Regensburg

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Regensburg
Rgbg-dom und rathaus.jpg
Flag of Regensburg.png
Flag
Wappen Regensburg.svg
Coat of arms
Location of Regensburg
Regensburg
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Regensburg
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Regensburg
Coordinates: 49°1′N12°5′E / 49.017°N 12.083°E / 49.017; 12.083 Coordinates: 49°1′N12°5′E / 49.017°N 12.083°E / 49.017; 12.083
Country Germany
State Bavaria
District Urban district
Subdivisions18 districts
Government
   Lord mayor Gertrud Maltz-Schwarzfischer (SPD)
Area
  Total80.76 km2 (31.18 sq mi)
Population
 (2019-12-31) [1]
  Total153,094
  Density1,900/km2 (4,900/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+01:00 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+02:00 (CEST)
Postal codes
93001–93059
Dialling codes 0941
Vehicle registration R
Website www.regensburg.de
Official nameOld town of Regensburg with Stadtamhof
Criteria Cultural: ii, iii, iv
Reference 1155
Inscription2006 (30th session)
Area182.8 ha
Buffer zone775.6 ha

Regensburg [nb 1] is a city in east Bavaria, at the confluence of the Danube, Naab and Regen rivers. With more than 150,000 inhabitants, Regensburg is the fourth-largest city in the State of Bavaria after Munich, Nuremberg and Augsburg. The city is the political, economic and cultural centre and capital of the Upper Palatinate. During portions of the Holy Roman Empire rule it housed the Perpetual Diet of Regensburg.

Contents

The medieval centre of the city is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In 2014, Regensburg was among the top sights and travel attractions in Germany. [2]

History

Early history

The remains of the East Tower of the Porta Praetoria from Roman times Regensburg-porta-praetoria 2.jpg
The remains of the East Tower of the Porta Praetoria from Roman times

The first settlements in Regensburg date from the Stone Age. The Celtic name Radasbona was the oldest given to a settlement near the present city. Around AD 90, the Romans built a fort there.

In 179, a new Roman fort, called Castra Regina ("fortress by the river Regen"), was built for Legio III Italica during the reign of Emperor Marcus Aurelius. [3] It was an important camp at the most northerly point of the Danube; it corresponds to what is today the core of Regensburg's Old City or Altstadt east of the Obere and Untere Bachgasse and west of the Schwanenplatz. It is believed that as early as in late Roman times the city was the seat of a bishop, and St Boniface re-established the Bishopric of Regensburg in 739.

From the early 6th century, Regensburg was the seat of a ruling family known as the Agilolfings. From about 530 to the first half of the 13th century, it was the capital of Bavaria. Regensburg remained an important city during the reign of Charlemagne. In 792, Regensburg hosted the ecclesiastical section of Charlemagne's General Assembly, the bishops in council who condemned the heresy of adoptionism taught by their Spanish counterparts, Elipandus of Toledo and Felix of Urgell. After the partition of the Carolingian Empire in 843, the city became the seat of the Eastern Frankish ruler, Louis II the German. Two years later, fourteen Bohemian princes came to Regensburg to receive baptism there. This was the starting point of Christianization of the Czechs, and the diocese of Regensburg became the mother diocese of that of Prague. These events had a wide impact on the cultural history of the Czech lands, as they were consequently part of the Roman Catholic and not the Slavic-Orthodox world. A memorial plate at St John's Church (the alleged place of the baptism) was unveiled a few years ago, commemorating the incident in the Czech and German languages.

In 800 the city had 23,000 inhabitants, and by 1000 this had increased to 40,000. [4]

On 8 December 899 Arnulf of Carinthia, descendant of Charlemagne, died at Regensburg. [5]

In 1096, on the way to the First Crusade, Peter the Hermit led a mob of crusaders that attempted to force the mass conversion of the Jews of Regensburg and killed all those who resisted. [6]

Regensburg in the 16th century Braun Regensburg UBHD.jpg
Regensburg in the 16th century

Between 1135 and 1146, the Stone Bridge across the Danube was built at Regensburg. This bridge opened major international trade routes between northern Europe and Venice, and this began Regensburg's golden age as a residence of wealthy trading families. Regensburg became the cultural centre of southern Germany and was celebrated for its gold work and fabrics.

