Away goals rule

Last updated

The away goals rule is a method of tiebreaking in association football and other sports when teams play each other twice, once at each team's home ground. By the away goals rule, the team that has scored more goals "away from home" wins, if the total goals scored by each team are otherwise equal. This is sometimes expressed by saying that away goals "count double" in the event of a tie, [1] though in practice the team with more away goals is simply recorded as the victor, rather than having additional or 'double' goals added to their total.

Contents

The away goals rule is most often invoked in two-leg fixtures, where the initial result is determined by the aggregate score — i.e. the scores of both games are added together. In many competitions, the away goals rule is the first tie-breaker in such cases, with a penalty shootout as the second tie-breaker if each team has scored the same number of away goals. Rules vary as to whether the away goals rule applies only to the end of normal time of the second leg, or applies in extra time as well. It was first introduced by UEFA in the 1965–66 European Cup Winners' Cup. On 24 June 2021, UEFA approved the proposal to abolish the away goals rule in all UEFA club competitions from the 2021–22 season. [2]

Explanation

Example A

In this example, the aggregate score is 1–1, but as neither team scored an away goal, the match will progress to the next tie-breaker, extra time.

Example B

In this example, the aggregate score is 2–2. However, because Team A scored an away goal in the second leg while Team B, in the first leg, did not, Team A will progress to the next stage of the competition as they scored more away goals than Team B.

Example C

In the first leg, the final score is: Team A (Home) 1–0 Team B (Away).

In the second leg, the final score goes as follows:

In this example, the aggregate score is 1–1 after 90 minutes in the second leg and neither team has scored an away goal, the match goes into extra time. After extra time the scores remain level 2–2 on aggregate, but Team A has now scored an away goal and will thus progress to the next stage of the competition, as they scored more away goals than Team B.

Example D

In the first leg, the final score is: Team A (Home) 1–0 Team B (Away).

In the second leg, the final score goes as follows:

In this example, the aggregate score is 1–1 after 90 minutes in the second leg and neither team has scored an away goal, the match goes into extra time. After extra time the scores remain level 2–2 on aggregate, and Team A has now scored an away goal. However, unlike in example C, the away goals rule does not apply in extra time, and the match will progress to a penalty shootout.

Example E

In the first leg, the final score is: Team A (Home) 1–0 Team B (Away).

In the second leg, the final score goes as follows:

In this example, the aggregate score is 1–1, but as neither team scored an away goal, the match will progress to the next tie-breaker, extra time and since no further goals are scored there, the match will progress to a penalty shootout.

Rationale

Originally, the away goal rule was introduced in football as an expedited way of doing away with playoffs or tie breakers on neutral grounds to resolve a logistical, physical and calendar problem when two teams were so closely matched the final score over the two legs remained in absolute parity, which could remain even after a third game tie breaker. The away goals rule is intended to encourage the away team to be more aggressive. In football, at least, it can lead to a nervous first leg: the home team is unwilling to commit large numbers of players to attack less to avoid conceding an away goal, whilst the away team attempts to snatch an away goal to aid them in the second leg. Such tactics arguably make the second leg more exciting, after a low-scoring first leg leaves both sides with a chance to win. There are sometimes debates[ by whom? ] over whether the away goals rule gives an unfair advantage to the team playing away first — with the other team squandering their home advantage in the first leg due to away goal fears — and this may be a factor in its somewhat patchy adoption for competitions.[ citation needed ]

The rule can also make the game more exciting as normally one goal can only make the difference between losing and drawing, or between drawing and winning, but with the away goals rule, one goal can make the difference between losing and winning.

There is also the issue that if extra time is played in the second leg, the away team gets an extra 30 minutes to take advantage of the away goals rule. This can be countered by the fact that in extra time, the home team has the advantage of playing the extra 30 minutes at home. In addition, usually, the home team had made a better campaign in the group stage, which would naturally give it some advantage over the away team.

