UEFA Champions League

Last updated

UEFA Champions League
UEFA Champions League logo 2.svg
Founded1955;66 years ago (1955)
(rebranded in 1992)
RegionEurope (UEFA)
Number of teams32 (group stage)
79 (total)
Qualifier for UEFA Super Cup
FIFA Club World Cup
Related competitions UEFA Europa League (2nd tier)
UEFA Europa Conference League (3rd tier)
Current champions Flag of England.svg Chelsea (2nd title)
Most successful club(s) Flag of Spain.svg Real Madrid (13 titles)
Television broadcasters List of broadcasters
Website Official website
Soccerball current event.svg 2021–22 UEFA Champions League

The UEFA Champions League (abbreviated as UCL) is an annual club football competition organised by the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) and contested by top-division European clubs, deciding the competition winners through a round robin group stage to qualify for a double-legged knockout format, and a single leg final. It is one of the most prestigious football tournaments in the world and the most prestigious club competition in European football, played by the national league champions (and, for some nations, one or more runners-up) of their national associations.

Contents

Introduced in 1955 as the Coupe des Clubs Champions Européens (French for European Champion Clubs' Cup), and commonly known as the European Cup, it was initially a straight knockout tournament open only to the champions of Europe's domestic leagues, with its winner reckoned as the European club champion. The competition took on its current name in 1992, adding a round-robin group stage in 1991 and allowing multiple entrants from certain countries since 1997. [1] It has since been expanded, and while most of Europe's national leagues can still only enter their champion, the strongest leagues now provide up to four teams. [2] [3] Clubs that finish next-in-line in their national league, having not qualified for the Champions League, are eligible for the second-tier UEFA Europa League competition, and from 2021, teams not eligible for the UEFA Europa League will qualify for a new third-tier competition called the UEFA Europa Conference League. [4]

In its present format, the Champions League begins in late June with a preliminary round, three qualifying rounds and a play-off round, all played over two legs. The six surviving teams enter the group stage, joining 26 teams qualified in advance. The 32 teams are drawn into eight groups of four teams and play each other in a double round-robin system. The eight group winners and eight runners-up proceed to the knockout phase that culminates with the final match in late May or early June. [5] The winner of the Champions League qualifies for the following year's Champions League, the UEFA Super Cup and the FIFA Club World Cup. [6] [7] Spanish clubs have the highest number of victories (18 wins), followed by England (14 wins) and Italy (12 wins). England has the largest number of winning teams, with five clubs having won the title. The competition has been won by 22 clubs, 13 of which have won it more than once and eight successfully defended their title. [8] Real Madrid is the most successful club in the tournament's history, having won it 13 times, including its first five seasons. Chelsea are the reigning champions, having beaten Manchester City 1–0 in the 2021 final.

History

The first time the champions of two European leagues met was in what was nicknamed the 1895 World Championship, when English champions Sunderland beat Scottish champions Heart of Midlothian 5–3. [9] The first pan-European tournament was the Challenge Cup, a competition between clubs in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. [10] The Mitropa Cup, a competition modelled after the Challenge Cup, was created in 1927, an idea of Austrian Hugo Meisl, and played between Central European clubs. [11] In 1930, the Coupe des Nations (French: Nations Cup), the first attempt to create a cup for national champion clubs of Europe, was played and organised by Swiss club Servette. [12] Held in Geneva, it brought together ten champions from across the continent. The tournament was won by Újpest of Hungary. [12] Latin European nations came together to form the Latin Cup in 1949. [13]

After receiving reports from his journalists over the highly successful South American Championship of Champions of 1948, Gabriel Hanot, editor of L'Équipe , began proposing the creation of a continent-wide tournament. [14] In interviews, Jacques Ferran (one of the founders of the European Champions Cup, together with Gabriel Hanot), [15] said that the South American Championship of Champions was the inspiration for the European Champions Cup. [16] After Stan Cullis declared Wolverhampton Wanderers "Champions of the World" following a successful run of friendlies in the 1950s, in particular a 3–2 friendly victory against Budapest Honvéd, Hanot finally managed to convince UEFA to put into practice such a tournament. [1] It was conceived in Paris in 1955 as the European Champion Clubs' Cup. [1]

1955–67: Beginnings

Alfredo Di Stefano in 1959. He led Real Madrid to win five consecutive European Cups between 1956 and 1960. Di stefano real madrid cf (cropped).png
Alfredo Di Stéfano in 1959. He led Real Madrid to win five consecutive European Cups between 1956 and 1960.

The first edition of the European Cup took place during the 1955–56 season. [17] [18] Sixteen teams participated (some by invitation): Milan (Italy), AGF Aarhus (Denmark), Anderlecht (Belgium), Djurgården (Sweden), Gwardia Warszawa (Poland), Hibernian (Scotland), Partizan (Yugoslavia), PSV Eindhoven (Netherlands), Rapid Wien (Austria), Real Madrid (Spain), Rot-Weiss Essen (West Germany), Saarbrücken (Saar), Servette (Switzerland), Sporting CP (Portugal), Stade de Reims (France), and Vörös Lobogó (Hungary). [17] [18] The first European Cup match took place on 4 September 1955, and ended in a 3–3 draw between Sporting CP and Partizan. [17] [18] The first goal in European Cup history was scored by João Baptista Martins of Sporting CP. [17] [18] The inaugural final took place at the Parc des Princes between Stade de Reims and Real Madrid on 13 June 1956. [17] [18] [19] The Spanish squad came back from behind to win 4–3 thanks to goals from Alfredo Di Stéfano and Marquitos, as well as two goals from Héctor Rial. [17] [18] [19]

Real Madrid successfully defended the trophy next season in their home stadium, the Santiago Bernabéu, against Fiorentina. [20] [21] After a scoreless first half, Real Madrid scored twice in six minutes to defeat the Italians. [19] [20] [21] In 1958, Milan failed to capitalise after going ahead on the scoreline twice, only for Real Madrid to equalise. [22] [23] The final, held in Heysel Stadium, went to extra time where Francisco Gento scored the game-winning goal to allow Real Madrid to retain the title for the third consecutive season. [19] [22] [23] In a rematch of the first final, Real Madrid faced Stade Reims at the Neckarstadion for the 1959 final, and won 2–0. [19] [24] [25] West German side Eintracht Frankfurt became the first non-Latin team to reach the European Cup final. [26] [27] The 1960 final holds the record for the most goals scored, with Real Madrid beating Eintracht Frankfurt 7–3 in Hampden Park, courtesy of four goals by Ferenc Puskás and a hat-trick by Alfredo Di Stéfano. [19] [26] [27] This was Real Madrid's fifth consecutive title, a record that still stands today. [8]