Late Middle Ages and early modern period

Imperial City of Regensburg

Reichsstadt Regensburg  (German)
1245–1803
Status Free Imperial City of the Holy Roman Empire
CapitalRegensburg
GovernmentRepublic
Historical era Middle Ages
 Gained Imperial immediacy (Reichsfreiheit)a
1245
 City annexed by Bavaria
1486–96
1541
 City adopted Reformation
1542
 Made permanent seat of the Imperial Diet
1663
  Mediatised to new Archbishopric 2
27 April 1803
 Ceded to Bavaria by Treaty of Paris
1810
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Wittelsbach Arms.svg Duchy of Bavaria
Archbishopric of Regensburg Wappen Regensburg.svg
Today part ofGermany
a: The Bishopric of Regensburg acquired Imperial immediacy around the same time as the City. Of the three Imperial Abbeys in Regensburg, Niedermünster had already acquired immediacy in 1002, St. Emmeram's Abbey did in 1295 and Obermünster in 1315.
b: The Bishopric, the Imperial City and all three Imperial Abbeys were mediatised simultaneously.
Territory of Regensburg on an 18th-century map Regensburg Homann 1728.png
Territory of Regensburg on an 18th-century map

In 1245 Regensburg became a Free Imperial City and was a trade centre before the shifting of trade routes in the late Middle Ages. In 1486, Regensburg became part of the Duchy of Bavaria, but its independence was restored by the Holy Roman Emperor ten years later. The first Diet of Regensburg took place in 1541. The city adopted the Protestant Reformation in 1542 and its Town Council remained entirely Lutheran. From 1663 to 1806, the city was the permanent seat of the Imperial Diet of the Holy Roman Empire, which became known as the Perpetual Diet of Regensburg. Thus, Regensburg was one of the central towns of the Empire, attracting visitors in large numbers.

Ceremonial arrival at the Imperial Diet, 1711 Regensburg Reichstag 1711.jpg
Ceremonial arrival at the Imperial Diet, 1711

A minority of the population remained Roman Catholic, and Roman Catholics were denied civic rights (Bürgerrecht). Although the Imperial city had adopted the Reformation, the town remained the seat of a Roman Catholic bishop and several abbeys. Three of these, St. Emmeram, Niedermünster and Obermünster, were free imperial estates within the Holy Roman Empire, meaning that they were granted a seat and a vote at the Imperial Diet (Reichstag). So there was the unique situation that the town of Regensburg comprised five independent "states" (in terms of the Holy Roman Empire): the Protestant city itself, the Roman Catholic bishopric, and the three monasteries. In addition, it was seen as the traditional capital of the region Bavaria (not the state), acted as functional co-capital of the Empire (second to the Emperor's court at Vienna) due to the presence of the Perpetual Diet, and it was the residence of the Emperor's Commissary-Principal to the same diet, who with one very brief exception was a prince himself (for many years the Prince of Thurn and Taxis, still resident in the town).

Late modern period

In 1803 the city lost its status as an imperial city following its incorporation into the Principality of Regensburg. It was handed over to the Archbishop-Elector of Mainz and Archchancellor of the Holy Roman Empire Carl von Dalberg in compensation for the territory of the Electorate of Mainz located on the left bank of the Rhine which had been annexed by France under the terms of the Treaty of Lunéville in 1801. The Archbishopric of Mainz was formally transferred to Regensburg. Dalberg united the bishopric, the monasteries, and the town itself, making up the Principality of Regensburg (Fürstentum Regensburg). Dalberg strictly modernized public life. Most importantly, he awarded equal rights to Protestants and Roman Catholics alike. In 1810 Dalberg ceded Regensburg to the Kingdom of Bavaria, he himself being compensated by the award of Fulda and Hanau to him under the title of "Grand Duke of Frankfurt".

Between April 19 and April 23, 1809, Regensburg was the scene of the Battle of Ratisbon between forces commanded by Henri Gatien Bertrand and Napoleon himself and the retreating Austrian forces. The city was eventually overrun, after supplies and ammunition ran out. The city suffered severe damage during the fight, with about 150 houses being burnt and others being looted. Robert Browning's poem "Incident at the French Camp" describes the battle from the French perspective, but is filled with historical errors.

Nazism and World War II

Memorial to the victims of the local subcamp of the Flossenburg concentration camp Gedenkstein KZ-Aussenkommando Flossenburg001.jpg
Memorial to the victims of the local subcamp of the Flossenbürg concentration camp

The Jewish community was persecuted after the Nazi Party came to power in Germany in 1933, many Jews fled in the following years, and some were also expelled to Poland, however, thanks to a Polish-German agreement they were allowed to return to the city. [7] On November 9, 1938, during the Kristallnacht, the Regensburg Synagogue and several Jewish homes and stores were destroyed, and around 220 Jews were arrested, some were also deported to the Dachau concentration camp. [7] During World War II, many Jews emigrated to various countries, and in 1942, over 200 Jews were deported either to Piaski in German-occupied Poland or the Theresienstadt Ghetto in German-occupied Czechoslovakia. [8] In the final months of World War II, in March and April of 1945 a subcamp of the Flossenbürg concentration camp was located in the city, with 460 forced laborers of various nationalities, 40 of whom died. [9]

Regensburg was home to both a Messerschmitt Bf 109 aircraft factory and an oil refinery, which were bombed by the Allies on August 17, 1943, in the Schweinfurt-Regensburg mission, and on February 5, 1945, during the Oil Campaign of World War II. Although both targets were badly damaged, Regensburg itself suffered little damage from the Allied strategic bombing campaign, and the nearly intact medieval city centre is listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The city's most important cultural loss was that of the Romanesque church of Obermünster, which was destroyed in a March 1945 air raid and was not rebuilt (the belfry survived). Also, Regensburg's slow economic recovery after the war ensured that historic buildings were not torn down and replaced by newer ones. When the upswing in restoration[ clarification needed ] reached Regensburg in the late 1960s, the prevailing mindset had turned in favour of preserving the city's heritage.