Anecdotal evidence suggests that most teams feel an away goal puts them in the driving seat, such as Liverpool being able to draw 1–1 at Arsenal in the 2007–08 UEFA Champions League quarterfinals; Liverpool did eliminate Arsenal to advance to the semi-finals. [3] Liverpool won the second game 4–2, making the aggregate score for the tie Liverpool 5–3 Arsenal, therefore, the away goal scored by Liverpool in the first leg was not required. [4] Many commentators have described the importance of a team being able to score an away goal, even when losing that leg of the tie, as it mathematically does give that team a chance to redeem itself on home soil by leveling the tie on aggregate while using the away goal as a tiebreaker. [5] For example, in the 2007 UEFA Champions League round of 16, while Bayern Munich lost the first leg 3–2 at Real Madrid, Bayern later won 2–1 at home to level the tie on aggregate, but it was Bayern's away goals scored during their first leg loss that let them advance. [6] In the 2009–10 UEFA Champions League, Bayern Munich won both round of 16 and quarter-finals on the away goal rule after drawing 4–4 on aggregate, by winning 2–1 at home and losing 3–2 away, against Fiorentina and Manchester United respectively. [7]

In the 2012–13 UEFA Champions League semi-finals, despite falling 4–1 in the first leg at Borussia Dortmund, Real Madrid would have been able to advance if at home it managed to hold Dortmund to 3–0; during the second leg Real Madrid scored two goals in the last ten minutes but were unable to score the third goal that would have sent them through to the final (Dortmund advanced 4–3 on aggregate). In the other semi-final, however, after Barcelona were defeated away by Bayern Munich 4–0, commentators considered Barcelona essentially eliminated because Bayern could seal the tie by scoring one away goal even if Barcelona managed to score five goals (Bayern managed a 3–0 win in the second leg to advance 7–0 on aggregate). [8]

The away goals rule can result in the "lead" of the two-legged tie swinging back and forth. For instance, in the 2004–05 UEFA Champions League round of 16 between Barcelona and Chelsea, Barcelona were ahead on aggregate after a 2–1 win in the first leg at home. During the second leg held in London, Chelsea first scored three straight goals to take the lead on aggregate (4–2), but Barcelona responded with two goals to level the aggregate score at 4–4 while taking the lead on away goals (2–1). Chelsea scored again, though, to advance on aggregate, 5–4. [9] In the 2018–19 UEFA Champions League semi-finals between Tottenham Hotspur and Ajax, Ajax led the tie from the 15th minute of the first leg (in a 1–0 away victory in London) until the 95th minute of the second leg (at that point still up 3–2 on aggregate), when Tottenham's Lucas Moura completed a hat-trick in Amsterdam that leveled the aggregate score at 3–3 while eliminating Ajax, 3–1, on away goals. [10] [11] [12]

Usage

The away goals rule is applied in many football competitions that involve two-leg fixtures, including the knockout stages of the CAF Champions League, CAF Confederation Cup and any two-legged playoffs in qualification for the FIFA World Cup or European Championships.

From 2014 until 2018, Major League Soccer in the U.S. and Canada used the away goals rule in the MLS Cup Playoffs, in which the conference semi-finals and finals (the quarterfinals and semi-finals of the overall tournament) were two-legged. [13] The rule was first applied in this competition when the Seattle Sounders defeated FC Dallas in the 2014 Western Conference semi-finals. In the 2019 MLS season, two-legged ties were eliminated in favour of a single-elimination knockout format throughout the entire playoffs. [14]

In the Liga MX, the away goals rule has always applied to the playoffs games. This was also applied to the final games until the 1995–96 season where Necaxa beat Celaya F.C.. In those games, Necaxa was able to pull a 1–1 tie in the game in Celaya, then the team was able to hold a 0–0 tie in Azteca Stadium to win the championship. After that final, the away goals rule was retired from the final game and in case of a tie after the two games, it will be pushed to extra time and penalty shootout if needed, as happened in the Invierno 1999 season where Atlas F.C. and Deportivo Toluca where tied 5–5 at the end of the second game (that would give Toluca the championship by away goals) but it was pulled to extra time and penalty shootout where Toluca beat Atlas 5–3 to win the championship.

In CONMEBOL competitions before 2005, for example the Copa Libertadores, neither away goals rule nor extra time were used in any competition. Ties that were level on aggregate went to an immediate penalty shootout. Since 2005, two-legged ties have been decided on points, followed by goal difference and the away goals rule; if the result is still tied, the penalty shootout is used. The Copa Libertadores finals became the only exception to the away goals rule and also only in the finals is employed extra time. In Latin America, an example of a tournament that used the away goal rule was the Copa do Brasil (Brazil Cup) until the 2017 edition.