Real Madrid's reign ended in the 1960–61 season when bitter rivals Barcelona dethroned them in the first round. [28] [29] Barcelona themselves, however, would be defeated in the final by Portuguese side Benfica 3–2 at Wankdorf Stadium. [28] [29] [30] Reinforced by Eusébio, Benfica defeated Real Madrid 5–3 at the Olympic Stadium in Amsterdam and kept the title for a second consecutive season. [30] [31] [32] Benfica wanted to repeat Real Madrid's successful run of the 1950s after reaching the showpiece event of the 1962–63 European Cup, but a brace from Brazilian-Italian José Altafini at the Wembley Stadium gave the spoils to Milan, making the trophy leave the Iberian Peninsula for the first time ever. [33] [34] [35] Inter Milan beat an ageing Real Madrid 3–1 in the Ernst-Happel-Stadion to win the 1963–64 season and replicate their local-rival's success. [36] [37] [38] The title stayed in the city of Milan for the third year in a row after Inter beat Benfica 1–0 at their home ground, the San Siro. [39] [40] [41] Under the leadership of Jock Stein, Scottish club Celtic defeated Inter Milan 2–1 in the 1967 final to become the first British club to win the European Cup. [42] [43] The Celtic players that day subsequently became known as the "Lisbon Lions", all of whom were born within 30 miles of Glasgow. [44]

1968–76

Johan Cruyff holding the European Cup during celebrations in Amsterdam following Ajax's 1972 triumph Ajax-speler Barry Hulshoff met de cup, Bestanddeelnr 925-6412.jpg
Johan Cruyff holding the European Cup during celebrations in Amsterdam following Ajax's 1972 triumph

The 1967–68 season saw Manchester United become the first English team to win the European Cup, beating Benfica 4–1 in the final. [45] This final came 10 years after the Munich air disaster, which claimed the lives of eight United players and left their manager, Matt Busby, fighting for his life. [46] In the 1968–69 season, Ajax became the first Dutch team to reach the European Cup final, but they were beaten by Milan 4–1, who claimed their second European Cup, with Pierino Prati scoring a hat-trick. [47]

The 1969–70 season saw the first Dutch winners of the competition. Rotterdam-based club Feyenoord knocked out the defending champions, Milan in the second round, [48] before defeating Celtic in the final. [49] In the 1970–71 season Ajax won the title, beating Greek side Panathinaikos in the final. [50] the season saw a number of changes, with penalty shoot-outs being introduced, and the away goals rule being changed so that it would be used in all rounds except the final. [51] It was also the first time a Greek team reach the final, as well as the first season that Real Madrid failed to qualify, having finished sixth in La Liga the previous season. [52]

Anthem

"Magic...it’s magic above all else. When you hear the anthem it captivates you straight away."

Zinedine Zidane [53]

The UEFA Champions League anthem, officially titled simply as "Champions League", was written by Tony Britten, and is an adaptation of George Frideric Handel's 1727 anthem Zadok the Priest (one of his Coronation Anthems). [54] [55] UEFA commissioned Britten in 1992 to arrange an anthem, and the piece was performed by London's Royal Philharmonic Orchestra and sung by the Academy of St. Martin in the Fields. [54] Stating "the anthem is now almost as iconic as the trophy", UEFA's official website adds it is "known to set the hearts of many of the world's top footballers aflutter". [54]

The Champions League anthem is played before the start of each match as the two teams are lined up while the Champions League "starball" logo is displayed in the centre circle. Beginning Arsenal Sevilla.jpg
The Champions League anthem is played before the start of each match as the two teams are lined up while the Champions League "starball" logo is displayed in the centre circle.

The chorus contains the three official languages used by UEFA: English, German, and French. [56] The climactic moment is set to the exclamations ‘Die Meister! Die Besten! Les Grandes Équipes! The Champions!’. [57] The anthem's chorus is played before each UEFA Champions League game as the two teams are lined up, as well as at the beginning and end of television broadcasts of the matches. In addition to the anthem, there is also entrance music, which contains parts of the anthem itself, which is played as teams enter the field. [58] The complete anthem is about three minutes long, and has two short verses and the chorus. [56]

Special vocal versions have been performed live at the Champions League Final with lyrics in other languages, changing over to the host nation's language for the chorus. These versions were performed by Andrea Bocelli (Italian) (Rome 2009, Milan 2016 and Cardiff 2017), Juan Diego Flores (Spanish) (Madrid 2010), All Angels (Wembley 2011), Jonas Kaufmann and David Garrett (Munich 2012), and Mariza (Lisbon 2014). In the 2013 final at Wembley Stadium, the chorus was played twice. In the 2018 and 2019 finals, held in Kyiv and Madrid respectively, the instrumental version of the chorus was played, by 2Cellos (2018) and Asturia Girls (2019). [59] [60] The anthem has been released commercially in its original version on iTunes and Spotify with the title of Champions League Theme. In 2018, composer Hans Zimmer remixed the anthem with rapper Vince Staples for EA Sports' video game FIFA 19 , with it also featuring in the game's reveal trailer. [61]

Branding

The "starball" logo is also incorporated into the competition's official match ball, the Adidas Finale Adidas Finale 20.jpg
The "starball" logo is also incorporated into the competition's official match ball, the Adidas Finale

In 1991, UEFA asked its commercial partner, Television Event and Media Marketing (TEAM), to help "brand" the Champions League. This resulted in the anthem, "house colours" of black and white or silver and a logo, and the "starball". The starball was created by Design Bridge, a London-based firm selected by TEAM after a competition. [62] TEAM gives particular attention to detail in how the colours and starball are depicted at matches. According to TEAM, "Irrespective of whether you are a spectator in Moscow or Milan, you will always see the same stadium dressing materials, the same opening ceremony featuring the 'starball' centre circle ceremony, and hear the same UEFA Champions League Anthem". Based on research it conducted, TEAM concluded that by 1999, "the starball logo had achieved a recognition rate of 94 percent among fans". [63]

Format

Qualification

Map of UEFA countries whose teams reached the group stage of the UEFA Champions League
.mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}
UEFA member state that has been represented in the group stage
UEFA member state that has not been represented in the group stage UEFA members Champs League group stage.png
Map of UEFA countries whose teams reached the group stage of the UEFA Champions League
  UEFA member state that has been represented in the group stage
  UEFA member state that has not been represented in the group stage

The UEFA Champions League begins with a double round-robin group stage of 32 teams, which since the 2009–10 season is preceded by two qualification 'streams' for teams that do not receive direct entry to the tournament proper. The two streams are divided between teams qualified by virtue of being league champions, and those qualified by virtue of finishing 2nd–4th in their national championship.

The number of teams that each association enters into the UEFA Champions League is based upon the UEFA coefficients of the member associations. These coefficients are generated by the results of clubs representing each association during the previous five Champions League and UEFA Cup/Europa League seasons. The higher an association's coefficient, the more teams represent the association in the Champions League, and the fewer qualification rounds the association's teams must compete in.

Four of the remaining six qualifying places are granted to the winners of a six-round qualifying tournament between the remaining 43 or 44 national champions, within which those champions from associations with higher coefficients receive byes to later rounds. The other two are granted to the winners of a three-round qualifying tournament between the 11 clubs from the associations ranked 5 through 15, which have qualified based upon finishing second, or third in their respective national league.

In addition to sporting criteria, any club must be licensed by its national association to participate in the Champions League. To obtain a license, the club must meet certain stadium, infrastructure and finance requirements.

