their faith. At the resulting auto-da-fé, Francisca and her children Isabel, Catalina, Leonor, and Luis, died at the stake, together with Manuel Diaz, Beatriz Enriquez, Diego Enriquez, and Manuel de Lucena. Of her other children, Mariana, who lost her reason for a time, was tried and put to death at an auto-da-fé held in Mexico City on 25 March 1601; Anica, the youngest child, being "reconciled" at the same time.
3 Jews in Lublin are brutally tortured and executed by quartering, after a Christian boy is found in a nearby swamp. [141]

Seventeenth century

14 Judaizers are punished in Lima, Peru. [140]
Frei Diogo da Assumpcão, a partly Jewish friar who embraced Judaism, burned alive in Lisbon.
16 Judaizers are arrested in Lima, Peru. [140]
The Jesuit order forbids admission to anyone descended from Jews to the fifth generation, a restriction lifted in the 20th century. Three years later Pope Paul V applies the rule throughout the Church, but his successor revokes it.
The Hamburg Senate decides to officially allow Jews to live in Hamburg on the condition there is no public worship.
Expulsion of the Jews from Frankfurt on 23 August 1614: "1380 persons old and young were counted at the exit of the gate" 1614jews.jpg
Expulsion of the Jews from Frankfurt on 23 August 1614: "1380 persons old and young were counted at the exit of the gate"
Vincent Fettmilch, who called himself the "new Haman of the Jews", leads a raid on the Frankfurt Jewish quarter that turned into an attack that destroyed the whole community.
King Louis XIII of France decrees that all Jews must leave the country within one month on pain of death.
The Guild led by Dr. Chemnitz, "non-violently" forced the Jews from Worms.
Jesuits arrive in Grodno and accuse the Jews of host desecration and blood libel. [116]
Anti-semitic pamphlet Mirror of the Polish Crown is published by professor Sebastian Miczyński. It accuses the Jews of murder, sacrileges, witchcraft, and urges their expulsion. It would go on to inspire anti-Jewish riots across Poland.
Shah Abbasi of the Persian Sufi Dynasty increases persecution against the Jews, forcing many to outwardly practice Islam. Many keep practicing Judaism in secret.
King Christian IV invites Jews to come and live in Denmark.
Ghetto established in Ferrara, Italy.
Christian theologian Antonio Homem is burned at the stake for pursuing Judaism.
Jews of Vienna forced to live in a ghetto in Leopoldstadt.
Roman Jewish mistress of the son of the duke of Parma is burned alive. [142]
Jewish merchant Moses the Braider is burned alive after being accused of host desecration.
Due to awful conditions in the Jewish Ghetto of Padua, 421 out of the 721 Jews living in the ghetto perish. [143]
King Ladislaus IV of Poland forbids antisemitic books and printings.
Shortly after Miguel Rodriguez is discovered holding onto Jewish rites, an Auto-da-fé is held in the presence of the King and Queen. Miguel and his wife Isabel Alvarez, and 5 others are burned alive publicly. [144]
1632, 20 April
Jewish-convert and martyr Nicolas Antoine is burned at the stake for heresy.
Jews are banned from Radom. [145]
Anti-Jewish riots take place in Vilna.
Four Jews are publicly tortured and executed in Kraków.
Over 60 Judaizers are burned at the stake at an Auto-da-fé in Lima, Peru. Among those martyred was physician Francisco Maldonado de Silva.
Two Roman Jewish children are forcibly baptized by Pope Urban VIII. [146]
Jews of Lenchitza are accused of ritual murder after a young child is found dead in the woods. The blame falls on the Jews after a local gentile named Foma confesses to the crime then says he had been coerced into doing it by the Jews. Despite the lack of evidence, two Jewish elders named Meyer and Lazar are arrested and tortured, and eventually quartered publicly. [147]
Jewish martyr Judah the Believer is burned at the stake as he recites prayers in Hebrew.
Jewish martyr Isaac de Castro Tartas is burned at the stake while he recites the Shema along with 6 other Jews. [148]