The away goals rule is sometimes used in round-robin competitions (that is, leagues or qualifying groups), where it may be used to break ties involving more than two teams. For example, away goals are the third tiebreaker in the group stage of both the UEFA Champions League [15] and UEFA Cup. [16] In Group C of the UEFA Champions League 2000–01, Olympique Lyonnais took the second qualifying spot ahead of Olympiacos on away goals. [17] Because other tiebreakers take precedence, the away goals rule is rarely invoked in such tournaments. In many group tournaments, the away goals rule is never applicable; for example, in World Cup qualification. [18]

The away goals rule was first applied in the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup when Budapest Honvéd beat Dukla Prague in the second round in 1965–66. It was introduced in the Fairs Cup in 1966–67, [19] and in the European Cup in 1967–68 for the first round, [20] 1968–69 for the second round, [21] and 1970–71 for later rounds. [22] Previously, ties level on aggregate had gone to a playoff on neutral ground. [23]

On 24 June 2021, UEFA approved the proposal to abolish the away goals rule in all UEFA club competitions from the 2021–22 season. [24] [25]

Anomalies

If the two clubs contesting a two-legged fixture share the same stadium, each club may be the home club in one leg, and the rule may still apply. For example, the 2003 UEFA Champions League semi-finals drew Inter Milan and A.C. Milan together. Both legs were played at the San Siro, their shared stadium in Milan:

With an aggregate of 1–1, A.C. Milan was declared the winner because they were the "away" side in the second game. In this example, as in many such cases, most tickets for each leg will be reserved for the "home" side's fans, so the designation was not totally arbitrary.

Not all competitions with the away goals rule suffer from this anomaly, however: the Copa do Brasil has developed its rules to avoid some anomalies, such as the above. In that Cup, if two teams share either the same stadium or the same home town, neither is considered the home club and thus the away goals rule does not apply. This exception was seen, for example, in the 2006 final between Flamengo and Vasco, when both legs were played at the Maracanã Stadium.

More anomalous was a qualification play-off for the 1991 World Youth Championship between Australia and Israel: Australia won on away goals even though, due to security concerns arising from the First Intifada, Israel's "home" leg was played in Australia. [26] The same situation occurred in the 2010 FIFA World Cup qualification tie between the Bahamas and the British Virgin Islands, when the Bahamas advanced on the away goals rule even though both legs were played in the Bahamas. [27]

There has been at least one case of a wrong application of the away goals rule by a referee in an international club tournament. It happened in a second-round tie in the 1971–72 European Cup Winners' Cup between Rangers and Sporting Clube de Portugal. This fixture had the following scorelines:

Since the teams were now level 6–6 on aggregate, the Dutch referee Laurens van Raavens ordered a penalty shootout, which Sporting won 3–0. Rangers appealed the loss, however, on the grounds that Van Raavens should not have ordered the shootout, since the Rangers goal in extra time in Lisbon gave them a lead of three away goals to two. Rangers won the appeal and went on to win the Cup Winners' Cup that season.

CONCACAF used a different rule for its CONCACAF Champions League, employing away goals at the end of regulation of the second leg but not applying the rule at the end of extra time. It has since abolished extra time in that tournament with penalty kicks used if teams are even on goals and away goals after both legs. MLS adopted this version of the rule for its playoffs in 2014. [13] For example, the semifinal of the 2008–09 CONCACAF Champions League between Cruz Azul and the Puerto Rico Islanders had the following scorelines:

Since CONCACAF does not apply the away goals rule for goals scored in extra time, the game went to a penalty shootout, which Cruz Azul won 4–2.

The away goals rule can also apply to forfeited matches. Celtic lost their away tie to Legia Warsaw 4–1 in the 2014–15 UEFA Champions League third qualifying round. In their home leg, Legia brought on an ineligible player which automatically gave Celtic a 3–0 win. The forfeiture meant that the tie ended 4–4, meaning Celtic qualified to the next round, 1–0, on away goals. [28]