In 2005–06, Liverpool and Artmedia Bratislava became the first teams to reach the Champions League group stage after playing in all three qualifying rounds. Real Madrid and Barcelona hold the record for the most appearances in the group stage, having qualified 25 times, followed by Porto and Bayern on 24. [64]

Between 1999 and 2008, no differentiation was made between champions and non-champions in qualification. The 16 top-ranked teams spread across the biggest domestic leagues qualified directly for the tournament group stage. Prior to this, three preliminary knockout qualifying rounds whittled down the remaining teams, with teams starting in different rounds.

An exception to the usual European qualification system happened in 2005, after Liverpool won the Champions League the year before, but did not finish in a Champions League qualification place in the Premier League that season. UEFA gave special dispensation for Liverpool to enter the Champions League, giving England five qualifiers. [65] UEFA subsequently ruled that the defending champions qualify for the competition the following year regardless of their domestic league placing. However, for those leagues with four entrants in the Champions League, this meant that, if the Champions League winner fell outside of its domestic league's top four, it would qualify at the expense of the fourth-placed team in the league. Until 2015–16, no association could have more than four entrants in the Champions League. [66] In May 2012, Tottenham Hotspur finished fourth in the 2011–12 Premier League, two places ahead of Chelsea, but failed to qualify for the 2012–13 Champions League, after Chelsea won the 2012 final. [67] Tottenham were demoted to the 2012–13 UEFA Europa League. [67]

In May 2013, [68] it was decided that, starting from the 2015–16 season (and continuing at least for the three-year cycle until the 2017–18 season), the winners of the previous season's UEFA Europa League would qualify for the UEFA Champions League, entering at least the play-off round, and entering the group stage if the berth reserved for the Champions League title holders was not used. The previous limit of a maximum of four teams per association was increased to five, meaning that a fourth-placed team from one of the top three ranked associations would only have to be moved to the Europa League if both the Champions League and Europa League winners came from that association and both finished outside the top four of their domestic league. [69]

In 2007, Michel Platini, the UEFA president, had proposed taking one place from the three leagues with four entrants and allocating it to that nation's cup winners. This proposal was rejected in a vote at a UEFA Strategy Council meeting. [70] In the same meeting, however, it was agreed that the third-placed team in the top three leagues would receive automatic qualification for the group stage, rather than entry into the third qualifying round, while the fourth-placed team would enter the play-off round for non-champions, guaranteeing an opponent from one of the top 15 leagues in Europe. This was part of Platini's plan to increase the number of teams qualifying directly into the group stage, while simultaneously increasing the number of teams from lower-ranked nations in the group stage. [71]

In 2012, Arsène Wenger referred to qualifying for the Champion's League by finishing in the top four places in the English Premier League as the "4th Place Trophy". The phrase was coined after a pre-match conference when he was questioned about Arsenal's lack of a trophy after exiting the FA Cup. He said "The first trophy is to finish in the top four". [72] At Arsenal's 2012 AGM, Wenger was also quoted as saying: "For me there are five trophies every season: Premier League, Champions League, the third is to qualify for the Champions League..." [73]

Group stage and knockout phase

Milan's Ronaldinho and Zlatan Ibrahimovic surrounded by Real Madrid defenders during a Champions League group stage game in 2010 Real Madrid-Milan free kick 2.jpg
Milan’s Ronaldinho and Zlatan Ibrahimović surrounded by Real Madrid defenders during a Champions League group stage game in 2010

The tournament proper begins with a group stage of 32 teams, divided into eight groups of four. [74] Seeding is used whilst making the draw for this stage, whilst teams from the same nation may not be drawn into groups together. Each team plays six group stage games, meeting the other three teams in its group home and away in a round-robin format. [74] The winning team and the runners-up from each group then progress to the next round. The third-placed team enters the UEFA Europa League.

For the next stage – the last 16 – the winning team from one group plays against the runners-up from another group, and teams from the same association may not be drawn against each other. From the quarter-finals onwards, the draw is entirely random, without association protection. [75]

The group stage is played from September to December, whilst the knock-out stage starts in February. The knock-out ties are played in a two-legged format, with the exception of the final. The final is typically held in the last two weeks of May, or in the early days of June, which has happened in three consecutive odd-numbered years since 2015. In the 2019–20 season, due to the COVID-19 pandemic the tournament was suspended for five months. The format of the remainder of the tournament was temporarily amended as a result, with the quarter-finals and semi-finals being played as single match knockout ties at neutral venues in Lisbon, Portugal in the summer with the final taking place on 23 August. [76]

Distribution

The following is the default access list. [77] [78]

Access list for 2018–19 to 2023–24 UEFA Champions League
Teams entering in this roundTeams advancing from the previous round
Preliminary round
(4 teams)
  • 4 champions from associations 52–55
First qualifying round
(34 teams)
  • 33 champions from associations 18–51 (except Liechtenstein)
  • 1 winner from the preliminary round
Second qualifying roundChampions Path
(20 teams)
  • 3 champions from associations 15–17
  • 17 winners from the first qualifying round
League Path
(6 teams)
  • 6 runners-up from associations 10–15
Third qualifying roundChampions Path
(12 teams)
  • 2 champions from associations 13–14
  • 10 winners from the second qualifying round (Champions Path)
League Path
(8 teams)
  • 3 runners-up from associations 7–9
  • 2 third-placed teams from association 5–6
  • 3 winners from the second qualifying round (League Path)
Play-off roundChampions Path
(8 teams)
  • 2 champions from associations 11–12
  • 6 winners from the third qualifying round (Champions Path)
League Path
(4 teams)
  • 4 winners from the third qualifying round (League Path)
Group stage
(32 teams)
  • UEFA Champions League titleholder
  • UEFA Europa League titleholder
  • 10 champions from associations 1–10
  • 6 runners-up from associations 1–6
  • 4 third-placed teams from associations 1–4
  • 4 fourth-placed teams from associations 1–4
  • 4 winners from the play-off round (Champions Path)
  • 2 winners from the play-off round (League Path)
Knockout phase
(16 teams)
  • 8 group winners from the group stage
  • 8 group runners-up from the group stage

Changes will be made to the access list above if the Champions League or Europa League title holders qualify for the tournament via their domestic leagues.