History after 1945

Cancellation by the Ukrainian Camp Post at Regensburg DP Camp Ukrainian Camp Post - Regensburg postmark.png
Cancellation by the Ukrainian Camp Post at Regensburg DP Camp

Between 1945 and 1949, Regensburg was the site of the largest displaced persons (DP) camp in Germany. At its peak in 1946–1947, the workers' district of Ganghofersiedlung housed almost 5,000 Ukrainian and 1,000 non-Ukrainian refugees and displaced persons. With the approval of U.S. Military Government in the American Allied Occupation Zone, Regensburg and other DP camps organised their own camp postal service. In Regensburg, the camp postal service began operation on December 11, 1946. [10]

At the beginning of the 1960s, Regensburg invested heavily in technical and social infrastructure to attract industry. Siemens was the first multinational company to come to Regensburg, a significant step in the city's development after World War II. In 1965, Regensburg University was founded; Regensburg University of Applied Sciences was established in 1971. The second multinational company, BMW, arrived in 1986 and set up a large production plant. Since the 1990s, several well-known hightech companies have been located in Regensburg, such as Infineon and OSRAM, contributing to the city's current wealth.

In 1997, Regensburg was awarded the Europe Prize for its outstanding achievements in European integration. [11]

The World Heritage Committee listed Regensburg's Old Town a UNESCO World Heritage Site in July 2006. It is one of the largest medieval old towns north of the Alps and very well preserved, with the nickname "Italy's most northern city". [12] Close to the Stone Bridge, the city of Regensburg established a World Heritage Centre in the historic Salzstadl in 2007, where detailed information on Regensburg's 2000-year history is given.

Geography

Rhein-Main-Donau Canal at the Stadt-am-Hof locks, Regensburg Donau Regensburg.jpg
Rhein-Main-Donau Canal at the Stadt-am-Hof locks, Regensburg

Topography

Regensburg is situated on the northernmost part of the Danube river at the geological crossroads of four distinct landscapes:

Climate

Regensburg straddles the humid continental (Dfb) and oceanic (Cfb) climate zones under the Köppen climate classification. While the average temperature of 8.5 °C (47.3 °F) in the period from 1971–2000 is slightly above the German average (7.8 °C or 46.0 °F), still only 5 of the 80 cities in Germany above 100,000 inhabitants are colder. The average precipitation of 636 millimetres (25.0 inches ) per year ranges slightly below the German average (approximately 700 millimetres or 28 inches ). For the newer period from 1981–2010 the average temperature and precipitation rose up to 8.9 °C (48.0 °F) respectively 658 millimetres (25.9 inches ). As this increase in the average temperature can also be seen in the other cities, Regensburg still ranks fifth place (shared with Ingolstadt and Kiel) in the above-mentioned ranking. [13] With a total of 1670 sunshine hours per year, Regensburg is roughly 120 hours above German average. [14]

The warmest month of the year, on average, is July. The coolest month of the year, on average, is January.

Climate data for Regensburg
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)2.6
(36.7)
4.1
(39.4)
10.5
(50.9)
17.3
(63.1)
20.6
(69.1)
24.2
(75.6)
26.3
(79.3)
24.5
(76.1)
20.6
(69.1)
14.4
(57.9)
7.2
(45.0)
2.9
(37.2)
14.6
(58.3)
Average low °C (°F)−2.6
(27.3)
−2.8
(27.0)
0.1
(32.2)
4.4
(39.9)
8.1
(46.6)
11.8
(53.2)
13.6
(56.5)
12.5
(54.5)
9.3
(48.7)
5.1
(41.2)
1.8
(35.2)
−1.7
(28.9)
5.0
(41.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches)51
(2.0)
34
(1.3)
37
(1.5)
41
(1.6)
76
(3.0)
77
(3.0)
81
(3.2)
79
(3.1)
43
(1.7)
38
(1.5)
45
(1.8)
56
(2.2)
658
(25.9)
Average relative humidity (%)88847872717170747984888979
Mean monthly sunshine hours 447314019421122624019415810545371,667
Source 1: World Meteorological Organisation [15]
Source 2: German Weather Service [16]

Main sights

City

St. Peter's Church - the Regensburg Cathedral Regensburg cathedral front.jpg
St. Peter's Church – the Regensburg Cathedral
Kohlenmarkt with Town Hall, site of the Perpetual Diet from 1663 to 1806. Regensburg square.jpg
Kohlenmarkt with Town Hall, site of the Perpetual Diet from 1663 to 1806.
St. Emmeram's Abbey, now Schloss Thurn und Taxis, a huge palace SchlossThurnundTaxis2010.JPG
St. Emmeram's Abbey, now Schloss Thurn und Taxis, a huge palace