The away goals rule can also apply to matches played behind closed doors. Both legs of the 2020–21 UEFA Champions League Round of 16 contest between Porto and Juventus were played without fans in attendance due to the COVID-19 pandemic. [29] Porto won the first leg 2–1 at home and trailed the second leg by the same score after regulation. Both teams scored a goal in extra time and Porto went through, 2–1, on away goals. [30] In the same 2020–21 season, Paris Saint-Germain qualified to the semi-finals, despite drawing 3–3 on aggregate against Bayern Munich, having scored more away goals than their opponent. [31]

Summary

Below is a summary of the variations of rules and examples of current competitions using the away goals rule for two legged-ties. In most examples in the table below, a penalty shoot-out is used to determine the winner if all criteria used remain tied. The exception is the Liga MX play-offs (except final), where the higher seed, which has the better regular season record, wins the tie if the aggregate score and away goals are both level. However, in the Liga MX play-off final, neither the away goals rule nor the regular season record is applied as tie-breakers, and if tied after regulation and extra time, the penalty shoot-out is used to determine the winner.

Application of away goals rule when aggregate score is level after regulation (90 mins) of second leg
Away goals rule applied after regulation time?Extra time played?Away goals rule applied after extra time?Current examples
YesYesYes FIFA World Cup qualification
YesYesNo AFC Champions League and AFC Cup
YesNoN/A Copa Libertadores and Copa Sudamericana
CONCACAF Champions League
Liga MX play-offs (except final)
NoYesYes Carabao Cup
Notes

    Related Research Articles

    A penalty shoot-out is a method of determining which team is awarded victory in an association football match that cannot end in a draw, when the score is tied after the regulation playing time as well as extra time have expired. In a penalty shoot-out, each team takes turns shooting at goal from the penalty mark, with the goal defended only by the opposing team's goalkeeper. Each team has five shots which must be taken by different kickers; the team that makes more successful kicks is declared the victor. Shoot-outs finish as soon as one team has an insurmountable lead. If scores are level after five pairs of shots, the shootout progresses into additional "sudden-death" rounds. Balls successfully kicked into the goal during a shoot-out do not count as goals for the individual kickers or the team, and are tallied separately from the goals scored during normal play. Although the procedure for each individual kick in the shoot-out resembles that of a penalty kick, there are some differences. Most notably, neither the kicker nor any player other than the goalkeeper may play the ball again once it has been kicked.

    European Cup and UEFA Champions League records and statistics Wikipedia list article

    This page details statistics of the European Cup and Champions League. Unless notified these statistics concern all seasons since inception of the European Cup in the 1955–56 season, and renamed since 1992 as the UEFA Champions League, including the qualifying rounds of the UEFA Champions League as per "Competition facts"; all goals scored before league phases count as "qualifying goals".

    The history of the European Cup and UEFA Champions League spans over sixty years of competition, finding winners and runners-up from all parts of the continent.

    1998–99 UEFA Champions League 44th season of the UEFA club football tournament

    The 1998–99 UEFA Champions League was the 44th season of the UEFA Champions League, Europe's premier club football tournament, and the seventh since it was renamed from the "European Champion Clubs' Cup" or "European Cup". The competition was won by Manchester United, coming back from a goal down in the last two minutes of injury time to defeat Bayern Munich 2–1 in the final. Teddy Sheringham and Ole Gunnar Solskjær scored United's goals after Bayern had hit the post and the bar. They were the first English club to win Europe's premier club football tournament since 1984 and were also the first English club to reach a Champions League final since the Heysel Stadium disaster and the subsequent banning of English clubs from all UEFA competitions between 1985 and 1990. It was the first time since 1968 that Manchester United won the Champions League giving them their second title.

    2006–07 UEFA Champions League 52nd season of the UEFA club football tournament

    The 2006–07 UEFA Champions League was the 15th season of UEFA's premier European club football tournament, the UEFA Champions League, since it was rebranded from the European Cup, and the 52nd season overall. The final was contested by Milan and Liverpool on 23 May 2007. Beforehand, the match was billed as a repeat of the 2005 final, the only difference being that the 2007 final was to be played at the Olympic Stadium in Athens, Greece. Milan won the match 2–1 to claim their seventh European Cup, with both goals coming from Filippo Inzaghi. Dirk Kuyt scored for Liverpool.