Referees

Ranking

The UEFA Refereeing Unit is broken down into five experience-based categories. A referee is initially placed into Category 4 with the exception of referees from France, Germany, England, Italy, or Spain. Referees from these five countries are typically comfortable with top professional matches and are therefore directly placed into Category 3. Each referee's performance is observed and evaluated after every match; his category may be revised twice per season, but a referee cannot be promoted directly from Category 3 to the Elite Category. [79]

Appointment

In co-operation with the UEFA Refereeing Unit, the UEFA Referee Committee is responsible for appointing referees to matches. Referees are appointed based on previous matches, marks, performances, and fitness levels. To discourage bias, the Champions League takes nationality into account. No referee may be of the same origins as any club in his or her respecting groups. Referee appointments, suggested by the UEFA Refereeing Unit, are sent to the UEFA Referee Committee to be discussed or revised. After a consensus is made, the name of the appointed referee remains confidential up to two days before the match for the purpose of minimising public influence. [79]

Limitations

Since 1990, a UEFA international referee cannot exceed the age of 45 years. After turning 45, a referee must step down at the end of his season. The age limit was established to ensure an elite level of fitness. Today, UEFA Champions League referees are required to pass a fitness test to even be considered at the international level. [79]

Prizes

Trophy and medals

Official trophy Trofeo UEFA Champions League.jpg
Official trophy

Each year, the winning team is presented with the European Champion Clubs' Cup, the current version of which has been awarded since 1967. From the 1968–69 season and prior to the 2008–09 season any team that won the Champions League three years in a row or five times overall was awarded the official trophy permanently. [80] Each time a club achieved this a new official trophy had to be forged for the following season. [81] Five clubs own a version of the official trophy: Real Madrid, Ajax, Bayern Munich, Milan and Liverpool. [80] Since 2008, the official trophy has remained with UEFA and the clubs are awarded a replica. [80]

The current trophy is 74 cm (29 in) tall and made of silver, weighing 11 kg (24 lb). It was designed by Jürg Stadelmann, a jeweller from Bern, Switzerland, after the original was given to Real Madrid in 1966 in recognition of their six titles to date, and cost 10,000 Swiss francs.

As of the 2012–13 season, 40 gold medals are presented to the Champions League winners, and 40 silver medals to the runners-up. [82]

Prize money

As of 2019–20, the fixed amount of prize money paid to the clubs is as follows: [83]

This means that, at best, a club can earn €82,450,000 of prize money under this structure, not counting shares of the qualifying rounds, play-off round or the market pool.

A large part of the distributed revenue from the UEFA Champions League is linked to the "market pool", the distribution of which is determined by the value of the television market in each nation. For the 2014–15 season, Juventus, who were the runners-up, earned nearly €89.1 million in total, of which €30.9 million was prize money, compared with the €61.0 million earned by Barcelona, who won the tournament and were awarded €36.4 million in prize money. [84]

Sponsorship

A can of Heineken with the branding of the 2011 UEFA Champions League Final Heineken can 2011 UEFA Champions League Final.jpg
A can of Heineken with the branding of the 2011 UEFA Champions League Final
Betting advertisements are banned in Turkey. On 9 April 2013, Real Madrid (whose shirt sponsors were bwin) were required to wear sponsor-free jerseys while playing against Galatasaray in Istanbul. Eboue Ronaldo.JPG
Betting advertisements are banned in Turkey. On 9 April 2013, Real Madrid (whose shirt sponsors were bwin) were required to wear sponsor-free jerseys while playing against Galatasaray in Istanbul.

Like the FIFA World Cup, the UEFA Champions League is sponsored by a group of multinational corporations, in contrast to the single main sponsor typically found in national top-flight leagues. When the Champions League was created in 1992, it was decided that a maximum of eight companies should be allowed to sponsor the event, with each corporation being allocated four advertising boards around the perimeter of the pitch, as well as logo placement at pre- and post-match interviews and a certain number of tickets to each match. This, combined with a deal to ensure tournament sponsors were given priority on television advertisements during matches, ensured that each of the tournament's main sponsors was given maximum exposure. [85]

From the 2012–13 knockout phase, UEFA used LED advertising hoardings installed in knock-out participant stadiums, including the final stage. From the 2015–16 season onwards, UEFA has used such hoardings from the play-off round until the final. [86]

The tournament's main sponsors for the 2021–24 cycle are:

Adidas is a secondary sponsor and supplies the official match ball, the Adidas Finale, and Macron supplies the referees' kit. [93] Hublot is also a secondary sponsor as the official fourth official board of the competition. [94]

Individual clubs may wear jerseys with advertising. However, only one sponsorship is permitted per jersey in addition to that of the kit manufacturer. Exceptions are made for non-profit organisations, which can feature on the front of the shirt, incorporated with the main sponsor or in place of it; or on the back, either below the squad number or on the collar area. [95]

If a club plays a match in a nation where the relevant sponsorship category is restricted (such as France's alcohol advertising restriction), then they must remove that logo from their jerseys. For example, when Rangers played French side Auxerre in the 1996–97 Champions League, they wore the logo of Center Parcs instead of McEwan's Lager (both companies at the time were subsidiaries of Scottish & Newcastle). [96]

Media coverage

The competition attracts an extensive television audience, not just in Europe, but throughout the world. The final of the tournament has been, in recent years, the most-watched annual sporting event in the world. [97] The final of the 2012–13 tournament had the competition's highest TV ratings to date, drawing approximately 360 million television viewers. [98]

Records and statistics

Performances by club

Performances in the European Cup and UEFA Champions League by club
ClubTitle(s)Runners-upSeasons wonSeasons runner-up
Flag of Spain.svg Real Madrid 133 1956, 1957, 1958, 1959, 1960, 1966, 1998, 2000, 2002, 2014, 2016, 2017, 2018 1962, 1964, 1981
Flag of Italy.svg Milan 74 1963, 1969, 1989, 1990, 1994, 2003, 2007 1958, 1993, 1995, 2005
Flag of Germany.svg Bayern Munich 65 1974, 1975, 1976, 2001, 2013, 2020 1982, 1987, 1999, 2010, 2012
Flag of England.svg Liverpool 63 1977, 1978, 1981, 1984, 2005, 2019 1985, 2007, 2018
Flag of Spain.svg Barcelona 53 1992, 2006, 2009, 2011, 2015 1961, 1986, 1994
Flag of the Netherlands.svg Ajax 42 1971, 1972, 1973, 1995 1969, 1996
Flag of England.svg Manchester United 32 1968, 1999, 2008 2009, 2011
Flag of Italy.svg Inter Milan 32 1964, 1965, 2010 1967, 1972
Flag of Italy.svg Juventus 27 1985, 1996 1973, 1983, 1997, 1998, 2003, 2015, 2017
Flag of Portugal.svg Benfica 25 1961, 1962 1963, 1965, 1968, 1988, 1990
Flag of England.svg Chelsea 21 2012, 2021 2008
Flag of England.svg Nottingham Forest 20 1979, 1980
Flag of Portugal.svg Porto 20 1987, 2004
Flag of Scotland.svg Celtic 11 1967 1970
Flag of Germany.svg Hamburger SV 11 1983 1980
Flag of Romania.svg Steaua București 11 1986 1989
Flag of France.svg Marseille 11 1993 1991
Flag of Germany.svg Borussia Dortmund 11 1997 2013
Flag of the Netherlands.svg Feyenoord 10 1970
Flag of England.svg Aston Villa 10 1982
Flag of the Netherlands.svg PSV Eindhoven 10 1988
Flag of Yugoslavia (1946-1992).svg Red Star Belgrade 10 1991
Flag of Spain.svg Atlético Madrid 03 1974, 2014, 2016
Flag of France.svg Reims 02 1956, 1959
Flag of Spain.svg Valencia 02 2000, 2001
Flag of Italy.svg Fiorentina 01 1957
Flag of Germany.svg Eintracht Frankfurt 01 1960
Flag of Yugoslavia (1946-1992).svg Partizan 01 1966
Flag of Greece.svg Panathinaikos 01 1971
Flag of England.svg Leeds United 01 1975
Flag of France.svg Saint-Étienne 01 1976
Flag of Germany.svg Borussia Mönchengladbach 01 1977
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg Club Brugge 01 1978
Flag of Sweden.svg Malmö FF 01 1979
Flag of Italy.svg Roma 01 1984
Flag of Italy.svg Sampdoria 01 1992
Flag of Germany.svg Bayer Leverkusen 01 2002
Flag of France.svg Monaco 01 2004
Flag of England.svg Arsenal 01 2006
Flag of England.svg Tottenham Hotspur 01 2019
Flag of France.svg Paris Saint-Germain 01 2020
Flag of England.svg Manchester City 01 2021