Regensburg includes the largest medieval old town north of the Alps with nearly 1,500 listed buildings and a picturesque cityscape. Its most famous sights are located mainly in the Old Town, such as:

The Stone Bridge, St. Peter's Church and the Old Town of Regensburg Regensburg Uferpanorama 06 2006.jpg
The Stone Bridge, St. Peter's Church and the Old Town of Regensburg

Surroundings

Klenze's Walhalla, built in 1842 Walhalla aussen.jpg
Klenze's Walhalla, built in 1842
Bavarian Forest National Park stamp Postwertzeichen DPAG - Bayerischer Wald 2005 hi res scan.jpg
Bavarian Forest National Park stamp

Near Regensburg there are two very imposing Classical buildings, erected by Ludwig I of Bavaria as national monuments to German patriotism and greatness: [17]

Besides, there is the famous Weltenburg Abbey (Kloster Weltenburg), a Benedictine monastery in Weltenburg near Kelheim on the Danube. The abbey is situated on a peninsula in the Danube, on the so-called "Weltenburg Narrows" or "Danube Gorge". The monastery, founded by Irish or Scottish monks in about 620, is held to be the oldest monastery in Bavaria.

To the east of Regensburg lies the Bavarian Forest with its National Park, one of the most visited protected areas in Germany.

Regensburg is on the designated heritage route, the Route of Emperors and Kings. [18]

Culture

Museums and exhibitions

Altogether Regensburg is home to 20 museums. Among the most prominent museums are for instance the Regensburg Museum of History which shows history, culture and arts of Regensburg and Eastern Bavaria from the Stone Age to the present. Then there is the Imperial diet museum (Reichstagsmuseum) in the Old Town Hall describing the life during the Holy Roman Empire. Its main attractions are an original torture chamber and the Reichssaal, the rooms occupied by the Imperial diet from 1663 to 1806. [17] The Kepler Memorial House (Keplergedächtnishaus) illustrates the life of the famous astronomer and mathematician Johannes Kepler. The Municipal Art Gallery Leerer Beutel offers art collections, film events and cultural festivals. Over the last years, the city added several outdoor museums to its cultural landscape, the so-called document sites. These give an overview on specific topics such as Roman, Jewish and Bavarian history.

Besides, there are the diocese museums (Bistumsmuseen) of Regensburg and a branch of the Bavarian National Museum located in the St. Emmeram's Abbey, which contains the Princely Treasure Chamber of the family Thurn and Taxis. The Domschatzmuseum where church treasures, monstrances and tapestries are displayed is in St. Peter's Cathedral. Other museums are the Kunstforum Ostdeutsche Galerie, the Naturkundemuseum Ostbayern, the reptile zoo, the Regensburg Museum of Danube Shipping (Donau-Schiffahrts-Museum), the Public Observatory Regensburg as well as the watch museum (Uhrenmuseum), the golf museum, the post museum and the Dinoraeum. To celebrate its centenary, the State of Bavaria will[ out of date ] open the museum of Bavarian history in Regensburg in May 2018. Besides, there are guided tours in most of the historical monuments of Regensburg, as well as organized tourist tours through the city available in several languages.

Theaters

Inside Regensburg Theater Regensburg Stadttheater Zuschauerraum 2004.jpg
Inside Regensburg Theater

The Regensburg Theater at the Bismarckplatz is 200 years old and is the most important theater of the city. Operas, operettas, musicals and ballets are shown. In summer, open-air performances are carried out as well. With the theater at the Bismarckplatz as the oldest and largest one, the Regensburg theater has four other stages with programmes that complement each other: [19] in the Neuhaussaal of the theater at the Bismarckplatz, concerts by the Philharmonic Orchestra Regensburg take place. The Velodrom Theater presents musicals and plays. In the Haidplatz Theater mainly literary and modern plays are performed, whereas the Turmtheater at the Goliathplatz shows modern plays as well, but also cabarets, musicals and plays for children.

Music

Regensburg is home to the famous Regensburger Domspatzen. The Regensburger Schlossfestspiele has been held in the inner courtyard of the St. Emmeram's Abbey every July from 2003, sponsored by the former princely house of Thurn und Taxis. Meanwhile, those were attracting musicians like Elton John, David Garrett, Tom Jones, or Plácido Domingo. Modern music styles, especially jazz, are presented every summer during the Bavarian Jazz weekend during which over a hundred bands, combos, and soloists perform in the Old Town. In 2015, the House of Music was opened, giving a home to skilled musicians and their education.