    In sports, a two-legged tie is a contest between two teams which comprises two matches or "legs", with each team as the home team in one leg. The winning team is usually determined by aggregate score, the sum of the scores of the two legs. For example, if the scores of the two legs are:

    2007 UEFA Champions League Final The final of the 2006–07 edition of the UEFA Champions League

    The 2007 UEFA Champions League Final was the final match of the 2006–07 UEFA Champions League, Europe's primary club football competition. The showpiece event was contested between Liverpool of England and Milan of Italy at the Olympic Stadium in Athens, Greece, on 23 May 2007. Liverpool, who had won the competition five times, were appearing in their seventh final. Milan, who had won the competition six times, were appearing in their eleventh final.

    1977 European Cup Final European Cup Final (1977)

    The 1977 European Cup Final was an association football match between Liverpool of England and Borussia Mönchengladbach of West Germany on 25 May 1977 at the Stadio Olimpico in Rome, Italy. The showpiece event was the final match of the 1976–77 season of Europe's premier cup competition, the European Cup. Both teams were appearing in their first European Cup final, although the two sides had previously met in the 1973 UEFA Cup Final, which Liverpool won 3–2 on aggregate over two legs.

    2001 UEFA Cup Final Football match between Liverpool and Alavés

    The 2001 UEFA Cup Final was a football match between Liverpool of England and Alavés of Spain on 16 May 2001 at the Westfalenstadion in Dortmund, Germany. The showpiece event was the final match of the 2000–01 edition of Europe's secondary cup competition, the UEFA Cup. Liverpool were appearing in their third UEFA Cup final, after their appearances in 1973 and 1976. It was the first European final they had reached since being banned from European competition following the Heysel Stadium disaster in 1985. Alavés were appearing in their first European final.

    2007–08 UEFA Cup 37th season of Europes secondary club football tournament organised by UEFA

    The 2007–08 UEFA Cup was the 37th edition of the UEFA Cup, UEFA's second-tier club football tournament. The final was played at the City of Manchester Stadium, Manchester, England on 14 May 2008 between Rangers of Scotland and Zenit Saint Petersburg of Russia. Zenit won the match 2–0, with goals from Igor Denisov and Konstantin Zyryanov, to claim their first UEFA Cup title. The first qualifying games were played on 19 July 2007 and the main tournament commenced on 20 September 2007. A total of 123 football clubs took part in the tournament.

    2002 UEFA Cup Final Football match

    The 2002 UEFA Cup Final was an association football match played on 8 May 2002, between Feyenoord of the Netherlands and Borussia Dortmund of Germany. Feyenoord won the match 3–2 on their home ground, the Feijenoord Stadion in Rotterdam. It was the 31st UEFA Cup Final and it was also the first time that the final had been played at a finalist's home ground since the introduction of single–match finals in the UEFA Cup in 1998. Previous to this match, Feyenoord had not won a European trophy since 1974, when they beat Tottenham Hotspur to win the UEFA Cup. Borussia Dortmund, who had already won the Bundesliga title, were hoping to join Ajax, Bayern Munich and Juventus in being the only clubs to win all three European trophies. Feyenoord's victory marked the first European triumph for a Dutch club in seven years, after Ajax won the UEFA Champions League in 1995.

    2009 UEFA Cup Final Football match

    The 2009 UEFA Cup Final was the final match of the 2008–09 UEFA Cup, the 38th season of the UEFA Cup, UEFA's second-tier club football tournament. It was also the last final to be held under the UEFA Cup name, as the competition was rebranded as the UEFA Europa League from the 2009–10 season. The final was contested by Shakhtar Donetsk and Werder Bremen, with Shakhtar winning the match 2–1 after extra time. All three goalscorers in the game were Brazilians; lone striker Luiz Adriano opened the scoring for Shakhtar midway through the first half, before Naldo equalised from a free kick ten minutes later. The second half was goalless and the match went to extra time; after only seven minutes, Jádson scored for Shakhtar to secure the club's first major European trophy.

    The knockout phase of the 2008–09 UEFA Champions League began on 24 February 2009 and concluded with the final at the Stadio Olimpico in Rome on 27 May 2009. The knockout phase involved the 16 teams who finished in the top two in each of their groups in the group stage.

    Chelsea F.C. in international football

    Chelsea Football Club is an English professional football club based in Fulham, London. The club's involvement in international competitions dates back to the 1950s. As champions of England, the club was invited to participate in the inaugural European Champions' Cup in 1955, but withdrew after pressure from The Football Association. Three years later, Chelsea made their European debut against Copenhagen XI in the Inter-Cities Fairs Cup, on 30 September 1958.