Performances by nation

Performances in finals by nation
NationTitlesRunners-upTotal
Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 181129
Flag of England.svg  England 141024
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 121628
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany [lower-alpha 1] 81018
Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 628
Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal 459
Flag of France.svg  France 167
Flag of Romania.svg  Romania 112
Flag of Scotland.svg  Scotland 112
Flag of Yugoslavia (1946-1992).svg  Yugoslavia [lower-alpha 2] 112
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium 011
Flag of Greece.svg  Greece 011
Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden 011

All-time top scorers

As of 29 May 2021 [99] [100] [101]

A Double-dagger-14-plain.png indicates the player was from the European Cup era. Players that took part in the 2020–21 UEFA Champions League are highlighted in boldface.
The table below does not include goals scored in the qualification stage of the competition.

RankPlayerGoalsAppsRatioYearsClub(s) (Goals)
1 Flag of Portugal.svg Cristiano Ronaldo 134 [lower-alpha 3] 1760.762003– Manchester United (15)
Real Madrid (105)
Juventus (14)
2 Flag of Argentina.svg Lionel Messi 1201490.812005– Barcelona
3 Flag of Poland.svg Robert Lewandowski 73960.762011– Borussia Dortmund (17)
Bayern Munich (56)
4 Flag of France.svg Karim Benzema 711300.552006– Lyon (12)
Real Madrid (59)
Flag of Spain.svg Raúl 711420.501995–2011 Real Madrid (66)
Schalke 04 (5)
6 Flag of the Netherlands.svg Ruud van Nistelrooy 56 [lower-alpha 4] 730.771998–2009 PSV Eindhoven (8)
Manchester United (35)
Real Madrid (13)
7 Flag of France.svg Thierry Henry 50 [lower-alpha 5] 1120.451997–2012 Monaco (7)
Arsenal (35)
Barcelona (8)
8 Flag of Argentina.svg Alfredo Di Stéfano Double-dagger-14-plain.png49580.841955–1964 Real Madrid
9 Flag of Ukraine.svg Andriy Shevchenko 48 [lower-alpha 6] 1000.481994–2012 Dynamo Kyiv (15)
Milan (29)
Chelsea (4)
Flag of Sweden.svg Zlatan Ibrahimović 48 [lower-alpha 7] 1200.402001–2017 Ajax (6)
Juventus (3)
Inter Milan (6)
Barcelona (4)
Milan (9)
Paris Saint-Germain (20)
Flag of Germany.svg Thomas Müller 481240.392008– Bayern Munich

Most appearances

As of 5 May 2021 [103] [104]

Players that are still active in Europe are highlighted in boldface.
The table below does not include appearances made in the qualification stage of the competition.

RankPlayerNationAppsYearsClub(s) (Apps)
1 Iker Casillas Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 1771999–2019 Real Madrid (150)
Porto (27)
2 Cristiano Ronaldo Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal 1762003– Manchester United (52)
Real Madrid (101)
Juventus (23)
3 Xavi Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 1511998–2015 Barcelona
4 Lionel Messi Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 1492005– Barcelona
5 Raúl Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 1421995–2011 Real Madrid (130)
Schalke 04 (12)
6 Ryan Giggs Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg  Wales 1411994–2014 Manchester United
7 Andrés Iniesta Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 1302002–2018 Barcelona
Karim Benzema Flag of France.svg  France 2006– Lyon (19)
Real Madrid (111)
9 Sergio Ramos Flag of Spain.svg  Spain 1292005– Real Madrid
10 Clarence Seedorf Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 1251994–2012 Ajax (11)
Real Madrid (25)
Milan (89)

See also

Notes

  1. Includes clubs representing West Germany. No clubs representing East Germany appeared in a final.
  2. Both Yugoslav final appearances were by clubs from SR Serbia
  3. Ronaldo additionally scored one goal [102] in four qualification matches.
  4. Van Nistelrooy additionally scored four goals in eight qualification matches.
  5. Henry additionally scored one goal in three qualification matches.
  6. Shevchenko additionally scored 11 goals in 16 qualification matches.
  7. Ibrahimović additionally scored one goal in four qualification matches.

Related Research Articles

UEFA Europa League Annual association football competition

The UEFA Europa League is an annual football club competition organised by the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) for eligible European football clubs. It is the second-tier competition of European club football, ranking below the UEFA Champions League and above the UEFA Europa Conference League after being the third-tier competition from 1971 to 1999 before the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup was discontinued. Clubs qualify for the competition based on their performance in their national leagues and cup competitions.

2010 UEFA Champions League Final The final of the 2009–10 edition of the UEFA Champions League

The 2010 UEFA Champions League Final was an association football match played at the Santiago Bernabéu Stadium, home of Real Madrid, on Saturday, 22 May 2010, to determine the winners of the 2009–10 UEFA Champions League. It was the first Champions League final to be played on a Saturday, rather than the traditional Wednesday. The match was won by Inter Milan, who beat Bayern Munich 2–0 to complete the treble, a feat never before achieved by any team from either Italy or Germany. The refereeing team came from England and was led by Howard Webb.

2009–10 UEFA Champions League

The 2009–10 UEFA Champions League was the 55th season of Europe's premier club football tournament organised by UEFA, and the 18th under the current UEFA Champions League format. The final was played on 22 May 2010, at the Santiago Bernabéu Stadium, home of Real Madrid, in Madrid, Spain. The final was won by Italian club Inter Milan, who beat German side Bayern Munich 2–0. Inter Milan went on to represent Europe in the 2010 FIFA Club World Cup, beating Congolese side TP Mazembe 3–0 in the final, and played in the 2010 UEFA Super Cup against Europa League winners Atlético Madrid, losing 2–0.

2010 UEFA Europa League Final Football match

The 2010 UEFA Europa League Final was the final match of the 2009–10 UEFA Europa League, the first season of the revamped European football competition formerly known as the UEFA Cup. Played at the HSH Nordbank Arena in Hamburg, Germany, on 12 May 2010, the match was won by Spain's Atlético Madrid, who, after extra time, beat England's Fulham 2–1.