Film and cinema

The international short film season is hosted annually in Regensburg. It is a non-profit event and takes place every March, being one of the most important of its type in Germany. Aside, there are several cinemas, such as CinemaxX, the largest one showing blockbusters and arthouse films, and smaller independent cinemas such as Garbo, Ostentor Kino and Regina Filmtheater. Regensburg has two open air cinemas as well.

Dialect

Although the German language is of course Germany's official language, Regensburg is considered a part of the Bavarian dialect language area (bairischer Sprachraum) which encompasses much of Bavaria, Austria, and the South Tyrolean region of northern Italy. [20] More specifically, the dialect attributed to Regensburg is called Central Bavarian (Mittelbairisch). [21] A 2019 report estimates that about half of Bavaria's 12 million inhabitants speak a variation of the Bavarian dialect. [22]

Regarding the dialect, Regensburg has a rich history and culture. The oldest dictionary in the world based on a dialect is thought to be Johann Ludwig Prasch's Glossarium Bavaricum. Published in Regensburg in 1689, it contains 500 words from the Bavarian variation spoken in Regensburg. [23] [24] Regensburg's Bauerntheater, a type of farmers' or folk theater, has staged plays delivered in Bavarian for over 90 years. [25] Moreover, premiering in 2011, Joseph Berlinger's play "Mei Fähr Lady," a story about three "students" taking a crash course in Bavarian dialect, has been performed at Regensburg's Turmtheater over 300 times. [26] In fact, the role of the dialect professor is played by Ludwig Zehetner, professor emeritus in Bavarian dialectology at University of Regensburg. Manfred Rohm, whose pen name Sepp Grantelhauer takes on the Bavarian verb granteln for "to complain," writes a weekly satirical column solely in Bavarian for the Regensburger Rundschau. [27]

Buildings

The Old Town of Regensburg with nearly 1,500 listed buildings offers a huge cultural diversity from Roman to modern times.

Recreation

The Old Town of Regensburg is surrounded completely by a green belt. Numerous inner-city parks like the City Park (Stadtpark), the Herzogspark, the Dörnbergpark, the Villapark or the university's botanical garden are a source for recreation and leisure.

Memorial sites

The city of Regensburg has erected several memorials to combat racism, intolerance towards minorities, and all other forms of contempt for human dignity:

Particular to Regensburg are the so-called Stolpersteine (stumbling stones) in honor of Jews deported during Nazism.

Events

Twice a year the Regensburg Dult takes place. This is the city's Volksfest, which is Bavaria's fourth largest. The Bürgerfest (citizen celebration) in the Old Town is held every two years, attracting over 100,000 visitors. Every second weekend in July, people dressed as knights and other medieval characters come together at the Regensburg Spectaculum, a medieval market, near the Stone Bridge. Every December, there are several Christmas markets all over the city.

Nightlife

With over 500 bars, restaurants, clubs, and other venues in the inner city alone, Regensburg provides a rich and diverse nightlife due to its young population.

Demographics

Population

In May 2017, Regensburg had 164,896 inhabitants, [28] making it the fourth largest city in Bavaria. Over the last hundred years, the city has experienced a strong increase in population, surpassing 100,000 inhabitants in 1945 due to Germans who were ethnically cleansed from eastern parts of the Third Reich, especially from the Sudetenland. Today, Regensburg is one of the fastest-growing cities in Germany.
Population Statistics Regensburg.svg

International communities

Nearly 12% of the total population are foreign residents. Most of them come from Middle east and Southeastern Europe: [29]

NationPopulation (31.12 2019)
Flag of Romania.svg  Romania 2,660
Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria 1,970
Flag of Syria.svg  Syria 1,605
Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey 1,535
Flag of Iraq.svg  Iraq 1,480
Total:30,535

Religion

A majority of Regensburg's population is Roman Catholic. In 2017, about 51.4% of the city's inhabitants identified with the Roman Catholic Church, 13.1% were registered Protestants and about 35.5% identified with other religions or did not have any registered religious affiliation. [30]

Politics

Government

The mayor and the City Council are elected for a period of six years. Both elections take place at the same time. The City Council is composed of 51 members and includes the mayor, two deputy mayors, five counsellors and the other council members.

The municipal elections in Bavaria of 2014 delivered the following results:

Partyvoteschangeseatschangecooperation
Social Democratic Party 33.7%+12.217+6X
Christian Social Union 32.8%-7.116-4
The Greens 10.5%-0.15-X
Free Voters 6.9%-0.23-1X
Ecological Democratic Party 6.4%-0.53-
The Left 3.1%-1.52-
Free Democratic Party 3.0%-2.42-1X
Pirate Party 2.3%+2.31+1X
Christian Social Federation 1.5%-2.31-1

After 18 years of a City Council with a conservative majority, the social-democratic candidate, Joachim Wolbergs, became mayor of Regensburg in May 2014. He was succeeded by Gertrud Maltz-Schwarzfischer in May 2020, who is also a social-democratic politician.