    Manchester City Football Club, an English professional association football club, has gained entry to Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) competitions on several occasions. They have represented England in the European Cup on nine occasions, the UEFA Cup on seven separate occasions, and the now-defunct Cup Winners' Cup twice. Manchester City are one of twelve English football clubs to have won a European title, in City's case the 1969–70 Cup Winners' Cup.

    This article details the 2011–12 UEFA Europa League qualifying phase and play-off round.

    The knockout phase of the 2011–12 UEFA Champions League began on 14 February with the round of 16, and concluded on 19 May 2012 with the final at Allianz Arena in Munich, Germany.

    Arsenal F.C. in European football

    Arsenal F.C. are an English professional football club based in Holloway, North London. The club's first European football match was played against Copenhagen XI on 25 September 1963, and it has since participated in European club competitions on several occasions, most of which organised by the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA). Arsenal has won two European honours: the Inter-Cities Fairs Cup in 1970 and the Cup Winners' Cup in 1994 – the latter title recognised by the European confederation. The club played the 1994 European Super Cup and repeated its presence in the following year's Cup Winners' Cup final. Arsenal also reached the final of the UEFA Cup in 2000 and the Europa League in 2019, and became the first London team to appear in a UEFA Champions League final, in 2006.

    2020 UEFA Champions League Final Final of the 2019–20 edition of the UEFA Champions League

    The 2020 UEFA Champions League Final was the final match of the 2019–20 UEFA Champions League, the 65th season of Europe's premier club football tournament organised by UEFA, and the 28th season since it was renamed from the European Champion Clubs' Cup to the UEFA Champions League. It was played on 23 August 2020 at the Estádio da Luz in Lisbon, Portugal, between French club Paris Saint-Germain, in their first European Cup final, and German club Bayern Munich. The match was held behind closed doors due to the COVID-19 pandemic in Europe.

    The 2019–20 UEFA Champions League knockout phase began on 18 February with the round of 16 and ended on 23 August 2020 with the final at the Estádio da Luz in Lisbon, Portugal, to decide the champions of the 2019–20 UEFA Champions League. A total of 16 teams competed in the knockout phase.