2012 UEFA Europa League Final Football match

The 2012 UEFA Europa League Final was the final match of the 2011–12 UEFA Europa League, the 41st season of Europe's secondary club football tournament organised by UEFA, and the 3rd season since it was renamed from the UEFA Cup to the UEFA Europa League. The match was played on 9 May 2012 at the Arena Națională in Bucharest, Romania, and was contested between two Spanish sides – Atlético Madrid and Athletic Bilbao. The match ended with Atlético Madrid winning 3–0, with Radamel Falcao scoring two goals and Diego scoring another. In doing so, Falcao was named man of the match, and became the first player to win back-to-back Europa League titles with different teams.

2014 UEFA Champions League Final The final of the 2013–14 edition of the UEFA Champions League

The 2014 UEFA Champions League Final was the final match of the 2013–14 UEFA Champions League, the 59th season of Europe's premier club football tournament organised by UEFA, and the 22nd season since it was renamed from the European Champion Clubs' Cup to the UEFA Champions League.

2014–15 UEFA Champions League Football tournament that concluded in 2015

The 2014–15 UEFA Champions League was the 60th season of Europe's premier club football tournament organised by UEFA, and the 23rd season since it was renamed from the European Champion Clubs' Cup to the UEFA Champions League.

2014 UEFA Europa League Final Football match

The 2014 UEFA Europa League Final was the final match of the 2013–14 UEFA Europa League, the 43rd season of Europe's secondary club football tournament organised by UEFA, and the fifth season since it was renamed from the UEFA Cup to the UEFA Europa League. It was played at the Juventus Stadium in Turin, Italy on 14 May 2014, between Spanish side Sevilla and Portuguese side Benfica. Sevilla won the match 4–2 on penalties, following a 0–0 draw after extra time.

2015–16 UEFA Champions League 61st season of the UEFA club football tournament

The 2015–16 UEFA Champions League was the 61st season of Europe's premier club football tournament organised by UEFA, and the 24th season since it was renamed from the European Champion Clubs' Cup to the UEFA Champions League. Barcelona were the title holders, but were eliminated by Atlético Madrid in the quarter-finals.

2016–17 UEFA Champions League 62nd season of Europes premier club football tournament organised by UEFA

The 2016–17 UEFA Champions League was the 62nd season of Europe's premier club football tournament organised by UEFA, and the 25th season since it was renamed from the European Champion Clubs' Cup to the UEFA Champions League.

2017 UEFA Europa League Final Football match

The 2017 UEFA Europa League Final was the final match of the 2016–17 UEFA Europa League, the 46th season of Europe's secondary club football tournament organised by UEFA, and the 8th season since it was renamed from the UEFA Cup to the UEFA Europa League. It was played on 24 May 2017 at the Friends Arena in Solna, Stockholm, Sweden, between Dutch side Ajax and English side Manchester United. Manchester United won the match 2–0 to secure their first title in this competition. With this victory, they joined Juventus, Ajax, Bayern Munich and Chelsea as the only clubs to have won all three major European trophies ; while, with this defeat, Ajax became the fifth club – after Hamburger SV, Fiorentina, Arsenal and Liverpool – to have been runner-up in all these competitions.

2017–18 UEFA Champions League 63rd season of Europes premier club football tournament organised by UEFA

The 2017–18 UEFA Champions League was the 63rd season of Europe's premier club football tournament organised by UEFA, and the 26th season since it was renamed from the European Champion Clubs' Cup to the UEFA Champions League.

2018 UEFA Europa League Final Football match

The 2018 UEFA Europa League Final was the final match of the 2017–18 UEFA Europa League, the 47th season of Europe's secondary club football tournament organised by UEFA, and the 9th season since it was renamed from the UEFA Cup to the UEFA Europa League. It was played at the Parc Olympique Lyonnais in Décines-Charpieu, Lyon, France on 16 May 2018, between French side Marseille and Spanish side Atlético Madrid.

2019 UEFA Champions League Final The final of the 2018–19 edition of the UEFA Champions League

The 2019 UEFA Champions League Final was the final match of the 2018–19 UEFA Champions League, the 64th season of Europe's premier club football tournament organised by UEFA, and the 27th season since it was rebranded the UEFA Champions League. It was played at the Metropolitano Stadium in Madrid, Spain on 1 June 2019, between English sides Tottenham Hotspur, in their first European Cup final, and Liverpool, in their ninth final overall and their second in a row, having been defeated by Real Madrid in 2018. It was the seventh Champions League final – and the fourth of the decade – to feature two teams from the same association, and the second all-English final; the first after 2008. It was also the first final since 2013 to not feature at least one Spanish team, with Real Madrid and Barcelona having shared the previous five titles between them.

2019 UEFA Europa League Final Football match

The 2019 UEFA Europa League Final was the final match of the 2018–19 UEFA Europa League, the 48th season of Europe's secondary club football tournament organised by UEFA, and the 10th season since it was renamed from the UEFA Cup to the UEFA Europa League. It was played at the Olympic Stadium in Baku, Azerbaijan on 29 May 2019, between English sides Chelsea and Arsenal who had beaten Frankfurt and Valencia respectively in the semi-finals making the final a London derby. It was the tenth tournament final to feature two teams from the same association, the second all-English final and the first between teams from the same city.

2019 UEFA Super Cup 44th edition of the annual football match organised by UEFA

The 2019 UEFA Super Cup was the 44th edition of the UEFA Super Cup, an annual football match organised by UEFA and contested by the reigning champions of the two main European club competitions, the UEFA Champions League and the UEFA Europa League. The match featured two English sides, Liverpool, the winners of the 2018–19 UEFA Champions League, and Chelsea, the winners of the 2018–19 UEFA Europa League. The match was played at Vodafone Park in Istanbul, Turkey on 14 August 2019. The match was the first all-English UEFA Super Cup, and the eighth overall Super Cup to feature two teams from the same country. For the first time, the video assistant referee (VAR) system was used in the competition.

2018–19 UEFA Champions League The 64th season of Europes premier club football tournament organised by UEFA

The 2018–19 UEFA Champions League was the 64th season of Europe's premier club football tournament organised by UEFA, and the 27th season since it was renamed from the European Champion Clubs' Cup to the UEFA Champions League. For the first time, the video assistant referee (VAR) system was used in the competition from the round of 16 onward.

2018–19 UEFA Europa League

The 2018–19 UEFA Europa League was the 48th season of Europe's secondary club football tournament organised by UEFA, and the 10th season since it was renamed from the UEFA Cup to the UEFA Europa League.

2019–20 UEFA Champions League

The 2019–20 UEFA Champions League was the 65th season of Europe's premier club football tournament organised by UEFA, and the 28th season since it was renamed from the European Champion Clubs' Cup to the UEFA Champions League.

2020–21 UEFA Champions League 66th season of the UEFA club football tournament

The 2020–21 UEFA Champions League was the 66th season of Europe's premier club football tournament organised by UEFA, and the 29th season since it was renamed from the European Champion Clubs' Cup to the UEFA Champions League.