Boroughs

Regensburg is subdivided into 18 boroughs (Stadtbezirke): Innenstadt, Stadtamhof, Steinweg-Pfaffenstein, Sallern-Gallingkofen, Konradsiedlung-Wutzlhofen, Brandlberg-Keilberg, Reinhausen, Weichs, Schwabelweis, Ostenviertel, Kasernenviertel, Galgenberg, Kumpfmühl-Ziegetsdorf-Neuprüll, Großprüfening-Dechbetten-Königswiesen, Westenviertel, Ober- und Niederwinzer-Kager, Oberisling-Graß, Burgweinting-Harting. Each borough contains a number of localities (Ortsteile), which can have historic roots in older municipalities that became urbanized and incorporated into the city.

Twin towns – sister cities

Regensburg is twinned with:

Economy

Regensburg's economy counts among the most dynamic and fastest growing in Germany. [33] Focus is on manufacturing industries, such as automotive, industrial and electrical engineering.

Companies

There are several multinational corporations located in Regensburg, such as BMW, Continental, E.ON, General Electric, Infineon, Osram, Schneider Electric, Siemens, Telekom and Toshiba as well as hidden champions (Krones, MR).

BMW operates an automobile production plant in Regensburg; the Regensburg BMW plant produces 3 Series, 1 Series and (previously) Z4 vehicles. Continental AG, with the headquarters of its car component business, Osram Opto-Semiconductors and Siemens as well as Infineon, the former Siemens semiconductor branch, provide a high level of innovation and technical development in Regensburg. Other well known international companies, such as AREVA, Schneider Electric and Toshiba, have built plants in or near Regensburg. GE Aviation founded a greenfield site to innovate, develop and produce turbinemachinery components with a new manufacturing casting technology. Amazon.com located its first German customer service centre in Regensburg. The hidden champions Maschinenfabrik Reinhausen (MR) and Krones both are headquartered in or close to Regensburg and are among the major employers.

Aside from the industrial sector, tourism contributes a lot to Regensburg's economical growth, especially since 2006, when the city gained status as UNESCO World Heritage site. The University of Regensburg, the Regensburg University of Applied Sciences and mercantile trade also play major roles in Regensburg's economy. Increasingly, biotech companies were founded in Regensburg over the last two decades and have their headquarters and laboratories in the city's "BioPark". Another focus is on information technology, with the city running a start-up centre for IT firms. One of these former start-ups, CipSoft GmbH, now is a known video game company still based in Regensburg.

OTTI, the Eastern Bavaria Technology Transfer-Institut e.V., is headquartered in Regensburg. [34]

Tourism

The city recorded 912,238 overnight hotel stays and 531,943 hotel guests in 2012. [35] Tourism figures have nearly doubled within the last 15 years and Regensburg has become one of the most-visited German cities from 100,000 to 500,000 residents. In 2014, Regensburg was ranked as a Top-30 travel attraction in Germany by international tourists. [2]

Infrastructure

Transport

Main railway station Hauptbahnhof in Regensburg - panoramio.jpg
Main railway station

Regensburg Hauptbahnhof (central station) is connected to lines to Munich, Nuremberg, Passau, Weiden and Hof and Ingolstadt and Ulm. The city lies also on two motorways, the A3 from Cologne and Frankfurt to Vienna, and the A93 from Holledau to Hof.

The local transport is provided by a bus network run by the RVV (Regensburger Verkehrsverbund). [36]

Energy

Regensburg's energy is mainly supplied by the German company E.ON, one of the world's largest electric utility service providers. Its subsidiary Bayernwerk runs the local hydropower station in the Danube River. In 2012, about 9.1% of the total electricity consumption was generated by renewable energy sources, about 5.1% of the total heat consumption were generated by renewables. [37] Both figures show, that Regensburg is behind other Bavarian cities in this context. Therefore, the municipal government presented an energy plan in 2014, which should enhance the transformation towards renewable energy sources over the next decade.

Health

Regensburg has one of the most modern university hospitals in Europe, the Universitätsklinikum Regensburg. In addition there are several other well-known hospitals such as the Krankenhaus Barmherzige Brüder and the St. Josef-Krankenhaus. Psychiatric illnesses are treated in the Bezirksklinikum. With 19.4 hospital beds per 1000 residents, Regensburg has the fourth-highest ratio of beds to residents in Germany [38] as well as the third-highest ratio of medical doctors to residents in Germany (339 per 100,000 residents). [39]

The city's BioPark, home to Bavaria's second largest biotech cluster, hosts numerous research institutions and biotech companies.

Education

University of Regensburg, Vielberth building, faculty of business Vielberth-Gebaude, Uni Regensburg.JPG
University of Regensburg, Vielberth building, faculty of business
Regensburg University of Applied Sciences, campus Campus OTH Regensburg.jpg
Regensburg University of Applied Sciences, campus

Universities and academia

Regensburg is known for its higher education institutions, the largest being the University of Regensburg. Founded in 1962, it is one of Germany's newest universities and ranked among the Top 400 universities worldwide. Among the prominent intellectuals associated with the university are Pope Benedict XVI, Udo Steiner and Wolfgang Wiegard. The campus is situated in a single location together with the Regensburg University of Applied Sciences.