    References

    1. For example: IFAB (July 2007). "Procedures to determine the winner of a match or home-and-away". Laws of the Game 2007/2008 (PDF). Zurich: FIFA. p. 54. Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 June 2008. Retrieved 2008-07-08. Away Goals: Competition rules may provide that where teams play each other home and away, if the scores are equal after the second match, any goals scored at the ground of the opposing team will count double.
    2. UEFA.com (2021-06-24). "Abolition of the away goals rule in all UEFA club competitions | Inside UEFA". UEFA.com. Retrieved 2021-06-25.
    3. For example, after a 1–1 draw away from home: "Reds away goal delights Benitez". Liverpool: BBC. 2008-04-02. Archived from the original on April 6, 2008. Retrieved 2008-04-18. We are in a good position ... The away goal is always important in the Champions League.
    4. "Liverpool 4-2 Arsenal (agg 5-3)". 8 April 2008 via news.bbc.co.uk.
    5. Kevin McCarra at the Bernabeu Stadium (2003-04-09). "Real Madrid 3 - 1 Manchester United | Soccer". The Guardian. Retrieved 2013-10-18.
    6. "BBC SPORT | Soccer | Europe | Bayern M 2-1 R Madrid (agg 4-4)". BBC News. 2007-03-07. Retrieved 2013-10-18.
    7. Phil McNulty (7 April 2010). "Man Utd 3 – 2 Bayern Munich (agg 4–4)". BBC Sport.
    8. Peter Shard (2013-04-29). "Dortmund, Bayern resist the pitfalls of complacency | Soccer". BDlive. Retrieved 2013-10-18.
    9. "BBC SPORT | Soccer | Europe | Chelsea 4-2 Barcelona". BBC News. 2005-03-08. Retrieved 2013-10-18.
    10. Taylor, Daniel (8 May 2019). "Tottenham comeback stuns Ajax and sets up final against Liverpool". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 May 2019.
    11. Johnston, Neil (9 May 2019). "Ajax 2–3 Tottenham". BBC Sport. Retrieved 10 May 2019.
    12. Smith, Rory (8 May 2019). "A Dream Delivered, and Another Dashed, in One Unforgettable Moment". The New York Times. p. B9. Retrieved 10 May 2019.
    13. 1 2 "Major League Soccer to introduce away-goals rule for first time in 2014 MLS Cup Playoffs". Major League Soccer. 2014-03-08. Retrieved 2014-03-20.
    14. "MLS announces new playoff format for 2019 season". Major League Soccer. Retrieved 2019-02-28.
    15. "Regulations of the UEFA Champions League 2006–07, Rule 4.05" (PDF). UEFA. March 2006. Retrieved 2006-12-11. If two or more teams are equal on points on completion of the group matches, the following criteria are applied to determine the rankings:
      1. higher number of points obtained in the group matches played among the teams in question;
      2. superior goal difference from the group matches played among the teams in question;
      3. higher number of goals scored away from home in the group matches played among the teams in question;
      4. superior goal difference from all group matches played;
      5. higher number of goals scored in all group matches played;
      6. higher number of coefficient points accumulated by the club in question, as well as its association, over the previous five seasons
    16. "Regulations of the UEFA Cup 2006–07, Rule 4.06" (PDF). UEFA. March 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-06-29. Retrieved 2006-12-11. If two or more teams are equal on points on completion of the group matches, the following criteria are applied to determine the rankings:
      1. superior goal difference from all group matches played;
      2. higher number of goals scored;
      3. higher number of goals scored away;
      4. higher number of wins;
      5. higher number of away wins;
      6. higher number of coefficient points accumulated by the club in question, as well as its association, over the previous five seasons
    17. Slavík, Jirí; Karel Stokkermans (2004-04-15). "UEFA European Competitions 2000–01: UEFA Champions League 2000–01: Group C". RSSSF. Archived from the original on 5 June 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-26.
    18. Regulations, 2006 FIFA World Cup, page 6: "In the league system the ranking in each group is determined as follows:
      (a) greater number of points obtained in all the group matches;
      If two or more teams are equal on the basis of the above criterion, their ranking shall be determined as follows:
      (b) greater number of points obtained in the group matches between the teams concerned;
      (c) goal difference resulting from the group matches between the teams concerned;
      (d) greater number of goals scored in the group matches between the teams concerned;
      (e) goal difference in all the group matches;
      (f) greater number of goals scored in all the group matches;
      (g) a play-off on neutral ground."
    19. Zea, Antonio; Marcel Haisma (2008-01-09). "European Champions' Cup and Fairs' Cup 1966–67 – Details". RSSSF. Archived from the original on 9 June 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-06.
    20. Zea, Antonio; Marcel Haisma (2008-01-09). "European Champions' Cup and Fairs' Cup 1967–68 – Details". RSSSF. Archived from the original on 9 June 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-06.
    21. Zea, Antonio; Marcel Haisma (2008-01-09). "European Champions' Cup and Fairs' Cup 1968–69 – Details". RSSSF. Archived from the original on 9 June 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-06.
    22. "Cruyff pulls the strings". UEFA. 2006-01-01. Archived from the original on 23 May 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-06.
    23. Ross, James (2007-06-21). "European Competitions 1964–65". RSSSF. Archived from the original on 19 June 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-06.
    24. "Abolition of the away goals rule in all UEFA club competitions". UEFA.com. 24 June 2021.
    25. "Away goals rule abolished for UEFA competitions from 2021-22 season". skysports.com. 24 June 2021.
    26. "Oceania U-20 World Cup 1991 Qualifiers". Rsssf.com. 2002-08-10. Archived from the original on 2013-10-19. Retrieved 2013-10-18.
    27. Bermuda and Bahamas march on, FIFA.com
    28. "Celtic: Legia Warsaw's Champions League appeal bid fails". BBC Sport. 14 August 2014. Retrieved 29 August 2015.
    29. "A guide to the Champions League round of 16". The Johns Hopkins News-Letter. Retrieved 2021-04-08.
    30. Press, The Canadian (2021-03-09). "Porto into Champions League quarters on away goals over Juventus - TSN.ca". TSN. Retrieved 2021-04-08.
    31. "Paris 0-1 Bayern: Holders knocked out on away goals". UEFA. 13 April 2021.