References

  1. 1 2 3 "Football's premier club competition". UEFA.com. Union of European Football Associations. 31 January 2010. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
  2. "Clubs". UEFA.com. Union of European Football Associations. 12 May 2020. Retrieved 12 May 2020.
  3. "UEFA Europa League further strengthened for 2015–18 cycle". UEFA.com (Press release). Union of European Football Associations. 24 May 2013. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
  4. "UEFA Executive Committee approves new club competition". UEFA.com (Press release). Union of European Football Associations. 2 December 2018. Retrieved 2 December 2018.
  5. "Matches". UEFA.com. Union of European Football Associations. 12 May 2020. Retrieved 12 May 2020.
  6. "Club competition winners do battle". UEFA.com. Union of European Football Associations. 31 January 2010. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
  7. "FIFA Club World Cup". FIFA.com. Fédération Internationale de Football Association. Retrieved 30 December 2013.
  8. 1 2 "European Champions' Cup". Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation. 31 January 2010. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
  9. "When Sunderland met Hearts in the first ever 'Champions League' match". Nutmeg Magazine. 2 September 2019.
  10. García, Javier; Kutschera, Ambrosius; Schöggl, Hans; Stokkermans, Karel (2009). "Austria/Habsburg Monarchy – Challenge Cup 1897–1911". Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation . Retrieved 5 September 2011.
  11. Stokkermans, Karel (2009). "Mitropa Cup". Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation.
  12. 1 2 Ceulemans, Bart; Michiel, Zandbelt (2009). "Coupe des Nations 1930". Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation . Retrieved 5 September 2011.
  13. Stokkermans, Karel; Gorgazzi, Osvaldo José (2006). "Latin Cup". Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation . Retrieved 5 September 2011.
  14. "Primeira Libertadores – História (Globo Esporte 09/02/20.l.08)". Youtube.com. Retrieved 14 August 2010.
  15. "European Cup pioneer Jacques Ferran passes away". UEFA. 8 February 2019. Retrieved 1 January 2021
  16. "Globo Esporte TV programme, Brazil, broadcast (in Portuguese) on 10/05/2015: Especial: Liga dos Campeões completa 60 anos, e Neymar ajuda a contar essa história. Accessed on 06/12/2015. Ferran's speech goes from 5:02 to 6:51 in the video". Archived from the original on 4 March 2016.
  17. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "1955/56 European Champions Clubs' Cup". Union of European Football Associations. 31 January 2010. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
  18. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "European Champions' Cup 1955–56 – Details". Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation. 31 January 2010. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
  19. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "Trofeos de Fútbol". Real Madrid. 31 January 2010. Archived from the original on 3 October 2009. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
  20. 1 2 "1956/57 European Champions Clubs' Cup". Union of European Football Associations. 31 January 2010. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
  21. 1 2 "Champions' Cup 1956–57". Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation. 31 January 2010. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
  22. 1 2 "1957/58 European Champions Clubs' Cup". Union of European Football Associations. 31 January 2010. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
  23. 1 2 "Champions' Cup 1957–58". Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation. 31 January 2010. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
  24. "1958/59 European Champions Clubs' Cup". Union of European Football Associations. 31 January 2010. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
  25. "Champions' Cup 1958–59". Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation. 31 January 2010. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
  26. 1 2 "1959/60 European Champions Clubs' Cup". Union of European Football Associations. 31 January 2010. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
  27. 1 2 "Champions' Cup 1959–60". Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation. 31 January 2010. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
  28. 1 2 "1960/61 European Champions Clubs' Cup". Union of European Football Associations. 31 January 2010. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
  29. 1 2 "Champions' Cup 1960–61". Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation. 31 January 2010. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
  30. 1 2 "Anos 60: A "década de ouro"". Sport Lisboa e Benfica. 31 January 2010. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
  31. "1961/62 European Champions Clubs' Cup". Union of European Football Associations. 31 January 2010. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
  32. "Champions' Cup 1961–62". Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation. 31 January 2010. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
  33. "1962/63 European Champions Clubs' Cup". Union of European Football Associations. 31 January 2010. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
  34. "Champions' Cup 1962–63". Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation. 31 January 2010. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
  35. "Coppa Campioni 1962/63". Associazione Calcio Milan. 31 January 2010. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
  36. "1963/64 European Champions Clubs' Cup". Union of European Football Associations. 31 January 2010. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
  37. "Champions' Cup 1963–64". Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation. 31 January 2010. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
  38. "Palmares: Prima coppa dei campioni – 1963/64" (in Italian). FC Internazionale Milano. 31 January 2010. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
  39. "1964/65 European Champions Clubs' Cup". Union of European Football Associations. 31 January 2010. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
  40. "Champions' Cup 1964–65". Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation. 31 January 2010. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
  41. "Palmares: Prima coppa dei campioni – 1964/65" (in Italian). FC Internazionale Milano. 31 January 2010. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
  42. "A Sporting Nation – Celtic win European Cup 1967". BBC Scotland. Retrieved 28 January 2016.
  43. "Celtic immersed in history before UEFA Cup final". Sports Illustrated. 20 May 2003. Archived from the original on 11 January 2012. Retrieved 15 May 2010.
  44. Lennox, Doug (2009). Now You Know Soccer . Dundurn Press. p.  143. ISBN   978-1-55488-416-2. now you know soccer who were the lisbon lions.
  45. "Man. United – Benfica 1967 History | UEFA Champions League". UEFA.com. Union of European Football Associations. Retrieved 20 June 2020.
  46. "Season 1967". UEFA.com. Union of European Football Associations. Retrieved 20 June 2020.
  47. "Milan-Ajax 1968 History". UEFA.com. Union of European Football Associations. Retrieved 2 July 2020.
  48. "Feyenoord – Milan 1969 History | UEFA Champions League". UEFA.com. Union of European Football Associations. Retrieved 12 August 2020.
  49. "Feyenoord – Celtic 1969 History | UEFA Champions League". UEFA.com. Union of European Football Associations. Retrieved 12 August 2020.
  50. "Ajax – Panathinaikos 1970 History | UEFA Champions League". UEFA.com. Union of European Football Associations. Retrieved 12 August 2020.