The Ukrainian Cossacks led by Bohdan Chmielnicki massacre about 100,000 Jews and similar number of Polish nobles, 300 Jewish communities destroyed.
Largest Auto-da-fé in the New World. 109 victims, 13 were burned alive and 57 in effigy. [149]
Oliver Cromwell readmits Jews to England.
All Jews are expelled from Isfahan because of the common belief of their impurity. The ones who don't are forced to convert to Islam.
Jews throughout Iran (including 7,000 in Kashan alone) are forced to convert to Islam as a result of persecutions by Abbas II of Persia. [150]
Sephardic poet Antonio Enríquez Gómez is publicly burned in effigy in Seville. [151]
Two Christian Janissaries accuse the Jews of Istanbul of killing a child who had actually been killed by his own father. After killing his own son, he threw his body onto the Jewish quarter in order to implicate the Jews in the crime. Once the Grand Vizier learned the facts of the case from his spies stationed in the Greek quarter, he informed the Sultan and the Janissaries were put to death. 20 Jews were killed in total by the Greek mobs. [152]
1664 May
Jews of Lemberg (now Lvov) ghetto organize self-defense against impending assault by students of Jesuit seminary and Cathedral school. The militia sent by the officials to restore order, instead joined the attackers. About 100 Jews killed.
The majority of Jews in Oran are expelled. [153]
Jews expelled from Vienna.
Raphael Levy is burned at the stake over blood libel. After being offered a chance to convert and live, he declared that he had lived a Jew and would die a Jew.
The Exile of Mawza. It is considered the single most traumatic event experienced collectively by the Jews of Yemen. All Jews living in nearly all cities and towns throughout Yemen were banished by decree of the king, Imām al-Mahdi Ahmad, and sent to a dry and barren region of the country named Mawza to withstand their fate or to die. Only a few communities who lived in the far eastern quarters of Yemen were spared this fate by virtue of their Arab patrons who refused to obey the King's orders. Many would die along the route and while confined to the hot and arid conditions of this forbidding terrain.
Auto-da-fé in Madrid.
Mob attacks against Jews in Vilna. It was condemned by King John Sobieski, who ordered the punishment of the guilty.
Largest trial against alleged Judaizers in Lisbon, Portugal. 117 were tried in 3 days.
Hungarian rebels known as Kuruc rushes into the town of Uherský Brod, massacring the majority of its Jewish inhabitants. Most of the victims were recent refugees who were expelled from Vienna in 1670. One of the Hebrews killed by the mob was Jewish historian Nathan ben Moses Hannover, who was a survivor of the Chmielnicki massacres. Most of the survivors fled to Upper Hungary.
Attack on the Jewish ghetto of Buda. [154]
Only 500 Jews survive after Austrian sieged the city of Buda. Half of them are sold into slavery. [154] [155]
Worms is invaded by the French and the Jewish quarter is reduced to ashes.
The Jewish Ghetto of Prague is destroyed by French troops. After it was over 318 houses, 11 synagogues, and 150 Jews were dead. [156]
219 people are convicted of being Jewish in Palma, Majorca. 37 of them are burned to death. Among those martyred is Raphael and his sister Catalina Benito, who although declaring she wanted to live, jumped right into the flames rather than to be baptized. [157] [158]
A number of Converso Jews are burned alive in Évora, Portugal.
A female child is found dead at a church in Sandomierz. The mother of the child first said she placed her body in the church because she could not afford a burial, but after torture accused the Jewish leader Aaron Berek of the local community of murdering her daughter. The mother and Berek were sentenced the death. [159]
A mob attacks the Jewish Quarter of Bamberg but runs away after one Jew stops them by pouring baskets of ripe plums on the attackers. The event is still commemorated on the 29th of Nisan as the Zwetschgen-Ta’anit (Prune-Fest). [160]