Since 1874 there has been a College of Catholic Music in the city, the Hochschule für Katholische Kirchenmusik und Musikpädagogik Regensburg.

Research

In addition to the research centres and institutes of the universities, there are several research institutions situated in the city of Regensburg. Among them are the Leibniz-Institute for East and Southeast European Studies (IOS), the Regensburg Centre for Interventional Immunology (RCI), the Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine (ITEM) and the BioPark, the Bavarian biotech cluster.

Schools

There are eighteen elementary schools in Regensburg. The city also has several secondary education institutions, both public and private, representing all levels of the German school system. There are eight Gymnasien, five Realschulen, six Hauptschulen and four vocational schools (Berufsschulen). In addition, there are several folk high schools with different specialisations.

The SIS Swiss International School provides international educational. [40] Founded in 2002, the Sportinternat Regensburg was Europe's first baseball boarding school. [41]

Sports

Arena Regensburg football stadium Stadionansicht von Nordwesten.JPG
Arena Regensburg football stadium

Football

SSV Jahn Regensburg is the local football club and attracts a fairly large local following. The team was part of a larger sports club founded in 1889 as Turnerbund Jahn Regensburg which took its name from Friedrich Ludwig Jahn, whose ideas of gymnastics greatly influenced German sport in the 19th century. The football department was created in 1907. The footballers and swimmers left their parent club in 1924 to form Sportbund Jahn Regensburg.

Ice hockey

EV Regensburg  [ de ] is the local ice hockey club, currently playing in the Oberliga Süd, Germany's third highest professional league.

Baseball

Regensburg Legionäre is the baseball and softball club from Regensburg. The team is also known as Buchbinder Legionäre, following a sponsorship of the Buchbinder company. The club plays in the German Bundesliga and is one of the most famous and most successful baseball clubs in Germany. Several players now in the MLB formerly played at the club. Its arena, Armin-Wolf-Arena, was built in 1996 and has a capacity of 10,000 spectators, making it to Germany's largest baseball stadium.

Athletics

The local athletics club, LG TELIS FINANZ Regensburg, offers a wide range of different competitions and is counted among the most successful clubs in Germany.

Notable residents

Honorary photo for Pope Benedict XVI in Regensburg Cathedral 240405 ehrenbild-papst-benedikt-dom-regensburg 1-640x480.jpg
Honorary photo for Pope Benedict XVI in Regensburg Cathedral
Johannes Kepler (1610) Johannes Kepler 1610.jpg
Johannes Kepler (1610)

See also

Footnotes

  1. US: /ˈrɡənzbɜːrɡ,ˈrɡənsbʊərk/ , "Regensburg". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt . Retrieved 3 June 2019. "Regensburg". Merriam-Webster Dictionary . Retrieved 3 June 2019.German: [ˈʁeːɡn̩sbʊɐ̯k] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); older English: Ratisbon /ˈrætɪsbɒn/ ; Noah Webster (1884) A Practical Dictionary of the English Language; Bavarian : Rengschburg or Rengschburch