  51. Zea, Antonio; Haisma, Marcel (9 January 2008). "European Champions' Cup and Fairs' Cup 1970–71 – Details". RSSSF. Retrieved 12 August 2020.
  52. "Classification First Division 1969–70". bdfutbol.com. Retrieved 12 August 2020.
  53. "The story of the UEFA Champions League anthem". UEFA.com. Union of European Football Associations. Retrieved 17 August 2018 via YouTube.
  54. 1 2 3 "UEFA Champions League anthem". UEFA.com. Union of European Football Associations. Retrieved 12 May 2020.
  55. Media, democracy and European culture. Intellect Books. 2009. p. 129. ISBN   9781841502472 . Retrieved 14 September 2014.
  56. 1 2 "What is the Champions League music? The lyrics and history of one of football's most famous songs". Wales Online. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
  57. Fornäs, Johan (2012). Signifying Europe (PDF). Bristol, England: intellect. pp. 185–187.
  58. "UEFA Champions League entrance music" . Retrieved 17 August 2018 via YouTube.
  59. "2Cellos to perform UEFA Champions League anthem in Kyiv". UEFA.com. Union of European Football Associations. 18 May 2018. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
  60. "Asturia Girls to perform UEFA Champions League anthem in Madrid". UEFA.com. Union of European Football Associations. 21 May 2019. Retrieved 19 June 2019.
  61. "Behind the Music: Champions League Anthem Remix with Hans Zimmer". Electronic Arts. 12 June 2018. Retrieved 13 August 2018.
  62. King, Anthony. (2004). The new symbols of European football. International Review for the Sociology of Sport 39(3). London, Thousand Oaks, CA, New Delhi.
  63. TEAM. (1999). UEFA Champions League: Season Review 1998/9. Lucerne: TEAM.
  64. "1. Facts & Figures". UEFA Champions League Statistics Handbook 2020/21 (PDF). UEFA.com. Union of European Football Associations. Retrieved 29 October 2020.
  65. "Liverpool get in Champions League". BBC Sport. BBC. 10 June 2005. Retrieved 11 December 2007.
  66. "EXCO approves new coefficient system". UEFA.com. Union of European Football Associations. 20 May 2008. Archived from the original on 21 May 2008. Retrieved 12 September 2010.
  67. 1 2 "Harry Redknapp and Spurs given bitter pill of Europa League by Chelsea". The Guardian . Guardian News and Media. 20 May 2012. Retrieved 24 November 2012.
  68. "Added bonus for UEFA Europa League winners". UEFA.com. Union of European Football Associations. 24 May 2013.
  69. "UEFA Access List 2015/18 with explanations" (PDF). Bert Kassies.
  70. Bond, David (13 November 2007). "Clubs force UEFA's Michel Platini into climbdown". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 2 December 2007.
  71. "Platini's Euro Cup plan rejected". BBC Sport. BBC. 12 December 2007. Retrieved 11 December 2007.
  72. "Arsène Wenger says Champions League place is a 'trophy'". Guardian. Retrieved 15 May 2014.
  73. "Arsenal's Trophy Cabinet". Talk Sport. Retrieved 15 May 2014.
  74. 1 2 "Champions League explained". PremierLeague.com. Retrieved 16 January 2020.
  75. "Regulations of the UEFA Champions League 2011/12, pg 10:". UEFA.com.
  76. "Bayern Munich beat Paris Saint-Germain to win Champions League". ESPN. 23 August 2020. Retrieved 23 August 2020.
  77. 1 2 "Champions League and Europa League changes next season". UEFA.com (Press release). Union of European Football Associations. 27 February 2018. Retrieved 27 February 2018.
  78. "UEFA club competition access list 2021–24" (PDF). UEFA.com. Union of European Football Associations.
  79. 1 2 3 "UEFA Referee". UEFA.com. Union of European Football Associations. 7 July 2010. Retrieved 24 July 2011.
  80. 1 2 3 "How UEFA honours multiple European Cup winners". UEFA.com. Union of European Football Associations. Retrieved 25 December 2019.
  81. Regulations of the UEFA Champions League (PDF) from UEFA website; Page 4, §2.01 "Cup"
  82. "2012/13 Season" (PDF). Regulations of the UEFA Champions League: 2012–15 Cycle. Union of European Football Associations. p. 8. Retrieved 22 September 2012.
  83. "2019/20 UEFA club competitions revenue distribution system". UEFA.com (Press release). Union of European Football Associations. Retrieved 11 July 2019.
  84. "Clubs benefit from Champions League revenue" (PDF). UEFAdirect. Union of European Football Associations (1): 1. October 2015. Retrieved 16 October 2015.
  85. Thompson, Craig; Magnus, Ems (February 2003). "The Uefa Champions League Marketing" (PDF). Fiba Assist Magazine: 49–50. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 May 2008. Retrieved 19 May 2008.
  86. "Regulations of the UEFA Champions League 2015–18 Cycle – 2015/2016 Season – Article 66 – Other Requirements" (PDF). UEFA.com (Press release). Union of European Football Associations. Retrieved 30 June 2015.
  87. Williams, Matthew. "FedEx delivers upgrade from Europa League to Champions League sponsor". SportBusiness. SBG Companies Limited. Retrieved 5 May 2021.
  88. "Gazprom renews UEFA Champions League partnership". UEFA.com (Press release). Union of European Football Associations. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
  89. "HEINEKEN extends UEFA club competition sponsorship". UEFA.com (Press release). Union of European Football Associations. Retrieved 12 February 2018.
  90. Carp, Sam. "Uefa's Just Eat sponsorship covers Champions League and Women's Euro". SportsPro. SportsPro Media Limited. Retrieved 23 March 2021.
  91. Carp, Sam. "Uefa cashes in Mastercard renewal". SportsPro. SportsPro Media Limited. Retrieved 12 February 2018.
  92. "PepsiCo renews UEFA Champions League Partnership". UEFA.com. Union of European Football Associations. Retrieved 12 February 2018.
  93. "adidas extends European club football partnership". UEFA.com (Press release). Union of European Football Associations. 15 December 2011. Retrieved 30 June 2015.
  94. "Hublot to partner Champions League and Europa League". UEFA.com (Press release). Union of European Football Associations.
  95. "UEFA Kit Regulations Edition 2012" (PDF). UEFA.com. Union of European Football Associations. pp. 37, 38. Retrieved 29 January 2014.
  96. Devlin, John (3 July 2009). "An alternative to alcohol". truecoloursfootballkits.com. True Colours. Retrieved 5 June 2013. Rangers have actually sported the Center Parcs logo during the course of two seasons.
  97. "Champions League final tops Super Bowl for TV market". BBC Sport. British Broadcasting Corporation. 31 January 2010. Retrieved 25 February 2010.
  98. Chishti, Faisal (30 May 2013). "Champions League final at Wembley drew TV audience of 360 million". Sportskeeda. Absolute Sports. Retrieved 31 December 2013.
  99. "Champions League all-time top scorers". UEFA.com . 8 August 2020. Archived from the original on 10 August 2020. Retrieved 10 August 2020.
  100. "Champions League + European Cup – All-time Topscorers". worldfootball.net. Archived from the original on 10 August 2020. Retrieved 10 August 2020.
  101. For players active prior to the introduction of the Champions League in 1992, see "All-time records 1955–2020" (PDF). UEFA.com . Union of European Football Associations (UEFA). p. 8. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 August 2020. Retrieved 10 August 2020.
  102. "Lionel Messi and Cristiano Ronaldo goal for goal". UEFA.com. Union of European Football Associations (UEFA). 18 April 2017. Retrieved 19 April 2017. Ronaldo: Debrecen 3-0 (h) 09/08/05, UEFA Champions League third qualifying round
  103. "Who has played 100 Champions League games?". UEFA.com . 11 December 2018. Archived from the original on 9 August 2020. Retrieved 9 August 2020.
  104. "UEFA Champions League Statistics Handbook 2019/20" (PDF). UEFA.com . Union of European Football Associations (UEFA). p. 4. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 August 2020. Retrieved 9 August 2020.