Eighteenth century

The Aleinu prayer is prohibited in most of Germany.
After a plague hits Algeria which pushes the Jewish community into poverty, the local ruler decides the plague was caused by the Jews and orders their expulsion. Property is confiscated, synagogues are destroyed, until a sum is paid which further impoverishes the Jews of Algiers. [161]
Johann Andreas Eisenmenger writes his Entdecktes Judenthum ("Judaism Unmasked"), a work denouncing Judaism and which had a formative influence on modern antisemitic polemics.
Blood libel in Sandomierz and expulsion of the town's Jews.
Elector Max Emanuel orders the deportation of all Jews living in Bavaria. [162]
All Jews living in Gibraltar are expelled.
The last Jews of Carniola, Styria and Carinthia are expelled.
Arab creditors set fire to an Ashkenazi synagogue, fed up with debts. Ashkenazic Jews are banned from Jerusalem along with anyone who looks like an Ashkenazi Jew. Some Ashkenazim dressed up like Sephardic Jews in order to fool the authorities. [163]
Maria Barbara Carillo was burned at the stake for heresy during the Spanish Inquisition. She was executed at the age of 95 or 96 [164] and is the oldest person known to have been executed at the instigation of the Inquisition. [165] Carillo was sentenced to death for heresy for returning to her faith in Judaism.
Jews of Radom are exiled. [145]
Edict of Catherine I of Russia: "The Jews... who are found in Ukraine and in other Russian provinces are to be expelled at once beyond the frontiers of Russia."
1736: The Haidamaks, paramilitary bands in Polish Ukraine, attack Jews.
María Francisca Ana de Castro, called La bella toledana, a Spanish immigrant to Peru, was arrested in 1726, accused of "judaizing" (being a practicing Jew). She was burned at the stake after an auto de fe in 1736. This event was a major spectacle in Lima, but it raised questions about possible irregular procedures and corruption within the Inquisition.
Blood libel in Jarosław leads to Jews being tortured and others being put to death. [166]
Elizabeth of Russia issues a decree of expulsion of all the Jews out of Russian Empire. Her resolution to the Senate's appeal regarding harm to the trade: "I don't desire any profits from the enemies of Christ". One of the deportees is Antonio Ribera Sanchez, her own personal physician and the head of army's medical dept.
The Russians gain control of Riga and all local Jews are expelled. [167]
Frederick II The Great (a "heroic genius", according to Hitler) limits Breslau to ten "protected" Jewish families, on the grounds that otherwise they will "transform it into complete Jerusalem". He encourages this practice in other Prussian cities. In 1750 he issues Revidiertes General Privilegium und Reglement vor die Judenschaft: "protected" Jews had an alternative to "either abstain from marriage or leave Berlin" (Simon Dubnow).
Archduchess of Austria Maria Theresa orders: "... no Jew is to be tolerated in our inherited duchy of Bohemia" by the end of Feb. 1745. In December 1748 she reverses her position, on condition that Jews pay for readmission every ten years. This extortion was known among the Jews as malke-geld (queen's money). [168] In 1752 she introduces the law limiting each Jewish family to one son.
The city of Radom bans Jews from entering. [145]
The Jewish community of Kaunas is expelled.
Jeronimo Jose Ramos, a merchant from Bragança, Portugal, is burned at the stake for being secretly Jewish.
Several Jews from Alsace are executed after being accused of host desecration.
The Jews of Kaunas are expelled after anti-Jewish riots. [169]
Rhode Island refuses to grant Jews citizenship stating "no person who is not of the Christian religion can be admitted free to this colony."
All but 6 Jews are expelled from Toruń. [170]
Haidamaks massacre the Jews of Uman, Ukraine.
Pope Pius VI issues a severe Editto sopra gli ebrei (Edict concerning the Jews). Previously lifted restrictions are reimposed, Judaism is suppressed.
The Jewish community of Basra is massacred. [171]
Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II abolishes most of persecution practices in Toleranzpatent on condition that Yiddish and Hebrew are eliminated from public records and judicial autonomy is annulled. Judaism is branded "quintessence of foolishness and nonsense". Moses Mendelssohn writes: "Such a tolerance... is even more dangerous play in tolerance than open persecution".
The Sultan expels the Moroccan Jews for failing to pay an exorbitant ransom. [172]
Ali Burzi Pasha murders hundreds of Libyan Jews. [173]
Jews are expelled from Jeddah, most of them flee to Yemen. [174]
Yazid becomes the Sultan of Morocco and immediately orders troops to massacre and plunder the Jewish quarter of Tétouan.
The Touro Synagogue's warden, Moses Seixas, wrote to George Washington, expressing his support for Washington's administration and good wishes for him. Washington sent a letter in response, which read in part:

"... the Government of the United States ... gives to bigotry no sanction, to persecution no assistance. ... May the children of the Stock of Abraham, who dwell in this land, continue to merit and enjoy the good will of the other Inhabitants; while every one shall sit in safety under his own vine and figtree, and there shall be none to make him afraid. May the father of all mercies scatter light and not darkness in our paths, and make us all in our several vocations useful here, and in his own due time and way everlastingly happy."

Letter of George Washington to the Hebrew Congregation in Newport, Rhode Island [175]

There is an annual event reading Washington's letter, and speakers at the annual event have included Supreme Court Justices Ruth Bader Ginsburg and Elena Kagan; [176] and Brown University Presidents Ruth Simmons [177] and Christina Paxson. [178]

1790, 20 May
Eleazer Solomon is quartered for the alleged murder of a Christian girl in Grodno. [179]
Destruction of most of the Jewish communities of Morocco.
Catherine II of Russia confines Jews to the Pale of Settlement and imposes them with double taxes. [180]
Napoleon calls for the end of Jewish segregation, ghettoization and the denial of equal rights.

Nineteenth century

Twentieth century

The Hall of Names in Yad Vashem contains Pages of Testimonies which commemorate the millions of Jews who were murdered during the Holocaust Yad Vashem Hall of Names by David Shankbone.jpg
The Hall of Names in Yad Vashem contains Pages of Testimonies which commemorate the millions of Jews who were murdered during the Holocaust

Twenty-first century

See also

Related Research Articles

Some Christian Churches, Christian groups, and ordinary Christians express religious antisemitism toward the Jewish people and the associated religion of Judaism.

This is a list of notable events in the development of Jewish history. All dates are given according to the Common Era, not the Hebrew calendar.

<i>Marrano</i> Jews from the Iberian Peninsula forcibly converted to Catholicism

Marranos is one of the terms used in relation to Spanish and Portuguese Jews who converted or were forced by the Spanish and Portuguese crowns to convert to Christianity during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, but continued to practice Judaism in secrecy or were suspected of it, referred to as Crypto-Jews. "Crypto-Jew" is the term increasingly preferred in scholarly works, instead of Marrano.

The history of antisemitism, defined as hostile actions or discrimination against Jews as a religious or ethnic group, goes back many centuries, with antisemitism being called "the longest hatred". Jerome Chanes identifies six stages in the historical development of antisemitism:

  1. Pre-Christian anti-Judaism in Ancient Greece and Rome which was primarily ethnic in nature
  2. Christian antisemitism in antiquity and the Middle Ages which was religious in nature and has extended into modern times
  3. Muslim antisemitism which was—at least in its classical form—nuanced, in that Jews were a protected class
  4. Political, social and economic antisemitism during the Enlightenment and post-Enlightenment Europe which laid the groundwork for racial antisemitism
  5. Racial antisemitism that arose in the 19th century and culminated in Nazism
  6. Contemporary antisemitism which has been labeled by some as the new antisemitism

Religious antisemitism is aversion to or discrimination against Jews as a whole, based on religious doctrines of supersession that expect or demand the disappearance of Judaism and the conversion of Jews, and portray their political enemies in Jewish terms. This form of antisemitism has frequently served as the basis for false claims and religious antisemitic tropes against Judaism. Sometimes, it is called theological antisemitism.

The persecution of Jews has been a major event in Jewish history, prompting shifting waves of refugees and the formation of diaspora communities. As early as 605 BCE, Jews who lived in the Neo-Babylonian Empire were persecuted and deported. Antisemitism was also practiced by the governments of many different empires and the adherents of many different religions (Christianity), and it was also widespread in many different regions of the world.