Notes

  1. "Tabellenblatt "Daten 2", Statistischer Bericht A1200C 202041 Einwohnerzahlen der Gemeinden, Kreise und Regierungsbezirke". Bayerisches Landesamt für Statistik und Datenverarbeitung (in German). July 2020.
  2. 1 2 Deutsche Zentrale für Tourismus e.V. (2015-08-14). "The TOP 100 sights and attractions in Germany | Tourism in Germany – travel, breaks, holidays". germany.travel. Retrieved 2015-08-16.
  3. "Iron Age Braumeisters of the Teutonic Forests". BeerAdvocate. Archived from the original on 2006-06-13. Retrieved 2006-06-02.
  4. Tellier, L.N. (2009). Urban World History: An Economic and Geographical Perspective. Presses de l'Universite du Quebec. p. 266. ISBN   9782760522091 . Retrieved 2014-10-10.
  5. The Biographical Dictionary of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, Vol. III, Part II (page 623), printed by William Clowes and Sons, Stamford Street, London, 1844
  6. Herald of Destiny by Berel Wein. New York: Shaar Press, 1993, page 144.
  7. 1 2 "Regensburg During the Holocaust. The Community of Regensburg in the Early Years of the Nazi Regime". Yad Vashem. Retrieved 15 August 2020.
  8. "Regensburg During the Holocaust. The Regensburg Community During World War II". Yad Vashem. Retrieved 15 August 2020.
  9. "Regensburg Subcamp". KZ-Gedenkstätte Flossenbürg. Retrieved 15 August 2020.
  10. Karen Lemiski, Focus on Philately: The stamps of Regensburg, Camp Ganghofersiedlung in The Ukrainian Weekly , February 4, 2001, No. 5, Vol. LXIX
  11. "Europeprize". europeprize.net. Archived from the original on 2015-08-01. Retrieved 2015-08-16.
  12. senorabubu (26 August 2015). "Regensburg – Sightseeing in Italy's most northern city!". TravAgSta.[ self-published source ]
  13. "DWD" . Retrieved 18 August 2018.
  14. Ursula Hagner (26 November 2009). "Europäische Wetterlagen" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 2015-08-16.
  15. "World Weather Information Service – Regensburg". June 2011.
  16. "Klima Regensburg - Station Regensburg (365 m)". Wetterdienst.de. Retrieved 28 July 2017.
  17. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Wikisource-logo.svg One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Regensburg". Encyclopædia Britannica . 23 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 37.
  18. "Discover the Danube – Route of Emperors and Kings". Straße der Kaiser und Könige.
  19. "Regensburg Theaters". regensburgtravel.com. Archived from the original on 2015-07-04. Retrieved 2015-08-16.
  20. "Oberösterreich im bairischen Sprachraum". StifterHaus. Adalbert-Stifter-Institut des Landes Oberösterreich. Retrieved June 23, 2020.
  21. "Z' Rengschbuag redt ma anderscht". Mittelbayerische. Mittelbayerischer Verlag KG. Retrieved June 23, 2020.
  22. Holtmeyer, Annette. "Bairisch – Vom Aussterben bedrohter Dialekt?". planet wissen. Westdeutscher Rundfunk Köln. Retrieved June 23, 2020.
  23. Zehetner, Ludwig (1985). Das bairische Dialektbuch (PDF) (1 ed.). München: C.H. Beck'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung. p. 211. ISBN   3406305628 . Retrieved June 23, 2020.
  24. Prasch, Johann Ludwig. "Glossarium Bavaricum". Bayerische StaatsBibliothek digital. Münchener DigitalisierungsZentrum Digitale Bibliothek. Retrieved June 23, 2020.
  25. "Das Regenburger Bauerntheater - Hubertushöhe". Urlaubserlebnis. regensburg-bayern.de. Retrieved June 23, 2020.
  26. "Mei Fähr Lady". Turmtheater Regensburg. Kulturturm Regensburg e.V. Retrieved June 23, 2020.
  27. "Regensburger Rundschau". Rundschau ePaper. Mittelbayerischer Verlag KG. Retrieved June 23, 2020.
  28. "Informationen, Zahlen und Publikationen der Abteilung Statistik". Stadt Regensburg.
  29. "Statistisches Jahrbuch der Stadt Regensburg" (PDF). Stadt Regensburg – Amt für Stadtentwicklung. Retrieved 2016-05-30.
  30. "Stadt Regensburg – Abteilung Statistik". statistik.regensburg.de. Retrieved 2018-03-07.
  31. "Who is Aberdeen twinned with?". Aberdeen City Council. Archived from the original on 2008-02-07. Retrieved 2008-03-02.
  32. "National Commission for Decentralised cooperation". Délégation pour l'Action Extérieure des Collectivités Territoriales (Ministère des Affaires étrangères) (in French). Archived from the original on 2013-10-04. Retrieved 2013-12-26.
  33. "Prognos Zukunftsatlas 2013: Ergebnisübersicht Gesamtranking" (PDF). 7 November 2013. Retrieved 2015-08-16.
  34. "OTTI – Ostbayerisches Technologie-Transfer-Institut e.V." otti.de. Archived from the original on 2012-05-03. Retrieved 2014-10-10.
  35. "Stadt Regensburg – Abteilung Statistik". statistik.regensburg.de. Retrieved 2015-08-16.
  36. "About Us". Regensburger Verkehrsverbund. Retrieved 10 December 2020.
  37. "Energienutzungsplan Stadt Regensburg – Teilbericht C – Ist-Zustand Erzeugung" (PDF). 16 April 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 2015-08-16.
  38. "Statistisches Bundesamt Deutschland – Interaktive Karten – AI014-1". www-genesis.destatis.de. Retrieved 2015-08-16.
  39. Wirtschaftswoche, Nr. 49, 2014, Städteranking, p. 28
  40. "SIS Regensburg: A school with an active international community in the heart of Regensburg". swissinternationalschool.de. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
  41. Böhm, Claudia (June 19, 2020). "Baseball-Stadt Regensburg - Softballplatz der Legionäre: Stadt und Freistaat beteiligen sich an Sanierung". Blizz. Blizz Regensburg. Retrieved June 24, 2020.
  42. "Hanisch, Joseph (Josef)". Bayerisches Musiker-Lexikon Online (BMLO). Retrieved 11 July 2017.
  43. Christiaan Sepp (1879), "Gichtel, Johann Georg", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB) (in German), 9, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 147–150
  44. "Book of Nature". World Digital Library . 1481. Retrieved 2013-08-27.

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References