History of European Jews in the Middle Ages covers Jewish history in the period from the 5th to the 15th century. During the course of this period, the Jewish population gradually started shifting from the Levant to Europe, primarily Central Europe dominated by the Holy Roman Empire or Southern Europe dominated by the Iberian kingdoms. As with Christianity, the Middle Ages were the period when Judaism became mostly insignificant in the Middle East, and a front-of-mind part of Europe.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">History of the Jews in Italy</span> Aspect of Italian and Jewish history

The history of the Jews in Italy spans more than two thousand years to the present. The Jewish presence in Italy dates to the pre-Christian Roman period and has continued, despite periods of extreme persecution and expulsions, until the present. As of 2019, the estimated core Jewish population in Italy numbers around 45,000.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Rhineland massacres</span> Pogroms of 1096

The Rhineland massacres, also known as the German Crusade of 1096 or Gzerot Tatnó, were a series of mass murders of Jews perpetrated by mobs of French and German Christians of the People's Crusade in the year 1096, or 4856 according to the Hebrew calendar. These massacres are often seen as the first in a sequence of antisemitic events in Europe which culminated in the Holocaust.

Jewish communities have existed across the Middle East and North Africa since Antiquity. By the time of the Muslim conquests of the 7th century, these ancient communities had been ruled by various empires and included the Babylonian, Persian, Carthaginian, Greek, Roman, Byzantine, Ottoman and Yemenite Jews.

The Catholic Church and Judaism have a long and complex history of cooperation and conflict, and have had a strained relationship throughout history, with periods of persecution, violence and discrimination directed towards Jews by Christians, particularly during the Middle Ages.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">History of the Jews in Spain</span>

The history of the Jews in the current-day Spanish territory stretches back to Biblical times according to Jewish tradition, but the settlement of organised Jewish communities in the Iberian Peninsula possibly traces back to the times after the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE. The earliest archaeological evidence of Hebrew presence in Iberia consists of a 2nd-century gravestone found in Mérida. From the late 6th century onward, following the Visigothic monarchs' conversion from Arianism to the Nicene Creed, conditions for Jews in Iberia considerably worsened.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">History of the Jews in Europe</span>

The history of the Jews in Europe spans a period of over two thousand years. Some Jews, a Judaean tribe from the Levant, migrated to Europe just before the rise of the Roman Empire. Although Alexandrian Jews had already migrated to Rome, a notable early event in the history of the Jews in the Roman Empire was the 63 BCE siege of Jerusalem.

Antisemitism in the history of the Jews in the Middle Ages became increasingly prevalent in the Late Middle Ages. Early instances of pogroms against Jews are recorded in the context of the First Crusade. Expulsions of Jews from cities and instances of blood libel became increasingly common from the 13th to the 15th century. This trend only peaked after the end of the medieval period, and it only subsided with Jewish emancipation in the late 18th and 19th centuries.

The history of the Jews in Sicily potentially begins as far back as two millennia, with a substantial Jewish presence on the southern Italian island before their expulsion in the fifteenth century.

Martyrdom in Judaism is one of the main examples of Jews doing a kiddush Hashem, a Hebrew term which means "sanctification of [the] name". An example of this is public self-sacrifice in accordance with Jewish practice and identity, with the possibility of being killed for no other reason than being Jewish. There are specific conditions in Jewish law that deal with the details of self-sacrifice, be it willing or unwilling.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Persecution of Jews during the Black Death</span> Series of violent attacks on Jewish communities from 1348 to 1351

The persecution of Jews during the Black Death consisted of a series of violent mass attacks and massacres. Jewish communities were often blamed for outbreaks of the Black Death in Europe. From 1348-1351, acts of violence were committed in Toulon, Barcelona, Erfurt, Basel, Frankfurt, Strasbourg and elsewhere. The persecutions led to a large migration of Jews to Jagiellonian Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. There are very few Jewish sources on Jewish massacres during the Plague.

The Expulsion of Jews from Spain was the expulsion of practicing Jews following the Alhambra Decree in 1492, which was enacted in order to eliminate their influence on Spain's large converso population and to ensure its members did not revert to Judaism. Over half of Spain's Jews had converted to Catholicism as a result of the Massacre of 1391. Due to continuing attacks, around 50,000 more had converted by 1415. Those who remained decided to convert to avoid expulsion. As a result of the Alhambra decree and the prior persecution, over 200,000 Jews converted to Catholicism and between 40,000 and 100,000 were expelled. An unknown number returned to Spain in the following years. The expulsion led to mass migration of Jews from Spain to Italy, Greece, Turkey and the Mediterranean Basin. One result of the migration was new Jewish surnames appearing in Italy and Greece. The surnames Faraggi, Farag and Farachi, for example, originated from the Spanish city of Fraga.

This timeline of antisemitism chronicles the acts of antisemitism, hostile actions or discrimination against Jews as a religious or ethnic group, in the 19th century. It includes events in the history of antisemitic thought, actions taken to combat or relieve the effects of antisemitism, and events that affected the prevalence of antisemitism in later years. The history of antisemitism can be traced from ancient times to the present day.

The history of the Jews in Alexandria dates back to the founding of the city by Alexander the Great in 332 BCE. Jews in Alexandria played a crucial role in the political, economic, cultural and religious life of Hellenistic and Roman Alexandria, with Jews comprising about 35% of the city's population during the Roman Era. Alexandrian Jewry were the founders of Hellenistic Judaism and the first to translate the Torah from Hebrew to Koine Greek, a document known as the Septuagint. Many important Jewish writers and figures came from or studied in Alexandria, such as Philo, Ben Sira, Tiberius Julius Alexander and Josephus. The position of Alexandria's Jewry began deteriorating during the Roman era, as deep antisemitic sentiment began developing amongst the city's Greek and Egyptian populations. This led to the subsequent Alexandrian pogrom in 38 CE and the Alexandria riot in 66 CE, which was in parallel with the outbreak of the First Jewish–Roman War. Alexandria's Jewry began to diminish, leading to a mass immigration of Alexandrian Jews to Rome, as well as other Mediterranean and North African cities. By the beginning of the Byzantine era, the Jewish population had again increased, but suffered from the persecutions of the Christian Church. During the subsequent Muslim conquest of Egypt, the number of Jews in Alexandria increased greatly, with some estimates numbering around 400,000. Following the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, and the ensuing Six-Day War in 1967, almost all of Alexandria's Jewish population were expelled from the country and emigrated to Israel.


  1. 1 2 Gerson D. Cohen, Hannah and Her Seven Sons at Jewish Virtual Library
  2. Tal Ilan, "Hannah, Mother of Seven," at the Jewish Women's Archive
  3. Seven Holy Maccabee Martyrs, at the Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America website.
  4. 2 Maccabees 7:20, New English Bible.
  5. 2 Maccabees 7:36, Authorised Version. George Bull says of this verse, "I scarce know where to find an instance of greater faith" (in the resurrection and immortality) "and fortitude in any of our Christian martyrologies than here." Sermon VIII, cited in The Old Testament According to the Authorised Version With Brief Commentary by Various Authors. The Apocryphal Books: Esdras to Maccabees (Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1902).
  6. Babylonian Talmud: Tractate Gittin Folio 57 .
  7. "Cicero, Marcus Tullius°". Jewish Virtual Library.
  8. Cahnman, Werner (30 November 2003). Jews and Gentiles: A Historical Sociology of Their Relations. Routledge. p. 12.
  9. Josephus. BJ. 6.9.3.,  Perseus Project BJ6.9.3 , .
  10. 1 2 Wikipedia: Masada
  11. 1 2 3 Murphy-O'Connor, Jerome; Cunliffe, Barry. The Holy Land. Oxford Archaeological Guides (5th ed.). Oxford University Press. pp. 378–381.
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